Курсовая: Drug abuse: Tendencies and ways to overcome it
1. Introduction 2-4
Chapter 1. Concept, Manifestations and Tendencies of
Drug Abuse 4-14
2. The Concept and Manifestation of Drug Abuse 4-11
3. Tendencies of Development 11-14
Chapter II. System and Classification of Measures to Overcome
Drug Abuse 14-22
4. System of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse 14-17
5. Classification of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse 17-22
Chapter III. Drug Abuse in the International Law 22-38
6. International Fora and Legal Acts on Drugs 22-34
7. Tendencies in the World Community's Reaction to Drug Abuse. 34-37
Chapter IV. Measures to Suppress and Prevent Drug Abuse 37-40
Chapter V. Organized Measures to Counteract Narcotics 40-57
8. General Provisions for Counteracting Narcotics 41-45
9. Organization of Medical Counteraction to Narcotics 45-49
10. Enforcement of Legal Measures of Narcotics Counteraction 50-53
11. Other Organizational Measures to Combat Narcotics 53-57
12. Conclusion 57-58
The 20th century has witnessed the spread of narcotics to the entire world.
In the past narcotics in the natural economy were confined to territories
where drug-bearing plants were grown. By the end of century drug addiction
has become a worldwide socially dangerous trend.
Narco-dealers making fabulous profits infect more and more people and even
entire social groups with drug addiction. Narcotics have long since gone
beyond the borders of traditional drug-producing areas and have infiltrated
all the countries of the world, exerting its malicious effect on their
peoples. It has affected social, economic, political and biological aspects
Statistics is constantly reporting the spread of drug addiction and the
growth in the number of drug addicts on file at medical institutions, as well
as the rise in officially recorded drug-related crimes.
Drug abuse has become a real plague of the 20th century in many countries of
the world and may become the plague of this country in particular.
The pleasurable sensations of comfort and satisfaction that a person
experiences using narcotics is much greater than that of alcohol thus making
the repetition necessary. Consequently, dependence on drugs and the desire to
enlarge the dose or experiment with the new and more powerful drugs
increases. Gradually the desire for dope becomes so overwhelming that it
degrades the addict's individuality. The transition from experimentation to
dependence is no longer a secret for it has been studied thoroughly. Profit
seeking dealers expand the drug market at any cost by supplying drugs to more
and more addicts taking advantage of their weaknesses.
Drug sales are the closing stage in drug trafficking. Drug trade earns huge
profits that cover the costs of cultivating drug-bearing plants, producing
(or illegally acquiring from medical institutions) transportation, sale
expenses, and the bribery of officials, including those of the law
enforcement agencies. Since illegal drug trafficking is extremely
advantageous in terms of illegal profit accumulation and so harmful and
immoral it must be regarded by the entire world community as a socially
dangerous phenomenon. Some countries qualify its certain manifestations as a
Throughout this century international organizations have been paying much
attention to actions against drug abuse. For example, in 1909 the Shanghai
Opium Commission approved documents to restrict drug trafficking between
countries. The international opium conference held in the Hague between 1911
and 1912 worked out, for the first time in history, the drug convention of
1912. The conference on opium held in Geneva between 1924 and 1925 approved,
on February 11, 1925, an Agreement under which opium was made a government
monopoly. The second Geneva conference on opium passed a convention on
February 19, 1925, under which narcotics were to be produced only for the
purpose of meeting the countries' legal demand for them. Besides this
convention stipulated the extension of the list of drugs. On July 13, 1931,
an international convention limiting the production of drugs and regulating
their distribution was approved in Geneva. It came into force in 1933. A
convention of actions against the illegal trade in hard drugs was signed in
Geneva on June 26, 1936. It made international prosecution for drug-related
crimes possible and introduced punishments for such crimes compared with the
In 1946, the UN Economic and Social Council passed a resolution that provided
for the international drug control and for the establishment of a drug
commission for this purpose. On November, 19 1946, the UN General Assembly
passed resolution 54/1 which endorsed a Protocol on Drugs. It was signed at
Lake Success on December 11, 1946. At the initiative of the Drug Commission,
a protocol extending the international control over drugs set forth by the
1931 convention, was signed at the third UN General Assembly session in Paris
on November 19, 1948. A Protocol on Control over opium poppy, consisting of
the Preamble and the Final Act, was signed in New York at the UN opium
conference on June 23, 1953. The UN conference in New York in 1961 approved a
Uniform Drug Convention and in 1971 in Vienna a special diplomatic conference
passed a convention that stipulated the establishment of a control over
psychotropic preparations. The UN conference in Vienna in 1988 adopted a
convention of actions against the illegal trafficking of drugs and
psychotropic substances. In keeping with the decisions of the G Seven heads
of state and governments and of the European Commission Chairman, the 15th
top-level economic summit in Paris set up a special group in July 1989 to
deal with the laundering of drug money. Upon this group's recommendations,
the International Drug Control Council called on all the governments to
approve, among other things, legislative acts against attempts to launder
money obtained from drug sales and to ensure their effective use. The list of
international antidrug conferences and their drug-prevention documents alone,
as well as the establishment of special international bodies and
organizations to carry out their decisions, is a graphic illustration of how
serious the world community's effort to oppose drug abuse has been.
A lot of people today are drawn into the process of illegal drug trafficking:
from those engaged in cultivating drugs or producing medical preparations
containing drugs, to drug salesmen and dealers engaged in money-laundering.
At times these people form groups, which are termed, organized criminal
groups or associations by the criminal code. On the one hand, these groups
take control of drug-related crimes and draw people who commit such crimes on
their own. And on the other hand, they establish firm organizational ties
among themselves forming drug cartels in order to monopolize drug trafficking
in the vast regions of the world. This shows that there is a continuous
blending process between narcotics and organized crime. These factors
characterize the highest degree of danger that narcotics represent. They
prove the pressing need to increase worldwide action against narcotics. This
action calls for the use of all possible means: political, legal, economic,
and medical among others.
The antidrug campaign is a big drain on the material resources of the
country. It involves large spending on various programs such as preventive
Medicare, law-enforcement, legal and economic measures, and other. If this
spending is to be rational and effective, a range of measures should be
outlined with the utmost precision and professionally implemented.
All this calls for a comprehensive analysis of the existing situation and of
the possible opposition by drug dealers. As the owners of enormous wealth,
which sometimes exceeds the budgets of some countries, drug dealers are able
to influence government policies, especially in small countries. Mainly
bribing top government officials in the legislative or the executive branches
ensures this influence. As a result, criminals get a chance to interfere in
law making from the outset. The bribery of the law enforcement officers and
of the officers of the court, among others, makes it possible to cover up
drug deals, prevent exposed members of the criminal associations involved in
these deals from prosecution or substantially curtail their prison terms.
Unlike the United States and other wealthy countries, smaller nations are in
no position to allocate sufficient sums from their budgets to carry out
effective antidrug projects. Research-based guidance may to a certain extent
make up for the lack of necessary funding. And here government-supported
antidrug programs may play an essential role.
The study of drug abuse has always been prominent in the study of law. Many
booklets, articles, serious textbooks, and monographs are devoted to
narcotics. It is as hard to cover all aspects of the problem, even in the
most profound study, as it is to establish absolute truth, especially, since
reality keeps creating new problems all the time.
The key solution lies in the need to pool international efforts in
eradicating drug addiction and narco-business. In the present-day world with
its integration processes it is impossible to do away with drug addiction in
any one country. Yet there is no way for the world community to regard itself
free from the problem even at a time when drugs will be a peril only in one
particular country. An intensive and continuous buildup of the world
community's joint effort against narcotics is a top priority objective of the
world at large.
Chapter 1. Concept, Manifestations and Tendencies of Drug Abuse
1. The Concept and Manifestation of Drug Abuse
Sociologists, lawyers and medical experts single out three basic aspects of
drug abuse: social, legal and medical.
These aspects are interconnected and interdependent and reveal the diverse
nature of drug abuse. Moreover one can also point out the criminological,
economic and ecological aspects.
To highlight the entire multiplicity of this phenomenon, it is necessary to
go beyond the widespread notion of "drug addiction" because strictly speaking
it applies only to the medical or biological aspects of drug use being viewed
exclusively as a disease without covering social, legal and some other
aspects. This is why the notion "drug abuse" rather than "drug addiction" is
used in juridical literature as a much wider term covering social, legal and
other aspects. So, drug abuse is understood as a "social phenomenon" which
combines such illegal actions as willful consumption of narcotics, dealing in
narcotics illegally, as well as solicitation to use drugs, creating the
conditions for becoming a part of illegal drug trafficking.
This definition is acceptable on the whole and may be used as a basis for
describing the phenomenon, yet it fails to cover the biological aspect and
insufficiently expresses the economic, legal and criminological aspects.
There is a need for a term that would cover all the aspects of this negative
phenomenon, and of the ways of combating it.
Social Aspects of Drug Abuse:
Most concisely, the social aspect of drug abuse can be described as a
combination of social behaviors linked to narcotics and their social
consequences in the form of damage that has been done and can be done to
The actual negative social manifestations of drug abuse are expressed in
various drug-related actions: cultivation of drug bearing plants,
preparation, acquisition, storage, sale and consumption of narcotics, as well
as persuasion to use narcotics.
Negative Social Consequences of Drug Abuse:
The negative social consequences of drug abuse are similar to the social
consequences of crime. They amount to "real harm caused by crime to social
relationships and expressed in the cause-and-effect combination of criminal
behavior and in the direct and indirect, immediate and mediate negative
changes (damage, losses, and other ill effects), ultimately affecting the
social (economic, moral, legal, etc.) Values and also implying the
combination of society's economic and other social hazards attributed to the
effort to combat and to socially prevent crime.
