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Курсовая: Who became kamikazee

                                                        By Kirill Bulatov
                            course: Cultural Diversit in the Modern World
                                                   instructor: Leigh Rich
                       WHO BECAME KAMIKAZE PILOTS,                       
                   AND HOW DID THEY FEEL TOWARDS THEIR                   
                             SUICIDE MISSION?                             
     Abstract
This extended essay is about the Kamikaze pilots who made suicide attacks
from the
air during the Pacific War. This paper aims to find who the pilots really
were and how
they felt about their suicide mission. The hypothesis for the research was
that any pilot
could become a Kamikaze pilot, and that the pilots probably felt scared, yet
took the
responsibility to carry out their mission.
Most of the investigations were made through primary sources. Since the Kamikaze
attacks were made from bases in Kyushu, there are several museums there where
information may be found. There, the actual letters and diaries that the
pilots had left
behind are displayed. Also, fifteen interviews with survivors of the attacks,
relatives and
other people related to the attacks were made. Since the Kamikaze attacks
were made
only fifty years ago, a great quantity of documents was available.
The time period in concern is from early 1944 to 1945, and the topic being the
Kamikaze pilots, and the region of research was within Japan, mainly Kyushu.
The conclusion of this extended essay was that the pilots were ordinary,
average young
men of the time who volunteered, and that most felt that their dying in such
a mission
would improve the war situation for the Japanese. However, exactly how the
pilots felt
could not be fully understood by a student researching the topic fifty years
after the
actual attack.
In blossom today, then scattered:
Life is so like a delicate flower.
How can one expect the fragrance
To last for ever?
--Admiral Onishi Takijiro
     Introduction
During World War II in the Pacific, there were pilots of the Japanese
Imperial Army
and Navy who made suicide attacks, driving their planes to deliberately crash
into
carriers and battle- ships of the Allied forces. These were the pilots known
as the
Kamikaze pilots. This essay focuses on how they felt about their suicide
mission.
Because right-wing organizations have used the Kamikaze pilots as a symbol of a
militaristic and extremely nationalistic Japan, the current Japanese respond
to the issue
with ignorance and false stereotypes and with generally negative and
unsympathetic
remarks. The aim of this essay is to reveal the often unknown truth
concerning the
pilots, and above all to give a clearer image as to who the pilots really were.
The hypothesis behind the question, "Who were the Kamikaze pilots and how did
they
feel towards their suicide mission?" is that any pilot devoted to the
country, who
volunteered and was chosen felt scared, yet took the responsibility to carry
out his
mission.
     Part One
The death of Emperor Taisho may be the point when Japan had started to become
the
fascist state that it was during the Pacific War. Although the military had
been active
ever since the Jiji period (1867-1912) in wars such as the Sino-Japanese War
(1894-1895), and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), it became extremely active
when Crown Prince Hirohito became Emperor Showa. Coup d'etats became frequent,
and several political figures were assassinated. By Emperor Showa's reign,
the military
had the real authority.[1]
According to those who have lived through the early Showa period (1926-1945),
the
presence of Emperor Showa was like that of a god and he was more of a religious
figure than a political one.[2] In many of the haiku that the Kamikaze pilots
wrote, the
Emperor is mentioned in the first line.
Systematic and organized education made such efficient "brainwashing"
possible. In
public schools, students were taught to die for the emperor. By late 1944, a
slogan of
Jusshi Reisho meaning "Sacrifice life," was taught.[3]
Most of the pilots who volunteered for the suicide attacks were those who
were born
late in the Taisho period (1912-1926) or in the first two or three years of
Showa.
Therefore, they had gone through the brainwashing education, and were
products of
the militaristic Japan.
