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Шпора: Domestic foreign policy of Ukraine

DOMESTIC & FOREIGN POLICY OF UKRAINE

According to the decree "The main directions of the external policy of Ukraine" the basic demand applied to the accomplishment of external policy of Ukraine is protection of country's national interests. In the sphere of international relations there is a strong gradation of such interests: 1. Strategic and geopolitical interests (they concern national security and protection of Ukraine's political independence) 2. Economic interests (which are connected with integration of Ukraine's economics in the framework of world economy) 3. Regional, subregional, local interests (they provide maintenance of different specific needs of the inner development of our country). The general purposes of the external policy of Ukraine are closely tied with accomplishing the latter tasks: 1. Assertion and development of Ukraine as an independent democratic state 2. International stability of Ukraine 3. Territorial integrity of the state and inviolability of its frontiers 4. Participating in processes within world economic system, taking care of human needs and people's prosperity 5. Protection of human rights of Ukrainians abroad, setting deep and mutual ties with diaspora 6. Creating the image of Ukraine as reliable partner whose behavior is easily predictable The main directions of the external policy of Ukraine: 1. The development of bilateral international relations 2. The enlargement of the participation in the European regional cooperation 3. cooperation within the framework of CIS 4. UN Membership in other international organizations Each of these directions has its own set of priorities. 1. Bilateral international relations can be subdivided in 4 parts: a) frontier states (the main issue here is signing the treaties on cooperation and neighborhood. They just have to confirm the frontiers and create the atmosphere of mutual confidence and respect) b) Western countries – EU and NATO member states (political and military partnership, PFP, beneficial economic collaboration, wide range of scientific and humanitarian ties). Priority – the USA. c) countries geographically close to Ukraine (Ukraine, for instance, was ready to participate in settlement of Yugoslavia) crisis on a par with EU, OSCE and UN) d) Countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America (Ukraine is seeking contacts with new industrial states. The priorities – Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, Australia, Argentina). 2. European regional integration The priority is an activity within OSCE with the help of which Ukraine will avail itself of making a step towards Western countries. Ukraine will also take an advantage of OSCE gears to support its national interests. Ukraine also will increase its participation in NATO to transform its institutes in the elements of a new European security network. Ukraine as a sea state is going to cooperate within the Danube commission and the Black sea economic community. Contacts with Vyshegrad states group, Carpathean euroregion, North Council and Baltic states council are also of a great importance for Ukraine. 3. CIS Ukraine does and will do its best to avoid institutionalizing of the state cooperation forms which could have transformed CIS in the abovestate structure of the federative or confederate origin. 4. UN membership The main functions of the external policy are: a) Supporting the national security b) Supporting and providing the necessary conditions for the economic growth and development of national economics in general c) Assistance in the sphere of national culture and education d) Participation in the solving of global problems e) Contacts with Ukrainian Diaspora f) Informational function DOMESTIC POLICY OF UKRAINE Ukraine’s independence was declared on August 24, 1991. Upon declaring itself independent of the SU, Ukraine embarked on a series of economic and social reforms. While nationalistic movements and cultural enthusiasm had smoothed the transition from the old Soviet to the new democratic model – the economic situation worsened and thus economy become the centerpiece of the internal policy of our country and to some extent dominates it even today. The economy of Ukraine suffered a sharp drop in production and inflation. The damage was due in part to the country’s uncomfortable dependence on imports from Russia (in gas and oil), which was undergoing tumultuous changes. In spring of 1992, the Ukrainian parliament decided to replace ruble with the karbovanets, which was later to be replaced by a new currency, the hrivna, when inflation is curbed. To aid the troubled economy more vigorous reforms were advocated. Hence today it’s quite possible to underline major priorities of the domestic policy in the sphere of economy: 1) Strong privatization policy 2) Liberalization of prices 3) Severe cuts in subsidies 4) Strict monetary policy 5) Reducing of corruption Some priorities of the domestic policy can be considered to be on a par with our economic difficulties. Among them the protection of human rights and enviromental protection. They represent the deep layers of smaller conflict situation and problems. For instance,speaking of environment we have to mention: 1. Chernobyl 2. Cutting emissions of ozone-depleting and other harmful substances 3. Nature conservation 4. Waste management and disposal 5. Acidification of rivers 6. Demographic growth 7. Seeking new source of energy 8. Climate change 9. Urban issues (air quality, noise and waste)