Proceeding from this definition it is possible to recognize the negative
social consequences of drug abuse. The first is the negative social changes,
such as harm to people's health, the destruction of family foundations, and a
decline in work efficiency. The second is the cost which society has to pay
to overcome these changes. Other changes also include refusal to work,
various antisocial actions, and crime. A closer look at these negative
changes shows that drug addicts are poor workers because of their ill health,
which, in general, makes work impossible for them during spells of
abstinence. Their entire range of interests and thoughts lies in the desire
to find ways of obtaining drugs. The list of negative changes also includes
material damage perpetrated by the drug addicts who are often the source of
transportation accidents and accidents in industry. For example, 60 billion
dollars worth of damage is done annually in the United States alone. There is
also the moral damage resulting from the various unlawful actions motivated
by the desire to find means for buying drugs, such as the willingness to
commit crime for the sake of meeting that desire. Forgery, embezzlement,
abuse of authority and office duties is just a few. Drug addicts create
unbearable conditions for their families by denying them normal lifestyles
and means of existence. They harm their offspring by upsetting the hereditary
stock. Drug addicts undergo physical and moral degradation and die early.
They destroy their own basic moral and ethical values.
The Committee of Experts of the World Health Organization determines the
social danger and negative consequences of drug abuse according to the basic
factors and divides them into two main groups: the breach of relations among
drug consumers and the spread of unfavorable consequences among many people.
Specific Social Problems of Drug Abuse:
WHO experts describe the specific social problems caused by drug abuse as
follows: the huge material losses and their consequences in the form of all
kinds of damage done to those who immediately surround drug consumers
(parents, college roommates and so on) and to the society as a whole; the
deterioration of relations with official organizations and institutions,
staff at college and at work etc.; drug consumers' inclination to commit
crimes motivated by the need to have drugs or the means to buy them, and also
the mercenary and violent crimes committed under the influence of drugs; the
additional demand for welfare benefits and medical care for persons using
drugs other than for medicinal purposes and in connection with this the
unnoticed spending both by drug addicts and by society as a whole; the danger
arising from drug addicts as potential conduct of drug addiction in their
Detailed research however allows for a broader list of specific social
aspects. They include: ideological and cultural, law enforcement, medical
care and preventative medicine, labor and education, family and leisure time,
and material resources. The specific ill effects of narcotics and their
unfavorable social consequences can be seen in any of the categories listed
above. For example, in the ideological and cultural area they express
themselves in the development of a specific drug ideology; in the law
enforcement area there is an increase of crime. In Medicare and preventive
medicine, there is deterioration in people's health and an increase in the
number of handicapped children. In industry and education - a decline in
labor efficiency and poor results at schools and other educational centers is
evident. One can also point to accidents and to deterioration of relations
among staff. In the family relations, a loss of understanding occurs. All
this requires setting up special schools, preventive centers, drug
departments at medical institutions, rehabilitation centers and new antidrug
To sum up the above-cited social aspects of drug abuse one may state, that it
is harmful in physical, moral and proprietary ways. This harm is caused by
the proliferation of the narcotic sub-culture as it draws more victims into
it; secondly, by drug-related crimes; thirdly, by crimes committed for the
purpose of getting means for buying more drugs; fourthly, by crimes committed
under the influence of drugs; and, finally, by the spending needed to carry
out various programs aimed at eliminating drug abuse.
Legal Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The legal aspect of drug abuse is also a part of the social aspect. Crimes
and other law-breaking acts covered by the totality of legal norms involve
the illegal cultivation of drug-bearing plants, the preparation, storage,
transportation, trafficking, sales, and theft of drugs, the use of drugs
without doctor's prescription, and the violation of laws regulating the
handling of narcotics. This also covers the situation when suitable
conditions are created for taking drugs and those in which more people are
persuaded to use drugs or when people have to commit crimes in order to
obtain means to buy drugs. Crimes committed under the influence of drugs, as
well as crimes that are committed for the purpose of getting money to
purchase drugs are included as well.
These crimes should be viewed as part of the notion of drug abuse since they
are caused by the desires of drug users to boost drug-inspired activities or
their level of intoxication. The legal aspect of drug abuse also includes
those relationships regulated by law and arising from the non-medical use of
Criminological Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The criminological aspect of drug abuse includes a part of this phenomenon
that poses an extreme danger to the public, i.e. is linked to the above-cited
crimes, their state, level, structure, dynamics, cause-and-effect, criminal's
personality, and prevention measures, among others.
Economic Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The economic aspect of drug abuse is associated with its affect on economy,
such as large sums of money in possession of drug dealers, a decline in labor
productivity of drug addicts; an increase in spending on law-enforcement
engaged in combating drug-related crimes; and a drain on national budgets due
to preventive and rehabilitation measures to combat drug addiction. Experts
claim, for example, that in the former USSR, the cost of illegal drug
trafficking within the "narco-business-shadow economy" amounted to billions
Biological Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The biological aspect of drug abuse is associated with the notion that it is
"a disease manifested by a constant and insurmountable craving for drugs
(morphine, for example) causing euphoria in small doses and stupor in large
ones. The regular use of drugs arouses a desire to increase the dose. The
abstinence syndrome usually accompanies withdrawal.
Narcotics damage the internal organs of drug takers, destroy their nervous
systems, their state of mind, and bring about their social degradation.
Since drug addiction is a disease, there is a need to find a cure for it.
Hence, the need to have qualified medical personnel, special drug
rehabilitation centers and branches offices, effective medicines and curative
Ecological Aspect of Drug Abuse:
The ecological aspect of narcotics is associated, on the one hand, with the
natural existence of drug-bearing plants, and on the other, with their man-
made cultivation. These plants are a source of obtaining and preparing
narcotic substances. From the ecological point of view there is a need,
first, to do away with the spread of wild drug-bearing plants, and second, to
ban their man-made cultivation. The economic, biological and ecological
aspects are subjects for research by experts.
It is possible to define drug abuse as a negative social phenomenon touching
upon the social, legal, criminological, economic, biological and ecological
areas accordingly. One part of the phenomenon is drug addiction, as a
disease, and other, embraces all the law-breaking actions related to drugs:
those carried out to secure means for purchasing drugs or those committed
under the influence of drugs. Such law-breaking actions cover the use,
preparation, purchase, storage, transportation, parcel mail, sale and theft
of narcotic substances; attempts to force other people to use drugs and the
creation of conditions conducive to such use; attempts to sow and grow drug-
bearing plants; attempts to violate the established rules regulating the
production, purchase, storage, control, sale, transportation or parcel mail
of narcotic substances; and, drug smuggling. The law-breaking actions also
cover various mercenary crimes (violent crime) that are not drug-related but
are committed in order to buy drugs subsequently (theft, robbery, plunder,
fraud, blackmail and others) and also violent crimes committed under the
influence of drugs (e.g., hooliganism against individuals). This notion
reflects the essence and the confines of the drug use and serves as a
guideline for determining its scale and developing strategies against it. Yet
the true scale of this phenomenon is obscured by a high degree of latent
drug-induced diseases and law-breaking drug-related actions.
Narcotics and Crime:
The above-listed law-breaking actions are crimes proving an interrelation
between drug abuse and crime. Drugs and crime are not only closely
interrelated, but actually blend fully, and in fact, becomes what is known,
as narco-crime. But to merely establish this fact is not enough. The danger
drug-related crimes pose to the public surpasses the danger coming from other
crimes. Drug-related crime is largely interrelated with various other kinds
of crime and even merges with one of its most dangerous varieties such as
organized crime. This becomes clear studying the dynamics of drug-related
crimes. Central here are the drug users who represent a consumer of
narcotics, and the ultimate target of drug trafficking - the sale of drugs.
When people become dependent on drugs they concentrate all their efforts on
getting drugs at any cost. They engage in criminal activities ranging from
the cultivation of drug-bearing plants and the preparation of "stuff", to its
Tendencies of Development:
The number of drug users grows in direct proportion to the rise in crimes
committed under the influence of narcotics and, in the long run, to the
profits earned by the drug dealers. Hence, drug dealers seek to 1) expand the
drug sales; 2) increase the output of drugs or receive more of them from
medical and pharmaceutical centers; and, 3) further promote criminal
activities connected to drugs. The latter seems to ensure the realization of
the former. A high degree of organization paves the way for expanding drug
sales, increasing the output and boosting drug trafficking.
Expanding Drug Sales:
The expansion of drug sales is achieved by persuading more people to take
drugs. Drug dealers set up drug pads and stores where narcotics are
available. They try to advertise them in indirect ways. They make sure that
more powerful drugs are continuously being developed.
In order to increase drug output drug-bearing plants are grown on remote
plantations in regions with difficult access. Illegal shops and laboratories
for developing new types of narcotics are set up there. Funds for increasing
drug output are raised by blackmailing or bribing public officials. Drug-
dealers practice violence, make threats against officials and encourage theft
of large amounts of drugs.
Boosting the Level of Organization of the Illegal Drug Trafficking Business
Methods to improve the level of organization include mergers of criminal
groups and associations, severe disciplinary measures within criminal
organizations, greater degree of cohesion among group members, conspiratorial
rules, and tougher actions against those who violate the rules in such
groups. Other methods are: increasing attempts to draw government officials
into criminal groups, taking control of persons engaged in drug-related
crimes on their own, centralizing finances and monopolizing drug prices.
According to various studies there are quite a few syndicates and cartels in
the world that have divided drug trafficking regions among themselves.