Censorship brought restrictions on the Japanese people. The letters, diaries,
and
photographs of individual soldiers were all censored. Nothing revealing where
they
were, or what they were doing concerning the military, could be communicated.[4]
Major restrictions were placed on the press, radio and other media. The
public was not
to be informed of defeats or damage on the Japanese side. Only victories and
damage
imposed on the Allies were to be announced.[5]
Another factor that created the extreme atmosphere in Japan were the
"Kenpeitai," a
part of the Imperial Army which checked on the civilians to see if they were
saying or
doing anything against the Emperor or the military.[6]
Since the time of feudalism, especially during the Tokugawa period, a warrior
must
follow the Bushido. This Code, and a culture which viewed suicide and the
death of
young people as beautiful were factors contributing to the mass suicides.[7]
     Part Two
Although it was only from 1944 that the General Staff had considered mounting
organized suicide attacks,[8] "suicide attacks" had been made since the Japanese
attack on Pearl Harbor.[9] Two types of suicide attacks had been made. The
first was
an organized attack which would, in 90% of the cases, result in the death of the
soldiers. However, if the plan had worked on the battlefield as it did in
theory, there
was some possibility that the soldiers would survive.[10] The other type of
suicide
attack that had been made was completely voluntary, and the result of a sudden
decision. This was usually done by aircraft. The pilots, finding no efficient
way to fight
the American aircraft, deliberately crashed into them, and caused an explosion,
destroying the American aircraft as well as killing themselves.[11]
Because these voluntary suicide attacks had shown that the young pilots had
the spirit
of dying rather than being defeated, by February, 1944, the staff officers
had started to
believe that although they were way below the Americans in the number of
aircraft,
battleships, skillful pilots and soldiers, and in the amount of natural
resources (oil, for
example), they were above the Americans in the number of young men who would
fight
to the death rather than be defeated. By organizing the "Tokkotai," they
thought it
would also attack the Americans psychologically, and make them lose their
will to
continue the war.[12] The person who suggested the Kamikaze attack at first is
unknown, but it is often thought to be Admiral Takijiro Onishi. However,
Onishi was in
the position to command the first Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai rather than suggest
it.[13]
In October, 1944, the plans for the organized suicide attacks became reality.
Having
received permission from the Minister of the Navy, Admiral Onishi entered
Clark Air
Base prepared to command the first organized suicide attacks.[14] Onishi had not
thought the organized suicide attacks to be an efficient tactic, but that
they would be a
powerful battle tactic, and he believed that it would be the best and most
beautiful
place for the pilots to die. Onishi once said, "if they (the young pilots)
are on land, they
would be bombed down, and if they are in the air, they would be shot down.
That's
sad...Too sad...To let the young men die beautifully, that's what Tokko is.
To give
beautiful death, that's called sympathy."[15]
This statement makes sense, considering the relative skills of the pilots of
the time. By
1944, air raids were made all over Japan, especially in the cities. Most of
the best
pilots of the Navy and the Army had been lost in previous battles. Training
time was
greatly reduced to the minimum, or even less than was necessary in order to
train a
pilot. By the time the organized suicide attacks had started, the pilots only
had the
ability to fly, not to fight. Although what happens to the pilot himself in
doing the suicide
attack is by no means anywhere near beauty, to die in such a way, for the
Emperor,
and for the country, was (at the time), honorable.
One thing that was decided upon by the General Staff was that the Kamikaze
attacks
were to be made only if it was in the will of the pilot himself. It was too
much of a task
to be "commanded."[16]
The first organized suicide attack was made on October 21, 1944 by a squadron
called the Shinpu Tokubetsu Kogekitai.[17] Tokubetsu Kogekitai was the name
generally used in the Japanese Imperial Navy and Army. The public had known them
as the Tokkotai, the abbreviated form. Tokkotai referred to all the organized
suicide
attacks. Shinpu is what is better known as Kamikaze.[18] The captain of the
first
attack was to be Captain Yukio Seki.[19]
How was Captain Seki talked into such a task? According to the subcommander
of the
First Air Fleet, Tamai, who brought the issue up to Captain Seki, the Captain
had in a
short time replied "I understand. Please let me do it."[20] According to
another source,
the reply that Captain Seki gave was, "Please let me think about it one
night. I will
accept the offer tomorrow morning."[21]
The document which seems to have the most credibility is the book, The Divine
Wind
by Captain Rikihei Inoguchi and Commander Tadashi Nakajima. According to this
account a graduate of the Naval Academy, Naoshi Kanno, was originally
nominated as
the leader of this mission. However, he was away from Mabalacat on a mission to
mainland Japan. Therefore, to take Kanno's place Captain Seki was chosen, and
was
called to Commander Tamai's room at midnight. After hearing of the mission, it
appears, Seki remained silent for a while, then replied, "You must let me do
it."[22]
The reason this is the most credible document is because it had been written by
Captain Rikihei Inoguchi, who was actually there with Tamai and Seki, and
named the
first unit, Shinpu. It is doubtful that there was a flaw in his memory since
the book was
published in 1959, only 14 years after the war.
