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Реферат: Out Of Crisis

     Sarunas Abramavicius
                          “ OUT OF THE CRISIS “                          
     Summary
In his first Chapter of the book “Out of the Crisis”, W. E. Deming presents
short pre-history of total quality management and it’s meaning for the
economics growth in Japan. It gives the reader an incentive to come to the
conclusion, that poor quality means high costs and vice versa - high quality
reduces the costs. It is given simplified scheme of this statement along with
many examples supporting it. But increase in quality does not mean buying new
machinery and gadgets. The relating statement between elucidating the idea of
total quality management in the first Chapter and 14 Points, which are the
basis for transformation of American industry, in the second Chapter, is
cited below:
“If I were a banker, I would not lend money for new equipment unless the
company that asked for the loan could demonstrate by statistical evidence
that they are using their present equipment to reasonably full capacity, and
are at work on the 14 Points of Chapter 2 and on the deadly diseases and
obstacles of Chapter 3 ”. (Ch.1. pp.14) So improvement in quality, which
leads to improvement in productivity is not reached by new machinery,
measurement of productivity, even statistical summarizing itself. What is to
be done to be successful in the market is given in Chapter 2 - “Principles
for Transformation of Western Management”. The purpose of this chapter and of
Chapter 3 is to explain the elements of the transformation that must take
place. “The transformation can only be accomplished by man, not by hardware.
A company can not buy its way into quality”. (Ch.2. pp.18). Every 14 Points
is extended into 2 paragraphs which give a lucidity of author’s mind. The 14
Points stress on the changing of the way of thinking, adopting a new
philosophy, alteration in one’s psychological attitude. A complex following
of  the 14 Points should lead the company to the top. The last point gives a
plan of actions to be made in order to put into practice the whole complex of
principles.
But this “theory of management”, as E.Deming describes his 14 Points, cannot
work without trying to eradicate so called “diseases and obstacles” which
“unfortunately , [deadly diseases] stand in the way of transformation” and
“...afflict most companies in the Western World”. ( Ch.3. pp.97 ) The writer
of the book explains bad habits of every manager in almost every company. At
the first sight nobody even could think that emphasis on short-term profits
or evaluation of performance or even merit rating could be fatal for the
companies. Obstacles are presented as “candidates for front rank in
effectiveness, along with deadly diseases, though  the most of them are
easier to cure than the deadly diseases”. (Ch.3. pp.126)
Those three chapters of “Out of the crisis” are the core of the book.
Logically and in the clearest way they explain what total quality management
is, what its purpose and the meaning is not only in the economics, but in the
everybody’s life of any of the member of any society in the world. I dare to
call this book as a new philosophy school, of which the leader - W.E.Deming -
wishes to change the Western management, particularly to help out the
American economics, but imperceptibly intrudes upon everyone’s consciousness
trying to make upheaval in everyone’s way of thinking.
In the next two chapters E.Deming  predicts the period of time that has to
pass to improve total quality and gives some pieces of advice to help the
management to understand its responsibilities.
The description and explanation of the quality, relationships among quality,
producer and consumer, heterogeneous meanings of the quality are given in the
chapter 6 - “ Quality and Consumer”. One can find answers to the questions
what quality and quality of service is, what consumer and what the triangle
of interactions is, what one can learn from the consumer.
Since Service industry plays huge role in economics, the improvement of
economics and the quality cannot do without the improvement of the quality
and productivity in service organizations, what the main point of the Chapter
7 is. All the areas of the service industry are touched by the author,
everywhere the attention is focused on the specific items in each particular
sphere of the service industry. An abundance of realistic examples shows the
professionalism of the author and his understanding of the problems.
“... The aim of the leadership should be to improve the performance of man
and machine, to improve quality, to increase output, and simultaneously to
bring pride of workmanship to people. Actually , most of this book  is
involved with leadership.” (Ch 8. pp. 248) - It is stated in Chapter 8, which
expands the 7th Point of Deming. The leadership does not mean to tell what to
do, but it is actually telling the people how to do, how to improve what has
to be done, how to know how to do, how to evaluate by the means of
statistical control. Some good examples are given . The charts reflect the
way of examining the problems and give the answer to many questions.
Before even starting to improve the quality, everyone has to meet the
requirement to accept operational definitions. There is no any way out in
improvement process without standards and regulations, which start with
operational definitions. These and other important questions are discussed in
Chapter 9 and Chapter 10.
The failure to understand the information in variation causes the central
problem in management and leadership. In Chapter 11 it is spoken of faults of
the system as common causes of trouble, and faults from fleeting events as
special causes. The content of this chapter includes the deepest analysis of
many real examples taken from companies and proves that statistical control
of the system using control charts lets discover both common and special
causes.
“ More examples of improvement Downstream” - Chapter 12 is like a
continuation of Chapter 11. The next chapter provides us with the latent
danger of any new philosophy - some disappointments in Great Ideas. Every new
theory has its advantages and disadvantages. Not everything in the new
philosophy is so good as it may seem from the first view. But as it is said,
“ disappointments arise from failure to understand four basic axioms.” (Ch.
13. pp. 388)
Not only theoretical knowledge and examples from the real life are given in
the book “Out of the Crisis “. E.W. Deming solves a bunch of practical
problems from various spheres of industry, proving the fairness, clearness
and ability to apply his theoretical reasonings. The bibliography of sources
for advanced study is given as well in Chapter 15.
How to organize the system in the company, how to reorganize the present
system into the system, reaching improvement in quality, productivity,
minimizing of costs is discussed in Chapter 16. Some very elementary examples
from the everyday’s life in Chapter17 - “Some Illustrations for improvement
of living “ are presented  by the author.
The Appendix refers to the whole of the book “ Out of the Crisis “. The
Japanese phenomenon demonstrates the world the importance of total quality
idea. “ The whole world is familiar with the miracle of Japan, and knows that
the miracle started of with a concussion in  1950. (...) Suddenly, Japanese
quality and dependability turned upward in 1950 and by 1954 had captured
markets the world over. The new economic age had begun. What happened ? “
(Appendix, pp. 486) Will the American economy guess the riddle of Japan ?