Activities of these groups are guided by a clear-cut system of criminal
actions, such as promoting the sowing and cultivation of drug-bearing plants,
the production of narcotics, their wholesale purchase, and the transportation
and sales of drugs to consumers. Drug syndicates and cartels, for whom drug
trafficking is the main source of income, act under the guise of legitimate
companies, trying to come across as legal as possible. They have airplanes,
modern weapons and the newest technology in their possession. Leaders of the
criminal drug associations do their utmost to oppose the actions of law
enforcement agencies. With this purpose in mind, they not only try to check
police actions but make attempts, successful at times, to infiltrate police
ranks. Professional criminals deploy defense measures that may prove to be so
effective in challenging the worthiness of surveillance of suspects and the
bugging of their phones. United into cartels and syndicates and
organizationally divided into groups and associations, drug- criminals are
usually aware that they remain under constant surveillance. To ensure their
personal safety they resort, as a rule, to various counter-surveillance
measures, thus putting well-trained police officers in a difficult position.
Experience shows that criminal groups usually keep the approaches to places
where narcotics are turned over under their own close watch.
Ways to Legalize Drug Profits:
Drug dealers seek not only to build up profits from drug trafficking but to
legalize them as well. To that end they engage in criminal activities where
by legal and illegal operations are inextricably intertwined. The money
earned from the trade in narcotics is invested into legitimate businesses or
in real estate. It may also be laundered in financial transactions, such as,
the purchase of shares and securities or other newly invented and constantly
perfected operations. The income thus obtained allows drug dealers not only
to pour more money into drug trafficking or finance more drug-related crimes
but also provides for a legal coverage of drug trade, or for the
participation in legal activities. Speakers at the international seminar on
combating organized crime in the Russian city of Suzdal in 1992 held in
accord with the resolution of the 45th session of the UN General Assembly,
pointed out that "in the majority of countries, organized crime developed
along two directions: participating in prohibited activities (property
crimes, money laundering, illegal drug trafficking, violation of hard
currency transaction rules, intimidation, prostitution, gambling, trade in
weapons and antiques) and joining legal business (directly or using such
parasitical means as extortion. This participation in legal economic
activities is always bent for the use of illegal competition methods and may
have a greater economic impact compared to the involvement in totally illegal
kinds of activity). In short, criminal methods are used in both cases leading
to the situation in which criminal elements form the majority of organized
Typically, drug cartels and syndicates are highly organized. Present in the
organizations are: strict and precise distribution of functions; very rigid
hierarchies; internal discipline maintained by interest, authority and force;
stringent conspiracy; ramified networks of groups bound by firm
organizational ties; branches existing and functioning in various countries;
contacts with other criminal groups (counterfeiters, smugglers, murderers
etc.); the use of professional criminals; the internationalization of group
members; and, the use of violence to meet the desired ends. To protect their
huge profits and spheres of interest, the subjects of narco-criminals stop at
nothing and employ violent means, such as the contract murders of their
rivals and of law enforcement agents. The money brought by the trade in drugs
is often used to finance dangerous crimes and acts of terrorism. It becomes a
source, which finances subversive activities of all kinds. Profits obtained
from the drug trade make it possible to finance large-scale armed operations
against government forces (like in Columbia or Mexico). Profit gained from
the drug trade is often compared with the profits earned by whole industries.
The drug trade is regarded as the world's second largest economy. All this
enables drug dealers not only to pay generously for the participation in
crimes but also to set up a common financial fund, a common bank, so to
speak. Narco-money is also used to exert influence on policy-making,
particularly, by nominating the associates of drug dealers to key posts in
the economy and politics or by bribing persons who already hold such posts
and turning them into supporters of the drugs trade. These financial
investments are reinforced by threats of violence against them or their close
relatives (wives, children or parents). This proves convincingly that narco-
crime is a well organized and well planned business incorporating the
mutually inter-related criminal activities of individuals, groups,
associations, syndicates and cartels with a division of mutually interrelated
functions. This is the reason to regard this kind of crime as a variety of
organized crime. Some researchers believe that drug profits are the economic
foundation of organized crime. This can be seen in comparison of elements
forming narco- and organized crimes. To get a clear understanding of the
elements of the latter it is necessary to look in retrospect at the history
of organized crime. While crime and drug addiction have been known to the
world for at least several centuries, the existence of organized crime has
been officially recognized quite recently, only in this century. Yet both
national and foreign researchers date the origin of this phenomenon, in one
way or another, to a much earlier period.
Various stable criminal organizations used to appear and operate on
territories of almost all modern states. Gangs of brigands and smugglers were
at work not only on land but also at sea (sea pirates). They had in their
possession caches of weapons, stocks of gold and food and, sometimes, entire
fleets of pirate boats furnished with everything necessary for an attack and
ready to go into combat with regular troops or ships. They thereby challenged
borders and laws. Already at that time members of such gangs observed their
own internal rules and traditions strictly, contrary to the ones obligatory
in society. Among them there was the principle of mutual help, the
recognition of the leaders' authority, the distribution of duties and spoils,
as well as a system of reward and punishment. Gangsters knew exactly the kind
of work they were responsible for and also knew their zones of influence
(slave trade, cattle stealing, smuggling arms, narcotics, gold, diamonds,
etc). They talked their own language and stuck to other conspiratorial rules.
Taking hostages and bribing officials were their usual practices, very much
like the actions of the present day organized crime groups.
With the passing of time, of course, these organizations kept transforming
and modernizing, adjusting to changes of state borders, governments and
economies. They were turning more and more into organized criminal
associations that posed a serious threat to public safety, to the supremacy
of the law and to other state institutions. As researchers point out, a
particular danger of organized crime is that it becomes more and more
arrogant, aggressive, ingenious and diverse. In the 1980s, organized crime
became increasingly apparent throughout the world.
Forms of Organized Crime:
Along with traditional forms of organized crime, new forms, more diverse and
greater in scale, have appeared, such as the theft and re-sale of luxury
cars, electronic equipment, historical and cultural art objects, antiques,
icons and church plate. Other forms include the illegal trade in human being,
weapons and ammunition, strategic raw materials, non-ferrous and rare metals,
drugs counterfeiting, theft and forgery of credit cards, gambling, and
infiltration of legal business and world finance. An analysis of documents
issued by the UN Information Center proves that the influence of various
forms of organized crime spreads far beyond national borders and
"transnationalize crime", so to speak. This creates a situation which
"differs, both qualitatively and quantitatively, from the situation in the
past and hampers the accomplishment of effective measures aiming to prevent
and eliminate crime. Experts believe that the evolution of organized crime
should be seen as "a process providing for a rational reorganization on the
international basis of criminal enterprises using the same patterns just as
it is the case for legal enterprises." This process reflects tendencies for
forming a more intricate organizational structure typical of the modern
society in all countries. This explains why the UN Secretary General pointed
out in his speech at the 47th General Assembly session on September 28, 1992,
that it was imperative to promote international cooperation and develop
practical steps against organized crime in view of its negative impact on
various areas of society's social, political and economic life. Though
extremely topical, problems of organized crime have not yet been resolved
properly by juridical theory and practice. Suffice it to say that there are
still some countries where no laws on organized crime have yet been passed.
There is no uniform approach to the concept of organized crime at the
legislative level. The attributes and signs of this phenomenon have not yet
been finalized. No attempts have yet been made to develop a comprehensive
program of action against it. There are few statistics or official data on
organized crime as a whole.
For example, in the former USSR the first official mention of organized crime
made at the government level was on December 2, 1989, when the decision to
step up the effort against organized crime was passed by the 2nd Congress of
People's Deputies. However, no laws regarding organized crime have been
adopted. This could not help but leave its imprint on the practical
activities of law enforcement agencies in the former Union republics. There
was no solid theoretical discussion of the concept of organized crime, as the
scarce publications of the last few years could hardly give a complete
picture of this problem.
Some published works, however, contain a number of definitions of organized
crime. Some authors point to the following basic features. Criminal groups
based on hierarchical order consolidate within the borders of one particular
region or a country; their leaders take no part in crimes but only perform
organizational, managerial and ideological functions. Government officials,
including law enforcement officers, become corrupt and join criminal
activities providing safety to the members of criminal associations. This
association has a tendency to monopolize and expand the spheres of illegal
activities, and to protect leaders from bearing any responsibility. Another
group of authors believe that organized crime is a system of contacts forming
naturally in the criminal surroundings which lead to the concentration and
monopolization of certain kinds of criminal activities. Diversified ties
between groups engaged in criminal activities are characteristic of this
About the Concept of Organized Crime:
Organized crime represents the consolidated criminal associations with their
own norms of behavior, hierarchical ladders and finances, it is the most
dangerous kind of crime that opposes and counteracts the lawful actions of
the state. This definition also embraces the totality of mercenary and
economic crimes committed with the help of corrupt government officials, and
law enforcement agents among them, who yielded to bribery and other forms of
Organized Crime in Foreign Legislation:
In this context it is interesting to look at foreign experience in dealing
with organized crime, particularly, in the field of legislation. The Italian
criminal code states, for example, (article 416-2) that "the association of a
mafia kind is ranked as a criminal one when its members practice the removal
and intimidation of other persons in order to ensure a cover-up and observe
the law of silence and thus make it possible to commit crimes, and win,
directly or indirectly, posts allowing the management or control of business
activities, the distribution of concessions and permits of all kinds, the
signing of contracts, and communal services, as well as making illegal
profits or securing illegal privileges for themselves and other persons." The
American approach seems to be slightly different. While the Italian Criminal
Code lists features of organized crime, American Federal Legislation (USC-
par. 3781), though naming certain features of organized crime, attributes
concrete actions to it, namely, "unlawful activities by members of a well-
organized and disciplined association supplying illegal commodities and
offering illegal services, which include but are not limited to, gambling,
prostitution, usury, the spread of narcotics, racket and other unlawful
actions by such organizations." Organized crime has broad opportunities for
carrying out unlawful deeds but the choice of these opportunities is mainly
determined by the level of expected profit, the minimum degree of possible
risk of being caught and exposed and the absence of concrete victims. It is
this particular factor that comes to the foreground in crimes related to
narcotics whose users are not interested in reporting to the police. The
specific choice of a "specialization" for this or another criminal group is a
factor guaranteeing it, to a large degree, a high level of conspiracy and a
free hand in committing crimes. Along with the previously mentioned
"specialization" of criminal associations there also exists what is termed as
an "internal specialization", i.e. the division of labor among criminal
Organized Crime and Drug Related Crime: Features in Common:
These features include:
- clearly defined organizational and managerial structures with a hierarchy
which ensures the protection of leaders from punishment since their actions
usually remain outside the confines of the criminal code;
- uniform norms of behavior and responsibility;
- planned unlawful activities and common goals aimed at making large profits;
- a system aiming to neutralize all forms of legal control and development of
- common finances invested in various areas of criminal activities, which are
used for bribing the necessary people, providing material support to members
of criminal associations and financing crimes;
- monopolization and expansion of areas of criminal activity, cooperation
between criminal associations in various branches of a national economy, the
introduction of commodities and services to the black market, exploitation of
women through pornography, and prostitution;
- the use of legal methods to launder drug money.
