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Доклад: Education in the USA

General Pattern of Education in the USA
The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary
school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8—4 plan
organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by nursery schools and
kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional
schools. This traditional pattern, how­ever, has been varied in many
different ways. The 6—3— 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a
three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another
variation is a 6—6 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school
followed by a six-year sec­ondary school.
American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6
and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in
others.
The elementary school in the United States is gener­ally considered to
include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending
upon the orga­nization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It
has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".
There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the American school
system, different types of orga­nization and of curriculum are tried out.
The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation exists
also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in
session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the
af­ternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is
often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework
to be done by ele­mentary pupils. Elementary Schools, High Schools and
Institutions of Higher Learning
Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning
There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is
followed by four years of second­ary school, or high school. Often the last
two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined
into a junior high school.
The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and
sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from place to
place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is
compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has
finished the eighth grade.
The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally
larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small
town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some
rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be
found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught
by the same teacher.
Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the
elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student
studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these
subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In ad­dition, the student
usually has classes in physical educa­tion, music, and art several times a
week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of
the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order
to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.
Institutions of higher learning supported by pub­lic funds are not absolutely
free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or
registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state.
Working one's way through college is common­place.
Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for
those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain
pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state
universities require a certain scholastic average, or aver­age of high school
grades.
Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones
such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for
entrance, includ­ing an examination.
It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts
or Bachelor of Science degree.A Master of Arts or Master of Science degree
may be obtained in one or two additional years.The highest academic degree is
the Doctor of Philosophy.It may take any number of years to complete the
original research work necessary to obtain this degree.
Higher Education Institutions
It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad
fields,such as languages and literature,the social sciences,the sciences and
mathematics, and the fine arts.Many colleges require all freshmen and
sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three
fields.Certain Courses,such as English or history,may be required for
all,with some election permitted in the other fields.
Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or
a board of trustees.
The executive head of a college or a university is usu­ally called the
president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are
headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments
according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a
professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members of
the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor,
associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give some part-time
service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.
Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law,
engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teach­ing, etc. is pursued in professional
schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions
which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or
four years of pre-professional liberal arts edu­cation are required before
admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized
training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bache­lor
of Law, etc.
Private and State Colleges and Universities
Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of providing
a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small
institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon be­came
more than a theological training school2 and es­tablished itself as
a liberal arts college. The next insti­tution of higher learning established in
the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened in 1693
at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other col­leges were founded in the next century,
but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students en­tered at
the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the curriculum, while
rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards rather secondary in
nature.
Private colle­ges and universi­ties were estab­lished in various states. The
first state university was the Univer­sity of Virginia, founded in 1819. Some
state uni­versities have lar­ge endowment fu­nds1 which pro­vide a
substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are stu­dent
fees, gifts and endowments.
In general, higher education in the USA may be di­vided into two broad
fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further
subdivided into un­dergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program,
on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a
four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of
Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division
(which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years,
and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years
continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.
Teaching Profession in the USA
Requirements for teachers' certificate vary among 50 states. Usually the
state department of education, or a state certification board, issues
certificates which permit teach­ers to be employed within the state. Forty-
four of the 50 states require at least the completion of a four-year course,
with the bachelor's degree, as a minimum for high school teaching: the
tendency to require a fifth year be­yond the bachelor's degree is increasing.
Graduation from a two-year normal school or at least two years of col­lege
education is the minimum requirement for elemen­tary teaching in 36 states;
others demand the completion of a four-year course and the bachelor's degree.
Because of the decentralization of school control in the USA teachers are
employed by local districts rather than by the national government. The
American teacher does not have the absolute security of tenure which the
French or Australian teacher enjoys. A higher proportion of the teach­ing
force are women than in some other countries.
The teacher-training institutions have not been able to provide sufficient
numbers of fully trained teachers to replace those retiring and dropping out
of the profession and at the same time to meet the requirements for new
classes each year. The problem of recruiting and suply of teachers remains a
serious one. In general the problem of shortage of teachers has not been met
by lowering certification standards.