In any case, Captain Seki agreed to lead the first Kamikaze attack, and, on
October
25, 1944 during the battle off Samos, made one of the first attacks, on the
American
aircraft carrier Saint Lo.[23] Twenty-six fighter planes were prepared, of
which half
were to escort and the other half to make the suicide mission. That half was
divided
into the Shikishima, Yamato, Asahi and Yamazakura.[24]
     Part Three
The youngest of the Kamikaze pilots of the Imperial Army was 17 years
old,[25] and
the oldest, 35.[26] Most of them were in their late teens, or early twenties.
As the
battle in Okinawa [April to June 1945] worsened, the average age of the
pilots got
younger. Some had only completed the equivalent of an elementary school and
middle
school combined. Some had been to college. There was a tendency for them not
to be
first sons. The eldest sons usually took over the family business. Most were
therefore
the younger sons who did not need to worry about the family business.
Most of those who had come from college came in what is called the Gakuto
Shutsujin. This was when the college students' exemption from being drafted
into the
military was lifted, and the graduation of the seniors was shifted from April
1944 to
September 1943.[27]
Many of these students were from prestigious colleges such as Tokyo, Kyoto,
Keio,
and Waseda Universities. These students from college tended to have more liberal
ideas, not having been educated in military schools, and also were more aware
of the
world outside of Japan.
Where were the pilots trained? All the pilots involved in the "Okinawa Tokko"
had
been trained in/as one of the following: The Youth Pilot Training School,
Candidates for
Second Lieutenant, The Imperial Army Air Corps Academy, Pilot Trainee, Flight
Officer Candidates, Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet, Pilot Training
Schools,
or Special Flight Officer Candidate.[28]
     Part Four
Since the Kamikaze attacks were to be made only if the pilots had
volunteered, and
could not be "commanded," there were two methods to collect volunteers. One
was for
all pilots in general, and another was for the Special Flight Officer
Probationary Cadet
(College graduates) only. The former was an application form, and the latter
was a
survey. The survey asked: "Do you desire earnestly/wish/do not wish/to be
involved in
the Kamikaze attacks?" They had to circle one of the three choices, or leave
the paper
blank. The important fact is that the pilots were required to sign their
names.[29] When
the military had the absolute power, and the whole atmosphere of Japan
expected men
to die for the country, there was great psychological pressure to circle
"earnestly
desire" or "wish." The Army selected those who had circled "earnestly
desire." The
reason that the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet had to answer such
a survey
rather than send the applications at their own will was probably because the
military
had known that the students who had come from college had a wider vision, and
would
not easily apply for such a mission. For the regular application, the Army
was confident
that there would be many young pilots who would apply. They were correct. Every
student of the 15th term of the Youth Pilot Training School had applied.
Because there
were so many volunteers, the military had decided to let the ones with better
grades go
first.[30]
There are several factors which made so many young pilots volunteer for such a
mission. Extreme patriotism must have been one factor for sure. Added to
that, there
was the reverence for the Emperor, a god. Some say that it was generally
believed that
if one died for the emperor, and was praised in Yasukuni Shrine, they would
become
happy forever.[31]
The effect of the brainwashing that the military had done to the students is
surprising.
The pilots felt it was "obvious" that they were to take part in the Kamikaze
attacks.
Most pilots mention in letters that they were happy, and proud of being given
such an
honorable mission. It is true also that they believed that if they took part
in the mission,
it might improve the war situation for Japan.[32]
What the military education was like was described in a diary kept by
Corporal Yukio
Araki, from the time he had entered the Youth Pilot Training School, until
the night
before his original date of departure for Okinawa.
Since anything written was checked by one of the military staff, nothing that
would
upset the military or contradict the ideas of the Japanese government could
be written.
However, more importantly, because of the lack of privacy, personal emotions
could
not be written. Therefore, in Corporal Araki's diary, very rarely can
anything "personal"
be found. The first several days in the Training school, he simply lists the
subjects that
were studied that day, and what was done for physical training. Later on he
mentions
what was done for training, the events that took place, and other things he
had done.