In sum narcotics are a negative social phenomenon posing an extreme danger to
society. This danger is expressed in such ill-effects as the destruction of
people's health as a result of drug addiction, drug-related crimes, the
totality of which forms an independent crime branch (narco-crime), and the
ability to turn the most dangerous and well-organized part of narco-crime
into a variety of organized crime.
Par. 2. Tendencies of Development
Some tendencies of development can be traced by using the statistical method,
whereas others, which are not clearly evident, can be discovered by
sociological studies, expert evaluations, interviews, studies of documents or
by content analysis of mass media publications.
The Structure of Narco-crime:
In the structure of narco-crime, the predominant criminal actions are the
illegal preparation, acquisition, storage, transportation and dissemination
of narcotics by mail. The percentage of such crimes is high and is increasing
all the time. It varies between 87 and 96%. Actions not with the intent to
sell constitute an overwhelming share (from 96 to 99%).
On the one hand, this fact gives reason to assume that the actions listed
above were taken to obtain narcotics for personal use. On the other, a
conclusion can be drawn that the main efforts against the spread of illegal
drug trafficking "have actually shifted towards intensifying repressive
measures against drug users.
However, illegal activity with drugs and their deliberate sale is much more
intensive. But for various reasons, both objective and subjective, these fall
under a different legal assessment. A major factor is that it is difficult to
prove that there was an intent to sell. This is compounded by subjective
views of "intent to sell" in special situations and the absence of a clear-
cut stand by the lawmakers. 93% of the polled narcotic officers believe that
proving "intent to sell" is difficult especially since this question is of
decisive importance in final judicial rulings.
Besides, 63% of the respondents charged with illegal drug operations without
the aim of selling drugs, admitted that they not only had such intent but
also had been engaged in these operations on a regular basis all the way up
until they were arrested.
It is interesting to note that in police seizures, drugs obtained from
natural plants have prevailed so far. (Nearly 9/10ths). Today the amount of
seized raw materials for making drugs is estimated in tens of tons and has
grown more than 5 times in the last few years. This is well above even the
over-estimated needs and norms of known addicts.
Specialized studies on the subject underline how difficult it is to
investigate and uncover the above-mentioned crimes because of "the ingenuity
of methods used to carry them out, attempts to conceal them and also because
criminal behavior is multifaceted.
One should also take into account the absence of well-conceived methods, and
the shortage of professionally trained personnel to uncover and investigate
such crimes, especially, in the present-day conditions when there are
political collisions caused by the Soviet Union's disintegration, when there
are "transparent" and ill-defined borders between the former sovereign Soviet
republics, when the internal affairs agencies are not well equipped
technically, and when the customs and border control services are vulnerable.
The Structure of Crime and Latency:
Among the registered crimes there are none related to violations within the
system of medical care of the rules of drug-making, drug acquisition,
storage, keeping stock of, dispensing, transporting or sending by mail, at
pharmaceutical factories or medical and bio industrial enterprises, etc. The
absence of information about drug-related crimes, however, does not mean at
all that there are no crimes present.
A study of the problem has shown that there is no reason to believe narcotics
are safely kept out of reach of addicts. This has been confirmed by more than
one-third of the polled officers of internal affairs agencies. Every second
drug taker who was forced to undergo treatment, did not deny that he had
received drugs from medical personnel. Similar cases of drug acquisition were
noted by over 10% of persons charged with drug-related crimes, whereas 17% of
people from the same group of drug abusers confessed that they used to steal
drugs from hospitals, small medical centers and pharmacies. The share of
other crimes in the structure of drug-related crimes total is insignificant,
though they play a rather negative role in the spread of narcotics. For
example, during one year, the crime of solicitation to use drugs was recorded
only once or twice and 3 or 8 times the crimes involving the organization or
running dens for addicts or providing premises for that purpose.
All the same just over 98% of the polled people charged with drug abuse and
intent to sell drugs said they had persuaded 3 to 7 persons to start using
drugs. In more than 70% of such cases, a special effort was made to invite
potential "victims" to homes belonging to different persons. These people
received remuneration for granting premises especially arranged for this
purpose and where conditions were conducive for the use of narcotics.
Practically one out of every 4 persons charged with drug abuse but without
attempting to push drugs, admitted in talking to officials, that he had
persuaded at least 3 or 4 persons to use drugs treating them to narcotics
that he had bought or made for his own use.
What is more, 37% of the examined complaints and statements by citizens
addressed to various agencies, especially, those made directly to the local
police officers have remained unread, though they specifically mentioned
people who had turned their homes into drug pads.
All these facts highlight: 1) an increase of the degree in danger posed to
the public by drug-related crimes; 2) the appearance of new narcotics, giving
way to diversity of drugs; 3) increase in the number of people involved in
the use of narcotics through persuasion; 4) the rising level of organization
of such crimes; 5) the expanding boundaries of illegal drug trafficking on
the world- wide scale; 6) an increase in the number of illegal labs used to
make drugs; 7) the perfection of methods used for selling drugs and an
increase in the establishment of illegal and semi-legal shops intended for
selling drugs; 8) the rising number of cases of illegal acquisition,
including theft of narcotics from medical institutions; 9) the increase in
numbers of corrupt officials involved in illegal drug trafficking; 10) the
greater degree of masked laundering of money; 12) and a higher degree of
latency of drug-related crimes.
The danger to the public from drug-related crimes is manifested by an
increase of crimes committed for the sake of selling drugs, and, second, by
the total quantity of narcotics in circulation.
The appearance new drug substances and the corresponding rise in variety of
drugs is reflected in the constant growth of the List of Narcotics (narcotic
substances and drug medicines both synthetic and natural) produced by the UN
International Drug Control Committee.
The spreading of the cultivation of drug-bearing plants in places, which are,
difficult to physically access is confirmed by the discovery of plantations
sown with such plants in various regions of the world. These discoveries have
been made with the help of space and aerial photography.
The fact that the ever-larger number of people use narcotics is manifested in
the rising figure of medical patients using drugs and recreational drug
users. The growing number of drug patients is registered by statistics and
the rise in numbers of recreational drug users is evident from opinion polls
among experts (medics at outpatient clinics for addicts and law enforcement
officers who specialize in combating drug-related crimes).
The greater degree of organization in drug-related crimes is manifested by
the growth of criminal groups and associations, in the setting up of
syndicates and cartels, in the toughening of discipline within syndicates and
cartels and in the rising cohesion of their members and the coordination of
their actions. Tougher methods of pressure are exerted on members violating
the rules of conduct within groups. Criminal groups, associations,
syndicates, and cartels are also placed under control along with the people
who commit drug related crimes on their own.
The expanding boundaries of illegal drug trafficking on the international
scale are evident in the fact that drugs are smuggled into practically all
the countries of the world. This smuggling includes attempts to carry drug
consignments through the customs and across national borders of a number of
countries by various means and by different kinds of transportation. This has
been established by controlling deliveries of narcotics and by polling
experts (law-enforcement and customs officers).
Law-enforcement agencies in various countries discovered the rise in the
number of drug-making labs and new methods of selling and circulating drugs.
Shops that were camouflaged as book or perfume stores have been seized.
Corruption – as a Way to Protect Drug Dealers:
Growing number of corrupt officials, aspiring for higher posts tend to
improve methods to protect persons taking part in illegal drug trafficking.
Polled experts and narcotic squad police officers, admitted that over the
last few years, there was a rise in the number of requests to them by high
ranking officials suggesting that criminal responsibility be lifted from
persons involved in drug deals and against whom suits had been filed.
Ever more sophisticated methods to legalize the money from drug trafficking
is manifested by laundering such money which makes it difficult, impossible
at times, to trace its primary source. At present one can speak of the three
major methods. First, cash is put into financial institutions or into retail
trade and is immediately converted into foreign currencies or transferred
abroad. Second, there is a stratification of the money, i.e. increasing the
number of transactions that are often carried out in several countries to
obscure the source of the illegally earned money. And, third, illegal
earnings are integrated into investments in economic operations with the aim
of making the money look legal.
The polled experts, and the narcotic police squad officers explained the
increased latency of drug-related crimes by the following examples. There is
mutual interest in keeping crimes a secret both among drug-pushers and
addicts; none of them have any desire to cooperate with the law-enforcement
agencies. There are special mutually beneficial and inter-dependent relations
between users and suppliers of narcotics. This kind of relationship requires
thorough secrecy due to the fear of criminal punishment for both users and
suppliers. Small wonder that the addicts taken to hospitals, often in
critical conditions, dangerous to their life and health, do not reveal, as a
rule, the source of getting drugs. And this silence is due not to some sort
of moral principles, honor, duty or solidarity but rather, in most cases, to
the fear of losing the already established drug source or to the fear of
being victimized for revealing the source. Also much is yet to be done to
develop proper legal, personnel, tactical, material and technical programs
that are effective in combating drug trade. There is the obvious need to find
a way to expose latent drug-related crimes. For without realizing the actual
state of affairs with drug-related crimes, adequate measures of combating
them will remain insufficient.
Chapter II. System and Classification of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse
Par. 1. System of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse
Drug abuse is a socially dangerous and complicated phenomenon. Narco-crime,
particularly, should be countered by a rigid system of measures.
These combine numerous and diversified steps having social, legal,
criminological, economic, ecological, organizational and international
aspects. The word system is understood as "a whole consisting of parts, a
combination; ...a great number of elements bearing a relation to each other,
connected with each other, forming a sort of integrity or unity.
The system of measures for overcoming drug abuse is comprised of many steps
bearing relation to each other.
System of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:
The diversity of such measures, their relationships and contacts can be
illustrated by law practices, law-making and law enforcement, as well as by
the crime prevention theories both on domestic and international scales. For
example, a comprehensive inter-disciplinary action program to prevent the
spread of drug addiction submitted for discussion at the international
antidrug conference in Vienna in July 1987 contained more than 400 articles
and recommendations to governments and organizations as to how this negative
phenomenon should be overcome.
The UN international program for combating drugs for the years 1994 and 1995,
1995 and 1996 comprises 298 projects featuring various aspects, directions
and measures for checking the spread of drugs. 216 out of them were carried
through in 1994 and 1995 and the implementation of the remaining 82 projects
is underway. The total dollar amount of resources mobilized for the
fulfillment of these projects is estimated at US$ 484,397,800. The sum was
allocated by the UN International Antidrug Program's Fund.
The Concept of the Russian Federation government's policy on drug control,
endorsed by decision No 5494 of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation
on July 22nd 1993, incorporates quite a few antidrug measures from those
developed by the world community and registered by international conventions
and in other documents. This Concept emphasizes the measures that have been
tested and are successfully utilized.
Since the system of measures against drug abuse is too complicated the
discussion of its contents is related, firstly, to the general
characterization of its components and, secondly, to the classification of
these measures in their relation to each other.
Basic Aspects of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:
The measures against drug abuse have some social, legal, criminological,
medical, biological, political, economic, ecological, organizational and
international aspects. Although these aspects have different spheres of
application, they still remain interrelated. For example, measures for curing
drug addicts have medical, social and legal aspects to them; measures for
combating drug-related crimes have legal, criminological, social and other
aspects; measures for combating money laundering have legal, social,
economic, international and other aspects and so on. So, each particular
aspect can be discussed only in abstract terms. This approach to the
definition and description of aspects makes it possible to give a full
characterization of the system of measures against drug abuse.
The social dimension is the cornerstone of all other aspects. All the
antidrug measures are permeated with it. There is a correlation between the
social aspect and each of the other aspects. It is either a general element
in relation to something specific such as medical measures, or the whole of
something, which represents a part such as criminological measures. It can
also be a content when the other represents a form, as in legal measures. In
short, the social aspect can be regarded as a common for all antidrug
measures. Additionally there are legal measures for making those involved in
drug-related crimes answerable for their actions and for intensifying the
customs' control over the shipment of drugs across borders.
The legal aspect of the measures under consideration can be seen as a
totality of legal norms including international conventions against drugs and
determining the degree of a judicial responsibility for them, mainly,
criminal and administrative; secondly, regulating various legal relationships
arising from drug use, thirdly, ensuring a compulsory treatment for drug
addicts who try to avoid it and, fourthly, referring to these or other
substances as narcotics.
The criminological aspect comprises measures aiming to overcome narco-crime,
as a totality of drug-related crimes. These measures aim to study, analyze
and sum up the structure and dynamics of these crimes and their latency. In
addition, they aim to establish the causal complex of the given crime and
determine the content, nature and direction of actions aimed at removing or
neutralizing the causes conducive to the commitment of drug-related crimes.
Thirdly, they aim to disclose and fix typical features, traits and qualities
of an individual guilty of committing this or that crime. Lastly, they aim to
develop methods for preventing drug-related crimes.
The medical (biological) aspect involves the improvement of narcological aid
and methods for curing drug addicts, the need to increase the level of
professional medical training for those engaged in treating addicts and
persons taking drugs without a doctor's prescription and the development of
new medicines and medical equipment for treating addicts.
The political aspect involves combating narco-business, which tries to
undermine the foundations of state power, weaken the entire machinery of
state and diminish the nation's trust in the government.
Some juridical works make it a point that organized crime opposes legal
actions of top government bodies not only by committing crimes but also by
bending administration officials to the will of criminal associations so that
they could protect criminal activities.
The resistance of narco-business to government lawful actions can result in
attempts to undermine the foundations of state and in the re-orientation and
distortion of any country's policy. So, central to the political aspect of
measures against narco-business is blocking the influence of drug dealers on
the national policy by barring nomination of corrupt officials to key posts
in the government.
There are two facets- retrospective and perspective of the economic aspect of
measures against drug abuse. The retrospective facet, on the one hand,
involves direct expenses of the state to combat narcotics, and, on the other,
the lost benefits to citizens as a result of the spread of drug addiction.
Direct expenses include sizeable resources taken out from the state budget to
set up and maintain various medical and educational centers for handicapped
children, including those who inherited health problems from their parents
suffering from drug addiction. In addition this includes expenses to support
internal affairs agencies, customs officers engaged in combating the
proliferation of drugs, production of special equipment for identifying
drugs, as well as production of medicines for drug users. Finally, the direct
expenses are used to promote international cooperation in joint antidrug
actions with the United Nations Organization, Interpol and other
international agencies and carry out research in the field of medicine,
psychiatry, psychology and law, and to conduct an antidrug education.
The cost to society is revealed in an increase in the number of physically
handicapped and mentally retarded people, victims of narcotics. In the long
run this leads to a curtailment of society's physical and intellectual
potential as a whole, such as lower standards in education and labor
productivity. This, in turn, causes a reduction in the amount of material and
other benefits produced by society and of resources for various government-
run programs. There is also an increase in the number of cases of accidents
in industry and, as a consequence the increasing failure to meet the output
It is therefore essential to develop economic levers to oppose narco-
business, including the money laundering. This has been poorly done so far,
as no economic measures for combating narcotics have been developed and
applied in practice. These tasks require an independent study by economists
The ecological dimension of measures against drug abuse is linked to the
legal regulation that puts restrictions on the preservation and dissemination
of drug-bearing plants. This amounts to a ban on their cultivation and
destruction of the fields without any damage to the environment. The
cultivation of such plants is expected to be limited to specially allotted
areas where drug-bearing plants can be sown for medical purposes only.
The international dimention of measures against drug abuse is manifested in
various legislative, and law enforcement measures at the international level.
In sum, this system of measures covers a totality of numerous, diverse,
complementary and carefully outlined programs that have social, legal,
criminological, medical, economic, ecological, organizational and
Par. 2. Classification of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse
The essence of the system of measures to overcome drug abuse can be
understood by their classification in view of the diversity of these
measures. By establishing their different categories and distributing them
into various groups, this classification would make it possible to give each
measure its own niche, to define its boundaries and its relationship to other
measures. This classification makes it possible to determine the degree of
each measure's significance and its priority in terms of its practical
It is important to group them by contents, form, level, subject of
application, and type. As for legal measures, they should be grouped in
accordance with different branches of law.
The Content of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:
The measures to overcome drug abuse carried out by the UN Commission on Drugs
of the UN Economic and Social Council, by the UN International Committee on
Drug Control and by other international agencies can be grouped into the
following categories: analytical, organizational, training and educational,
research, technical, medical, economic, financial, international law,
preventive, monitoring, legislative, and criminal.
Analytical component is needed in order to be able to make use of a complex
system of collecting and assessing data about drug abuse, to evaluate the
extent of the illegal use of drugs in different countries worldwide, and to
make data available on the seizure of large quantities of narcotics to
Organizational component of measures is aimed at setting up international
agencies to control drugs and to combat drug trade; assisting countries in
developing national policies on such control; supporting projects, promoting
national law enforcement agencies; defining direction of programs and
ensuring the organizational backing of such programs; estimating the amount
of illegal cultivation of drug-bearing plants in areas difficult and
dangerous to access. Governmental measures should include adoption and
fulfillment of national programs to overcome drug abuse by forming special
law-enforcement, medical and other institutions, as well as special services
and squads to combat drug trade; taking stock of lands used to cultivate
drug-bearing plants; arranging control over the production, storage,
consumption, an shipments of drugs, especially across national borders, as
well as over the actions for pharmaceutical and medical centers.
The training and educational component includes educating specialists in law-
enforcement agencies, mass media, narcological centers, and social services.
The research component aims to define and analyze data on drug abuse, to work
out recommendations for overcoming it, to set up and run special research
labs, and to find new ways of ending drug addiction.
The technical component includes identifying drugs, designing equipment for
special labs, developing remote control devices to spot fields of drug-
The medical component of measures is: to promote a system of rehabilitative
treatment for drug users; to choose appropriate curative programs; and work
on methods to reduce the spread of infectious diseases among drug users.