However, most of what he wrote was about the "warning" he received.[33] The
following are some of the "warnings" he had received:
There is an attitude problem when listening to the officers.[34]
Some students seem to smile or laugh during training, and others are being
lazy...In general there seems to be a lack of spirit.[35]
Straighten yourself. It reveals your spirit.[36]
The education emphasized the mind, spirit and attitude. Neatness and
cleanliness were
also frequently mentioned. Usually, a hard slap in the face accompanied these
warnings.
The way the 15-year- old boy responded to the warning was: "I must try
harder."[37]
One of the listed subjects in the diary was a course called "Spiritual Moral
Lecture,"
nearly every other day. What exactly was taught in the course is not mentioned.
However it seemed that in some of these courses, great military figures who
died for
Japan were mentioned.[38] It is a certainty that this course was one factor
in making
the pilots feel "happy and proud" to be involved in the Kamikaze attacks.
The military education was quickly absorbed by these young pilots-to-be. It
was in
October 1943 that the young boy had entered the Training School. By the next
February, he had written a short poem saying that a Japanese man should be
praised
when he dies as he should for the Emperor.[39]
The amount of time students spent in the Youth Pilot Training School was
reduced from
three years to less than two years for the 15th term students. Therefore, the
schedule
was tight and tough.[40] There was almost no holiday at all, and many of the
planned
holidays were canceled.[41] What Corporal Araki called a "holiday" was very much
different from what is normally considered a holiday. An example of his
holiday started
with some sort of ceremony, followed by listening and learning new songs
(probably of
war), and watching a movie. Something related to the military was taught even
on days
called "holidays."[42] Therefore, they were given no time to "think." There was
something to do almost every minute that they were awake, and they were
taught what
the right spirit was. By not giving them time to think, they had no time to
evaluate what
they were being taught. They just absorbed it, and as a result, by the time they
graduated, they were brainwashed.
Corporal Araki had an older brother and three younger brothers. In his will
to his
parents, he mentioned that he wished two of his younger brothers to also
enter the
military; one should enter the Navy and become an officer, the other to enter
the Army
and also become an officer. He also mentions that he wishes that his brothers
follow his
path (and be involved in the Kamikaze attacks).[43]
Mr. S. Araki, Corporal Araki's older brother, mentioned that his brother had
greatly
changed after entering the military school. He remembers that his brother's
attitude
towards him was not casual, and it was not like he was talking to a brother.
He felt that
he had really grown up since he had seen him last, both physically and
psychologically.[44]
There are three references in which Corporal Araki's thoughts towards the
mission may
be found: his will, last letters, and his diary. In his will to his parents,
and to his brother,
he mentions that he has no nostalgic sentiments. In his will addressed to his
brother, he
mentions that he would like him to consider the mission as piety. In a
postcard sent on
the day of his mission, he calls the mission, "an honorable mission," and
that he is
looking forward to see them again at Yasukuni Shrine.[45] It was in the end
of March
1945, that Corporal Araki's unit's mission was ordered to take place.[46]
From just
before then, Corporal Araki had not written in his diary. After an entry on
March 16,
there were no entries for two months. He wrote, because he was busy, there
was no
time to write.[47] Could that be true? Indeed, his squadron was on a tight
schedule for
March. From the 25th, they returned from P'yongyang to Gifu prefecture.[48]
However, Sergeant Kazuo Arai had been able to keep a diary at the time.[49]
It may
be because of strong personal emotions he just could not keep the diary. Or,
it may be
that he could care no longer about keeping a diary. In either case the fact
that he had
not written an entry on the day that the mission was officially ordered, when
he had
written every other special event down, reveals that he was no longer in the
state of
mind that he had been.
The planned date of the mission of the 72nd Shinbu squadron (which was the
squadron
to which Corporal Araki belonged) was initially, May 21, 1945. However,
because of
rainy weather, it was postponed to May 27, 1945. In his last diary entry on
May 20,
1945, he wrote:[50]
...at ** o'clock I received the thankful command to depart tomorrow. I
am deeply emotional, and just hope to sink one (American battleship).
Already, hundreds of visitors had visited us. Cheerfully singing the last
season of farewell.[51]
and is cut off there. His handwriting however was very stable, and was not as
if he was
losing control. If for some reason he had to leave the diary for a while, why
did he not
go back to it? Was it that he had become extremely emotional that he could no
longer
write? In any case, he never returned to his diary.