The economic component consists chiefly in funding various programs and
projects, combating drug abuse, supporting programs reducing demand for drugs
and their supply, encouraging and supporting populations which had switched
to cultivating farm crops on territories where drug-bearing plants had been
The financial component involves measures against money laundering. Financial
operations by drug moguls aimed at making their earnings legal are the most
vulnerable part for the criminals. In view of this, the Committee for Banking
Rules and Banking Supervision issued a statement on December 12th, 1988 that
calls for preventing criminal uses of the banking system for laundering cash
obtained from drug trafficking. It requires that the international banking
community use extreme discretion while identifying clients. The statement
also calls for more cooperation with judicial systems and police institutions
in halting the legalization of cash from drug trafficking. Many countries
have accepted that the principles contained in this statement are applicable
to the operation of their own financial systems. In keeping with a decision
of the G Seven countries and of the European Commission Chairman at the 15th
economic summit in Paris in July 1989, a special operational group on
financial issues was started. It produced 40 recommendations made public in
February 1990. It also analyzed world financial flows, banking and financial
systems and methods for laundering cash. The group found some weak spots and
undertook a number of other steps. All the countries, who are members of this
group and (in keeping with its recommendations) some other countries declared
that they viewed participation in laundering cash as a criminal act and
started special services to investigate leads on shady deals reported by
subunits of the financial system. At the recommendation of the special
operational group on finances, the UN International Committee on Drug Control
called on all governments to pass and effectively use appropriate legislative
acts to stop money laundering, to confiscate the property of drug dealers,
and to consider a possibility of lifting the burden of proving the legitimacy
of supposed incomes or of other property subject to confiscation under par. 7
of Article 5 of the 1988 Convention even if this may require legal or
Among the international law components of measures are those calling for
reciprocal legal support of countries working to combat drug trafficking. It
is essential to make extradition easier, to strengthen international
cooperation against illegal drug trafficking, as well as to promote the
international system of control over medicinal drugs and psychotropes.
The preventive measures are comprised of destroying illegal plantations of
drug-bearing crops; preventing a transfer of drugs and of their components
from the legal sphere to the illegal one; curbing illegal drug trafficking;
reducing the demand for drugs; preventing the use of narcotics, particularly,
in places of employment, eliminating the addicts' pads, illegal labs where
narcotics are made and stores which sell them; promoting social
rehabilitation of drug addicts and encouraging education campaigns against
The control component of measures envisages supervision over the following
areas: the growing of drug-bearing plants, to rule out a "leakage" of the
legitimately grown plants: illegal sowing and raising; production of
narcotics, their acquisition, storage, stocking and dispensing; commercial
trade turnover in special equipment used for producing drugs, as well as in
raw materials; semi-finished products, chemicals and narcotic analogies;
international parcel post deliveries as a vehicle for sending narcotics;
ships sailing on the high seas and planes flying in international space;
transit through customs' ports; approaches to land, sea and air borders; and
deliveries of drugs for treatments at hospitals.
The most important law-making measure is that of bringing national
legislation in line with international conventions on narco-business.
The common criminal measures are those applied in every country, as criminal
responsibility for illegal drug trafficking, sowing and raising drug-bearing
plants as well as for other socially dangerous actions related to drugs.
These measures cover both punishments for the above-listed crimes and also
confiscation of tools and of income earned from the illegal drug trafficking.
Other measures include improving judiciary and legal systems such as law-
enforcement bodies, courts of law, penitentiary and post penitentiary
programs, customs and education.
Forms of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:
The classification of measures to overcome drug abuse can be subdivided into
two groups: those having legal form and those that do not, i.e. those which
are regulated and unregulated by the law accordingly.
Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse Regulated by the Law:
The legal measures against drug abuse include compulsory educational;
compulsory medical; preventive- repressive; repressive; those ensuring active
participation of citizens in combating crimes, in preventing and curbing
them; as well as procedural and organizational managerial. The compulsory
medical, preventive repressive and repressive measures are those aimed at
suppressing drug abuse and the compulsory educational-at preventing it.
Organizational managerial measures on the basis of administrative legal
norms, determine in general terms, the status of curative educational and
curative labor centers providing treatments to drug addicts, and the
competence of law-enforcement agencies and of the court regarding the
compulsory placing of drug addicts for treatment. In addition, there are also
measures, containing the following provisions: to build up, on the national
scale, a network of bodies and institutions whose functions will amount to
combating drug-related crimes; to record the number of addicts and provide
treatments to them; to promote departmental cooperation in the work of
combating narcotics; many organizational managerial measures are specified by
international law, registered in conventions, agreements, treaties and other
Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse Unregulated by the Law:
The second group of measures to overcome drug abuse are those which are not
regulated by the law. They are informational, analytical, organizational,
educational, scientific, technological, medical and preventive, as well as
other measures that bear no relation to compulsion.
It is the group of legal measures, which can be subdivided into law branches.
Such norms, as suggested above, can be found in the civil, family, labor,
administrative, and criminal codes.
The Level of Measures to Combat Drug Abuse:
Measures to combat drug abuse can be divided into the following four levels:
international, social, special and individual.
Measures at the international level are applied by various countries
throughout the world. They are particularly binding in the countries, which
have joined international treaties by ratifying them. This category of
measures may include any of the previously listed such as informational,
analytical, research, technical, medical, economical, financial, preventive,
control, and law-making.
Social measures are those used on a national scale and meant to influence
society as a whole. They include preventive, law-making, criminal and other
legal measures, as well as the ones embracing the entire society such as
informational, analytical, organizational, managerial, medical, economical,
Special measures aim to overcome drug abuse and influence, on the one hand,
certain kinds of harmful activities linked to drugs, and on the other,
restrain persons inclined to carry out such activities or drug addicts.
Measures aimed against certain kinds of activities include, for example,
actions to destroy illegally sown crops or wild drug-bearing plants, may
include measures in regard to specific individuals, attempts to cure drug
addicts; to reveal and record the names of people inclined to commit drug-
related crimes, or persons already convicted for such crimes; to prevent such
people from committing more crimes; and to help persons from high risk groups
avoid situations which may induce drug use.
Measures in regard to individuals cover steps taken in relation to those
persons who use drugs or those who have committed or tend to commit crimes or
other law-breaking acts involving drugs. They include steps providing drug
addicts with an opportunity to undergo treatment or making them, if
necessary, to undergo treatment, instituting criminal proceedings or using
administrative measures against persons who have committed crimes, as well as
preventing or warding off potentially socially dangerous actions involving
drugs, etc. Medical, preventive, administrative, legal, criminal, criminal
procedural and criminal executive measures can also be seen as measures in
regard to individuals.
The Subjects of Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:
The measures to overcome drug abuse can be grouped by institutions
implementing them. There are international agencies and organizations,
medical institutions, law-making bodies, law-enforcement agencies, executive
government branches, specially created agencies, groups and other
The Commission on Narcotics of the UN Economic and Social Council and the UN
International Committee on Drug Control are permanently functioning
international agencies. Various conferences and symposia on actions against
drug abuse discussed and worked out conventions, programs, decisions,
projects, and recommendations. These can be referred to as temporarily
operating organizations. Conferences of member-states, i.e. of their official
representatives, have the right to approve conventions and other normative
documents subsequently ranked as international law acts. After their
ratification, legal norms contained in them become part of national
legislation. International bodies exercise all the above-listed measures to
combat drug abuse, except for criminal measures and a few others.
Medical institutions have the authority to carry out curative and curative
By their nature, the measures to overcome drug addiction can be divided into
suppressive and preventive.
This classification makes it possible to determine the importance of each
particular group. It can also serve as the basis for building a system of
measures to be used for the preparation and subsequent development of the
national program of action to combat drug addiction.
Measures to Overcome Drug Abuse:
By evaluating the measures to overcome drug abuse from the study of the
experience, it is possible to single out the following groups of measures: 1)
control preventive; 2) research, training and educational; 3) medical; 4)
legal; 5) economic and financial, and 6) organizational.
The control and preventive; research, training and educational; economic and
financial measures are grouped together because they are closely intertwined.
Legal measures in this national program should include law enforcement and
law-making measures and organizational measures-informational, analytical,
and technical measures.
Without referring to the contents once again it would be important, from the
standpoint of their expression and place in this program, to draw attention
to some points concerning certain groups of the proposed measures.
A method should be defined in this anti-drug program of applying control
measures. It would need to be a legislative regulation of drug movements from
the sowing of drug-bearing plants and their cultivation, to the consumption
of drugs. Presently, conflicting rules regulating the production,
acquisition, storage, stock taking, dispensing, transportation and the
sending of narcotics by parcel post are in force. These rules were enacted by
executive branch agencies rather than by lawmakers. For example, the rules
concerning the production, storage, stock-taking, and dispensing of drugs
were established by the orders issued by the Ministry of Health, and the
Ministry of the Medical and Micro- biological Industry of the former USSR.
Transportation rules can be found in orders issued by the Ministry of the
Medical Industry and coordinated with the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the
former USSR. Rules for sending and shipping drugs by rail or any other kind
of transport were determined by normative acts of various agencies. On the
other hand, even if this is the prerogative of law- makers, the rules are
scattered within various and quite numerous normative acts making it
difficult to control violations of these rules by law-enforcement agencies.
So, if a full and effective control over the circulation of narcotics is to
be ensured, uniform rules for handling drugs should be worked out on the
basis of the existing rules and should be made into law. These rules should
envisage the procedures for the sowing, raising, producing, storing, stock-
taking, dispensing and selling of drugs and for the acquiring, sending by
parcel post, and carrying of drugs and their analogies, as well as raw
materials, semi-finished products, chemicals and special equipment used in
making drugs across national borders.
To implement research, training and educational measures in a national
program it is essential to set up a single research and study center
consisting of facilities capable to perform specific tasks of dealing with
drug addiction. These tasks should be defined in the national program without
overstepping their limits, so as not to squander means and resources on
meeting other goals. For example, the tasks of the research facility should
be to identify drugs, establish new types of drugs and study the most
pressing problems of efforts aimed at stopping drug addiction. There is a
need to establish how money obtained from the narcotics trade is laundered
and determine methods for halting this process; a need to develop methods for
examining controlled deliveries, documenting them and obtaining evidence
which could determine guilt of the involved parties. The research center
could work out methods for carrying out searches and other actions to uncover
illegal drug operations and actions of those guilty, including sponsors,
leaders and members of organized crime groups. The research center could
summarize international experience in combating drug addiction, including
school and out-of-school psycho preventive education for minors, preventive
measures among population groups considered to be at a risk, and educational
and preventive activity by means of mass media.
Special attention should be paid to law-making measures devoted to combating
drug addiction. It is expedient to include in the national program provisions
regulating legal drug turnover, regulations for the treatment, and
rehabilitation of drug addicts. It is necessary to develop and pass the law
on the responsibility for laundering drug money ensure and to treatment of
drug patients grown drug-bearing plants for personal use at therapy centers
or narcological hospitals, who have made, bought or kept drugs or have sown
without selling them, rather than making them face criminal responsibility.
Economic and financial measures in the national program should provide for
funding to actually put this program into effect. It should also ensure the
functioning of the law-enforcement agencies engaged in the anti-drug
programs, of narcological institutions and drug control services, as well as
support for persons who use fields where drug-bearing crops had been
cultivated earlier but later destroyed. Also the program should develop
provisions about the application of financial measures against the laundering
of drug money.
When it comes to organizational measures, it would be expedient to single out
purely organizational and also informational, analytical, and material-
It seems that priorities of the program should be to strengthen subunits of
the law enforcement agencies, and of narcological centers, specializing in
programs against drug abuse; to set up drug control agencies, encourage anti-
drug programs by the greatest number of agencies, organizations, and mass
media. The priority is promoting cooperation between all agencies and
organizations engaged in combating drug abuse; in establishing a research
center for studying problems of combating drug addiction, in training and up-
grading the qualifications of specialists, expected to work in their field;
and in setting up a data bank on drug addiction.
All of the above listed informational, analytical and technical measures
should be included in the national program to combat drug addiction in the
Russian Federation. A special fund needs to be started to support such
projects as building medical institutions, a study center, and the law
enforcement agencies furnished with the most modern equipment.
This system of measures to combat drug abuse examined here with the ranking
of these measures, will make it possible to set specific deadlines for
putting stipulated provisions into practice and will define the
responsibility for their implementation, if this system becomes a part of the
national program. The time frame for the implementation of this extensive
program should be no less than 3 years with annual reports from all those
involved. This will help ensure a more effective realization of all its
This system and the classification of measures against drug abuse indicate
how difficult and complicated the job of combating drugs is. It calls for
much effort, constant improvement and a considerable resources.
Chapter III. Drug Abuse in the International Law
Par. 1. International Fora and Legal Acts on Drugs
Legal measures figure prominently in the system of actions aiming to combat
drugs. It is precisely the legal acts that determine the object, the subject
of narco-crime and influence the shaping of measures of preventive-
educational and curative interference, as well as the range of drug-related
actions, considered dangerous to the public.
Measures against drug abuse rest, first and foremost, on a number of
international law acts ratified by the Supreme Soviet of the former USSR.
These acts have different names: treaty, pact, convention, agreement,
protocol, declaration and so on. From the juridical point of view, the
difference in names is of no principal importance. No clear-cut criterion for
the use of these names has been worked out in international practice. In each
particular case, this question is resolved by the parties (countries) to
negotiations, who agree on the definition of relations between them in this
or another special field.
Actions against drug abuse are regulated by international law because they
involve international relations, as they touch upon the interests of not one
but, sometimes, of many countries. As for narco-crimes, they encroach upon
the international cooperation, violate human rights, and state interests.
All crimes bearing international nature and coming under the norms of
international criminal law, can be divided into two groups by the degree of
their danger to the public, and the forms of manifestation: crimes of
International crimes are those posing the biggest threat to the development
of peaceful relations and cooperation between nations regardless of their
social, political and government systems. They include heinous crimes against
peace and security of the mankind, such as aggression, genocide, biocide,
ecocide or apartheid.
Crimes of International Character:
Crimes of international character are defined as those covered by the
international law but not belonging to the category of crimes against peace
and security of mankind, rather those infringing upon normal relations
between countries and damaging their peaceful cooperation in various fields,
as well as infringing upon relations between organizations and citizens.
These crimes are much less dangerous and are hard to compare to crimes
against the peace and security of mankind. They are punishable "in accordance
with the norms covered by the international agreements (conventions),
ratified in the proper order, or by the national criminal codes which conform
to these agreements."
Various areas of inter-state relations are the objects of crimes of
international character. This factor makes it possible to divide these crimes
into four rather relative sub-divisions:
1) Crimes that infringe upon the peaceful cooperation and normal conduct of
international relations (terrorism, hijacking and other crimes);
2) Crimes that damage in a variety of norms international economic, social
and cultural development, such as smuggling, illegal emigration,
counterfeiting and dissemination of narcotics through illegal trade;
3) Crimes that against property, moral values, and rights of individuals,
such as trafficking, piracy, pornography and other crimes covered by
international conventions and agreements;
4) Other crimes of international character, such as crimes committed on board
of aircraft, damage to underwater cables, collision of ships and the failure
to provide help at sea etc.
This classification rules out an identical approach to crimes that are crimes
against humanity, and crimes that are of international character. This
classification allows to examine them in conformity with the set of laws they
infringe upon and in conformity with the extent of harm they do to
international relations. Moreover, this classification largely helps prevent
any broader interpretation of the notion of international crimes.
The categories - listed above of these are not something permanent, as these
crimes are of the changeable and dynamic nature. The extent of danger they
pose can move them from one category to another. At present any crimes
encroaching upon the vital interests of all nations and countries can be
considered as international crime or crime of international character.
Virtually all countries recognize the need to combat international crimes and
crimes of international character, including the illegal dissemination of and
trade with narcotics. The binding nature of this effort stems from the
universally recognized principles of international law, including the
international duty of all countries to maintain peace and promote security of
all nations, as well as to hold persons guilty of committing crimes against
the peace and security of mankind and other crimes of international character
accountable for their actions.
All international legal acts against drug abuse can be divided into general
and specific. General acts regulate various types of international relations,
particularly, those formed in connection with actions against international
crimes and crimes of international character, including the dissemination of
and trade with drugs. Specific acts of international law bear direct relation
to actions against drug abuse and its most dangerous aspect- narco-crime.
General Acts of International Law:
General acts of international law lay the legal foundation for cooperation
among nations, in actions against international crimes and crimes of
international character, the dissemination of narcotics among others. One of
these acts is the UN Charter. Its Preamble urges all UN members to join in a
common effort to maintain international peace and security. The UN Charter
stresses the need to use international machinery for promoting the nations'
economic and social progress and sets the goal "to practice international
cooperation in resolving international problems of economic, social, cultural
and humanitarian nature and in encouraging and promoting respect for human
rights and basic freedoms for all regardless of race, sex, language and
The UN Charter (part 2 art. 2) also calls on nations to strictly and
unswervingly observe international commitments that they have taken upon
themselves voluntarily and among them, as the Preamble points out, to the
commitments stemming from treaties, agreements and other sources of
One of the major historically evolved principles of international law states
that international agreements must be observed. Stemming from this principle
is a member nation's duty to cooperate in combating crime, international
crimes and crimes of international character, including the dissemination of
and trade with narcotics.
These crimes have certain particularities. This has a bearing on the question
of accountability if such crimes are committed. According to I.I. Karpets,
there is a need to single out crimes covered by conventions or other signed
and ratified international agreements, especially, if national legislation
have been brought in accord with them. The existence of both is a good reason
for making those guilty of committing these crimes to be held accountable. A
failure to do so must be qualified as a violation of both international law
and national legislation.
In case there are no coordinated norms of accountability, the involved
countries should proceed from the general principles that had developed among
nations and resolve questions of cooperation against crime on that basis.
Specifically, they may determine the forms of this cooperation, its confines,
the need to institute criminal proceedings in view of the committed crimes of
international character, etc.
Special Acts of International Law:
Special norms of international law dealing with measures to combat drug abuse
have been taking shape gradually. The history of their development is uneven-
from establishing international control over the lawful distribution and use
of drugs to introducing control over illegal drug trafficking.
It is not accidental that crimes bearing on drug abuse are qualified as
crimes of international character. This can be attributed to a number of
As an age-old phenomenon, drug addiction has spread over large territories.
As it kept crossing national borders, whole areas appeared that specialized
in growing and processing drug-bearing plants, manufacturing and distributing
narcotics. Recently, areas where drug money can be laundered at a profit have
emerged. In short, drug addiction has become widespread practically on all
the continents. Drug abuse has acquired a transnational nature. At the turn
of last century it had already been clear that drug addiction endangered not
only the lives of individuals and social groups but also the economic
advancement of many countries, as it is bound to inflict considerable damage
on agriculture and trade and undermine whole industries. (chemical,
pharmaceutical or pharmacological).