     Part Five
In reading the last letters of the Kamikaze pilots, there are generally two
types. One,
the "Typical" letters and the other, the "Unique" letters. Most of the
typical letters were
written by graduates of military schools such as the Youth Pilot Training
School. The
"Unique" ones were written by the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets-
-the
graduates from college. The first two of the following five pilots have
written a typical
letter, and the other three have written unique letters.
Corporal Masato Hisanaga of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron was twenty years old. In
his
letter, he thanked his parents for the years that he was alive, and reported
to them how
he had been doing, and informed them of the kindness of the people where he had
been. After asking his parents to say "Hi" to various people, he says that he
will take
revenge for his older brother (who, as it appears, must have been killed in
the war) by
sinking the enemy's battleship and killing its soldiers. He too asks that his
younger
brothers follow their brother (himself). "All of the (Japanese) population is
the
tokkotai." He too mentioned, "I have no nostalgic sentiments."[52]
Corporal Shinji Ozeki, 19 years old wrote a will to his mother saying:[53]
As a man I will courageously go. Now, I have no special nostalgic
sentiments. However, I will go regretting that although being born a man, I
have not had filial piety.
To give this young self for the protection of the imperial nation, I believe is
piety.
I hope that you will forgive my sin of being undutiful and that you will live
in happiness.[54]
This is similar to what Corporal Araki and Hisanaga had mentioned. All reveal
their
thoughts towards their parents. They believed their dying was piety, which
shows that
they were doing it for their family. All had mentioned having no nostalgic
sentiments
possibly to make their parents feel easier. Because these are "Typical"
letters, many
others had written just as they had.
The unique ones written by the college graduates included more personal
feelings. For
example, Second Lieutenant Shigeyuki Suzuki wrote:[55]
People say that our feeling is of resignation, but that does not know at all
how we feel, and think of us as a fish about to be cooked.
Young blood does flow in us.
There are persons we love, we think of, and many unforgettable
memories. However, with those, we cannot win the war.
To let this beautiful Japan keep growing, to be released from the wicked
hands of the Americans and British, and to build a 'freed Asia' was our
goal from the Gakuto Shutsujin year before last; yet nothing has changed.
The great day that we can directly be in contact with the battle is our day
of happiness and at the same time, the memorial of our death...[56]
Second Lieutenant Ryoji Uehara, a graduate of Keio University was 22 years
old. His
ideas were "radical" for the time, and if known by the Kenpeitai, he would
not have
been left alone.[57] In a note, he wrote to a journalist just before his
mission that he
was greatly honored to be chosen as a Kamikaze pilot.[58 ]Yet he also wrote,
thinking
logically with the skills he had gained in college. He believed in democracy.
He believed
that the victory of democracy was obvious, and although fascism would make the
country appear to be prosperous temporarily, only decline would wait for it. He
mentioned the fact that Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany had been defeated, and
that the
power of "Freedom" will appear in history. He says that if his ideas were
correct, it
would be a tragedy for the nation but that he would be happy. In the end of
the note he
wrote:
Tomorrow, one believer in democracy will leave this world. He may look
lonely, but his heart is filled with satisfaction.
Second Lieutenant Uehara believed that he would not go to Yasukuni Shrine,
but go to
heaven where he would be able to meet his brother and the girl he loved, who
died
earlier.[59]
Second Lieutenant Toshio Anazawa was engaged. Yet being chosen for such a
mission
that [engagement] was to be canceled. He wrote in his last letter to her all the
thankfulness he felt for her and her family. He tells her that he does not
want her to
reflect on the time they had spent together.[60] He wrote:
As an engaged man, as a man to go, I would like to say a little to you, a
lady before I go.
I only wish your happiness.
Do not mind the past. You are not to live in the past.
Have the courage and forget the past. You are to create a new future.
You are to live from moment to moment in the reality. Anazawa no longer
exists in the reality.[61]
Unlike the first two letters, which contained the words, "I have no nostalgic
emotions,"
he wrote: "It's too late now, but I would like to say some of my wishes."
He then listed the books he wanted to read, what he wanted to see, what he
wanted to
listen to, and that he was eager to see her, and to talk to her.[62]
The last three writings probably spoke for themselves and require no further
explanation. They just made clearer the different ways of thought the college
students
had from the others who attended military school.
Not only in writing had the thoughts of the pilots appeared. In actions, and
in speeches
too were the emotions visible. Corporal Mineyoshi Takahashi, according to Mr.
Yasuo
Takahashi, his older brother, had changed since entering military school, and
his
attitude in talking with Mr. Takahashi was not as it used to be.[63] (The way
Mr. Y.
Takahashi explained the differences before and after Mineyoshi joined the
military was
similar to the way Mr. S. Araki had explained Yukio's changes.) He remembers
that
the last time they met, he took Corporal Takahashi into the ship he was
working in.
Suddenly, Corporal Takahashi had asked his brother: "Which part of the ship
is the
weakest?" Mr. Takahashi remembers that he was extremely surprised, but
pointed to
the place which he knew was the weakest.[64]
This reveals that Corporal Takahashi was thinking of his mission rather
calmly. He had
asked the question, probably thinking of which part of the ship he should
drive his plane
into.[65]
Corporal Takamasa Senda before his departure had been singing many songs with
children, and at times, sat quietly alone, burning old letters in an
expression of deep
thought. The last night, he looked up at the stars and said, "You are lucky,
this will be
the last time I see the stars...I wonder how my mother is doing...."[66] His
singing with
the children was probably to forget the coming mission, and his burning the
letters was
to forget the past. Saying that he wanted to be able to see the stars again
is an
indication that he wanted to live.
Whether patriotism was the answer to the way they felt can be doubted in the
case of
Second Lieutenant Fumihiro Mitsuyama. His real name was Tak Kyong-Hyong.[67]
He was Korean, but like other Japanese men, he too was sent to war, and was
chosen
as a Kamikaze pilot. The last evening before his mission, he went to the
cafeteria
appointed by the Army, which was run by a lady, Mrs. Tome Torihama, who was
called "Okasan" (mother) by the young Kamikaze pilots of Chiran Air Base. He
went
up to her and said, "I will sing you a song of my country," and sang Ariran.
By the
second verse he was in tears.[68] Because he was a graduate of college, he
had not
volunteered willingly but was probably pressured to circle "desire earnestly"
in the
survey, especially being a Korean.
According to survivors, all say that they felt quite calm, and normal. They
were not
scared of death but were happy that the day had finally come.[69] Mr. Itatsu
was a
pilot who had departed for the mission but because his engine had stopped on
the way,
his plane fell into the sea, and he survived.[70] He says that he remembers
being happy
when he was chosen for the mission.[71] He said that the young people then
who had
gone into military schools did not have the ability to think logically, and
therefore sent
applications without much thought. He also says that these pilots were really
innocent,
and thought purely that they would be able to serve, and protect the
country.[72] An
author and a critic, Tadao Morimoto said in a T.V. program that he believes
that it was
not true that they were happy to die for the country.[73] Mr. Itatsu says
that he
disagrees with him because some young and innocent pilots died believing they
could
become happy dying that way.[74] Since Mr. Itatsu was one of the Kamikaze pilots
himself, his comments should be given more credibility than the comments made by
Tadao Morimoto who had been an officer in the Navy during the war, but was not
involved with the Kamikaze attacks himself.
Kiichi Matsuura, the author of the book Showa wa Toku (Showa Far Away) wrote
that he recalls the first planned date of the mission was like every other
day, and no
special conversation took place. When he found that his aircraft would not
function
properly, he suddenly felt the strong urge to live. His aircraft not
functioning implied that
he would not die. Realizing that, he could only think of living. On his
second "chance"
his plane was fine halfway. He was with two other pilots, and seeing one of
them sink
into the sea, realized a problem in all their engines. The two returned. He
recalls that
until the moment they decided to return, he was not at all scared, because
they were
flying toward death. However, returning was frightening. He had to protect
his life from
death.[75]
Finally, in an interview with a member of the Self Defense Force, Mr.
Matsunaga, a
word which held the key to a better understanding was mentioned. The word was
"decision." To the question, "If something happened, would you not be
afraid?" he
answered that it was his decision to enter such a world, and that he would
not escape if
anything did occur.[76] Similarly, although it was with far more
psychological pressure,
all the Kamikaze pilots had made the decision.
     Conclusion
The pilots were, as a matter of fact, not radical nor extremely patriotic,
but were the
average Japanese of the time. It was a dream for the young boys of late
Taisho period
and early Showa to serve in the military, especially in the Air Force, as a
career. Not all
pilots who wanted to become Kamikaze pilots could become one. Although this may
sound strange, there were so many volunteers to make the suicidal and fatal
attacks,
that the military, to be fair, had to let the ones with the better grades go
earlier. Because
of the aura that had covered Japan, the young pilots of 18 and 19 were eager
to go.
Those of the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets who had their own
thoughts
like Second lieutenants Suzuki, Uehara, and Anazawa were able to separate their
personal life from what was required of them to do for the war. They felt the
responsibility to go.
How exactly the pilots felt about the attacks could not be known but it seems
that they
were, in general, happy that they could serve the country, but had other
thoughts
towards death. Because the brainwashing done on the pilots trained in
military schools
was so effective, it changed the priority of 'life, then country,' the other
way around.
Life was made, by the atmosphere and education of the time, to be not the
first priority,
but something that must be given up for the first priority, the Emperor and
the country.
If they believed that ever-lasting happiness would follow their mission,
there was
nothing for them to fear. Those who were not brainwashed (the college
graduates) may
have felt fear. If they were able to detach themselves totally from life,
they might have
felt better. Yet is detaching oneself from life really possible?
In any case, it seems that they were all optimistic. They volunteered,
believing their
death might save their family, the ones they loved, and Japan. However, as a
student
investigating fifty years after the events, it was not possible for me to
understand exactly
how the pilots had felt towards their mission.
     Appendix One
The Different Pilots' Training Schools in The Imperial Army Where the
Kamikaze Pilots
Were Trained
The Youth Pilot Training School
The students who had graduated from the Youth Pilot Training schools had the
best flying skills of the Imperial Army. This schooling system had begun in
1933,
and lasted until the end of the Pacific War. The age range that was accepted
into
this school was between 14 and 17. Originally, the time spent in the school was
three years. One year of general education in Tokyo and two years of
specialized education in various parts of Japan. However, by the end of the war,
the students of the 15th term were trained in only a year and 8 months and were
made into soldiers just in time for the Okinawa Tokko.
Candidates for Second Lieutenant
Non-commissioned officers whose excellence was recognized were educated in
the Air Corps Academy. Because of their experience and career, their skill was
of a high level.
Imperial Army Air Corps Academy
Students who had completed the four-year course of Middle School or the
Higher Elementary School took an examination to enter. They became civil
servants who had decided to work in the Army. Graduates of the 56th and 57th
term were involved in the Okinawa Tokko.
Pilot Trainee
The pilot trainees had to have a pilot's license, and had to be an Officer
Candidate. After one month in a squadron, they received six months of flight
training in the Imperial Army Air Corps Academy of Kumagaya, and after six
months as probationary Officer, became Second Lieutenants. Among the
students of the Ninth term, there were graduates of the Higher Pilot training
schools.
Flight Officer Candidates
Officer candidates consisted of drafted men with at least Middle School
education. After four months of preliminary education, a test was taken. If they
passed the test, they received the required education for officers, and if
found fit
for the position were ranked as Higher Officer Candidates. After serving as
probationary officers, they were ranked as Second Lieutenants. If they were not
found fit as an officer, they became the Lower Officer Candidates and became
non-commissioned officers. Those who had the interest in flying received
training
with the Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadet in the Imperial Air Corps
Academy. The students of the 7th, 8th, and 9th term were involved in the
Okinawa Tokko.
Special Flight Officer Probationary Cadets
This was for the college students drafted into the war by the Gakuto Shutsujin
who were interested in the Air Corps. The 1st term entered in October 1943,
the 2nd in December 1943, and the 3rd in June 1944. They were made into
Second Lieutenants in one year, half a year earlier than planned. One sixth
of the
entire Okinawa Tokko of the Army was made up of these 312 cadets.
Pilot Training Schools
This was not an institution belonging to the Army, but belonged to the
Ministry of
Communications. However, the content was almost the same. There were
twelve of these schools and the students were separated into the regular course
and flight training course. Students of fourteen to fifteen years old entered
the
regular course. After three years of regular education, the students received
one
year of flight training which the students of the flight training course had
completed. To enter the flight training school from the beginning, an
educational
background of more than Middle School graduation was required. 108 of the
graduates died in the Okinawa Tokko.
     Appendix Two
The 72nd Shinbu Squadron
Many of the Kamikaze pilots mentioned in the Essay were pilots of the 72nd
Shinbu-tai
of the Imperial Army. The following are pilots of the squadron:
     Title             Name                    Age at Departure
Captain:
First Lieutenant  Mutsuo Sato             24
Sergeant          Nobuyoshi Nishikawa
Sergeant          Kazuo Arai              21
Corporal          Yukio Araki             17
Corporal          Tsutomu Hayakawa        19
Corporal          Kairyu Kanamoto
Corporal          Atsunobu Sasaki
Corporal          Kaname Takahashi        18
Corporal          Mineyoshi Takahashi     17
Corporal          Masato Hisanaga         20
Corporal          Toshio Chizaki          19
Corporal          Takamasa Senda          19
This squadron was formed on January 30, 1945 as the 113 Educational Flight
Corps,
then was transformed to the 23rd Rensei Flight Corps. On March 30, 1945, the
same
unit was renamed the 72nd Shinbu Squadron. (Shinbu refers to the squadrons of
the
Imperial Army which made the suicide attacks by aircraft.) They were
stationed in
Heijo, what is now P'yongyan of North Korea. From March 25, 1944, they were in
Kagamihara, Gifu prefecture for about one month. Before the mission in May,
the unit
returned to Kyushu, and stayed in Metabaru, for a few days, and flew over to
Bansei
Air Base. Their attack was first planned to be made on May 20, 1945, however
it was
postponed to May 27, 1945 due to rainy weather.
Of the twelve pilots, three did not depart for the suicide attack. Corporal
Atsunobu
Sasaki was killed by an American P-51 on May 2, 1945 in China. On the same day,
Sergeant Nobuyoshi Nishikawa was injured, and could not take part in the
mission.
The aircraft of Kairyu Kanamoto malfunctioned on the day of their mission,
and could
not take off. The remaining nine made their mission from Bansei Air Base at
6:00 a.m.,
May 27, 1945.
     Appendix Three
The Research Method
The first time I learned of this topic was in August, 1992.  It was the time
when I went
with my parents to Japan and visited manmuseums and talked to many people whose
age varied from12 to 60 and they have told me many stories about war.
There, a great number of primary sources and photographs were displayed, which
made me even more interested in the topic.
Since the summer of 1992, the collection of information started, with no
academic
purpose. In 1993, the book Rikugun Saigo no Tokko Kichi by Shichiro Naemura
was published. This book was about the Kamikaze pilots who departed from Bansei
Air Base.
That summer of 1993 was crucial to my interest in the Kamikaze pilots. First,
I visited
Chiran Tokko Heiwa Kaikan again on August 21, and looked in more detail at the
letters, diaries and photographs of the pilots. The photographs were
extremely inspiring
in a sense, since in none of them were the pilots showing an expression of
fatigue, or
regret. Most of them were smiling.
On the same night, I decided to spend the evening at "Tomiya Ryokan" which is
what
used to be the small restaurant Ms. Tome Torihama ran during the war, and
which the
Kamikaze pilots used frequently. There were several photographs of the Kamikaze
pilots remaining there. Mr. Yoshikiyo Torihama, the grandson of Ms. Tome
Torihama,
talked to me about many episodes concerning the last evening the pilots
visited the
restaurant.
Since May 1993 I thought it would be a wonderful opportunity to organize my
thoughts
and information on this topic.
This essay was extremely interesting and, above all, meaningful for me. The
members of the older generation who I interviewed encouraged and supported me
tremendously.
     Appendix Four
The following are those who have supported and encouraged my research for the
Extended Essay: (in alphabetical order)
Mr. Seiichi Araki
Mr. Tadamasa Itatsu
Ms. Itsuko Kai
Mrs. Masako Kai
Mr. Kyoichi Kamei
Mrs. Fusako Manabe
Mr. Ryo Matsunaga
Mr. Shiniro Nagao
Mr. Tadashi Nakajima
Mr. Glenn Scoggins
Mr. Tohshio Senda
Mr. Yasuo Takahashi
Mr. Yoshikiyo Torihama
Mr. Akira Yamami