Measures that various governments tried to employ within their countries in
the hope to "curb" drug addiction, so to speak, and ban, say, in Turkey or
China, the non-medicinal use of drugs, failed to bring any positive results.
On top of that, programs against drug addiction required additional financial
resources for treatment and social rehabilitation of addicts, medical
personnel, curative medicines, and preventive measures by law enforcement
agencies. Many countries lacked such financial resources. So, actions against
drug abuse began crossing national boundaries. The awareness of a possible
proliferation of drugs raised concern of the world public opinion and
governments of many countries began pressing for the intensification of the
rule of law on the international scene.
Consequently, an objective need arose to work out and put into practice joint
inter-governmental agreements, adopt effective legal norms that would
regulate international cooperation, enable countries to employ coordinated
measures against drugs as a whole and its specific manifestations and to
establish, as a result, both a domestic and international control over the
use of narcotics and their consumption.
The first experiment of international control over narcotics and of measures
against drug addiction at the international level dates back to the Shanghai
Opium Commission held between February 5th and 26th 1909 in the city of
Shanghai Opium Commission of 1909:
This commission consisted of the representatives from 13 countries: Russia,
the USA, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Britain, France, China, Italy, Japan,
Netherlands, Persia, Portugal and Siam.
The commission attempted to work out measures that would block the illegal
flow of drugs from the regions of Asia to European countries and the United
States. It also discussed questions related to opium smoking and to
international trade in opium derivatives.
In the long run, however, no constructive measures were produced. Documents
issued by the commission contained no specific bans even on opium smoking.
Members of the commission thought it was sufficient to only speak about its
regulation and gradual restriction.
Nevertheless, the work of the Shanghai opium commission of 1909 played a
significant role. Officially it marked the beginning of actions against drug
addiction at the international level and to the launching of a system of
international control over the spread of drugs. It also mapped out directions
for the future international legislation in resolving problems reviewed in
A further advancement in combating drugs was made in the Hague at the
International Opium Conference held from December 1st 1911 to January 23d
1912. Representatives of 12 countries took part in it (the same as in
Shanghai excluding Austria-Hungary). The conference prepared and adopted the
first convention on drugs (known as the Hague Convention). As a follow up to
the Shanghai Commission, in terms of ideas, the conference proclaimed the
timeliness of actions against narcotics as a whole and its specific trends.
The Hague Convention of 1912:
The Hague convention of 1912 was the first to define the specific types of
drugs, which were put under international control. They were raw opium, smoke
opium, medicinal opium, morphine, cocaine and a few others. The contracting
parties took pledges of both domestic and international nature upon
themselves to adopt national laws establishing control over the production
and distribution of raw opium, and at barring its illegal imports and exports
without permits granted by specially authorized persons; to take steps
towards gradually halting the production, domestic trade and use of smoke
opium and introducing a ban on its imports and exports; to use narcotic
substances (medicinal opium, morphine and cocaine) only for medicinal and
"other reasonable purposes"; to ensure a legal regulation of the production
of morphine, cocaine, medicinal opium, heroin and their derivatives and also
of trade in these narcotic substances; to adopt appropriate laws (if they are
not adopted yet) or change existing laws concerning the responsibility and
punishment of persons guilty of acts involving the illegal possession of
The provision concerning the legal regulation of the production of morphine
and its derivatives and trade in them (cocaine, medicinal opium and heroin)
was an important step. It was an attempt to use preventive measures such as
foreseeing the establishment of international control over narcotic
substances, which could appear in the future without their prior concrete
mentioning in the Convention's text.
The significant feature about the Convention was that it not only proclaimed
the need for cooperation among countries in establishing control over the use
of narcotics but also outlined what needed to be accomplished. One of these
accomplishments was the duty of countries to exchange, via the Dutch
government, texts of legal acts and statistics on drugs.
The 1912 Hague Convention, however, failed to bring practical results,
largely because of World War I, which began soon after the passing of the
Convention. It was put into force only with the signing of the Versailles and
other peace treaties which specified that their ratification was tantamount
to the ratification of the 1912 Hague Convention on drugs.
International documents approved following the Hague Convention just filled
in the gaps and developed its provisions. The need for such documents was
prompted by the continuous expansion of drug addiction, and of the illegal
trade and smuggling of various narcotics. These documents are kept within the
demands of the present problems that had been approved at the international
level. They had defined more precisely and expanded the range of questions
pertaining to the regulation of the issue on the basis of international law.
They also involved more and more countries concerned about combating
The growing threat from narcotics was evident from a series of international
acts on drugs. Apart from that, however, the passing of these acts marked an
important stage in international relations. They affirmed the principle that
international law was bound to help organize and ensure control over drugs.
The case in point was the Agreement banning the production, domestic trade
and use of refined opium. It was signed on February 11th 1925 at the Geneva
Following the signing of the Versailles Peace Treaty and the founding of the
League of Nations this conference was the first to discuss the issue of
Its official program envisaged the development of measures to implement the
decisions of the 1912 Hague Convention to limit and eliminate the production,
domestic trade and use of smoke opium. But according to juridical literature,
the Conference in reality expressed the latent interests of the colonial
powers- the signatories of the above mentioned Agreement.
The Geneva Conference of 1925 Agreement of February 11th, 1925:
The Agreement provided for the establishment of monopoly associations on the
territories and domains controlled by these powers to deal with the opium
turnover, for handing over the production of smoke opium to the state
monopoly, as well as conducting anti-opium propaganda.
The general control over the implementation of the Agreement's provisions
concerning the trade in opium was placed upon the League of Nations- an
international body set up in accordance with the Versailles peace treaty.
One of the provisions of this Agreement stipulated the need to study the
state of control over smoke opium in the Far East. This study was carried
out, practically for the first time in world practice, by a Special
Commission appointed by the League of Nations Assembly in 1928.
The results of the study were examined in Bangkok and paved the way for the
signing of the Bangkok Agreement of November 27th 1931, which banned opium
smoking. The Agreement entered into force only in April 1937.
The Bangkok Agreement of 1931:
The Bangkok Agreement added some new provisions to the Geneva Agreement of
11th February 1925. These new provisions made retail trade in opium possible
only by government institutions; established criminal offence for persons
under 21 years of age who visited opium dens; legally regulated the sale of
smoke opium for cash and so on and so forth.
However, prior to the Bangkok Agreement, in view of the deterioration of the
drug situation in the world in the postwar period, the second Geneva Opium
Conference passed an Opium Convention that was signed in Geneva on 19th
February 1925 and entered into force in September 1928.
The Opium Convention of 1925:
It underlined that there was no way to end drug abuse and drug smuggling
unless the production of those drugs was reduced considerably and a more
stringent control over their international trade was introduced than the one
stipulated by the 1912 Hague convention.
For this end, the 1925 Convention stipulated some legal and organizational
measures against drug abuse both at the international and domestic levels.
This Convention confirmed the principles of the 1912 Hague Convention and,
what is more, it firmly established that drugs could be produced only for the
legal purposes of states, having defined what these legal purposes were. Of
principal importance was the decision to put several more kinds of raw
materials which drugs could be produced from (coca leaves, raw cocaine, and
cannabis) on the list of the controlled substances (in addition to the ones
named by the 1912 Hague Convention). Moreover, the Convention was applicable
to any substance, which, in accordance with the conclusion drawn by an
authorized body, could cause the same harmful consequences as the substances
listed in the Convention.
To exercise domestic control over narcotic substances the parties to the
Convention agreed to the following pledges: to pass national laws that would
ensure the control over the production, dissemination and exportation of raw
opium and to systematically revise and toughen those to the extent that the
articles of the Convention would require; to limit the use, production,
importation, sale, distribution, export, and application of narcotics
exclusively to medical and scientific purposes; to exercise control over the
activities of persons who were allowed to produce, import, export, sell,
distribute and use drugs and also to exercise control over premises where
these persons work with drugs or traded in them; to curtail the number of
ports, cities and other populated centers where the importation and
exportation of narcotics would be permitted and to pass through and adopt
domestic legislation that would envisage punitive measures for the violations
of the Convention's provisions.
To exercise international control over narcotic substances the Convention
stipulated adoption of the following measures: to introduce a system of
evaluation and estimation of a country's domestic need in narcotics for
medical, scientific and other purposes in the up-coming year; to hand in
statistics connected with drugs (in a special form and at definite periods of
time); to establish control over international trade in drugs and to also
establish firm rules for the importation and exportation of drugs (to import
and export narcotics only if there is a special written permission, as
outlined by the Convention; to regulate the order of transit shipments and
the storage of drugs at stores of third countries to prevent their possible
leakage from the legal circulation during their shipments and storage); to
establish control over the compliance with all commitments taken by the
countries- parties to the Convention; to place the exercise of that control
on a newly organized international body called the Permanent Central
Committee (later its official name changed several times, although most of
the time, it was known as "The Permanent Central Committee on Narcotic
The Convention also stressed the need for cooperation between countries in
preventing the use of narcotic substances for purposes other than designated.
It stipulated that the exchange of information about laws and decisions on
the implementation of the proclaimed principles (using the services of
Secretary General) would be a concrete form of this cooperation.
To put it in a nutshell, the Convention defined the content and forms of
realization of international control over narcotics. It introduced a system
of licensing and recording foreign trade operations of drugs and obliged the
member countries to submit detailed statistics about such operations.
The convention on the limitation of production and the regulation of the
distribution of narcotic substances signed on July 13th 1931 in Geneva proved
to be another link in the international control system.
The Convention of 1931:
That Convention meant to introduce amendments to the two already existing
conventions in force, those of 1912 and of 1925. It contained the following
additions: uniform definition of notions, through the control over drugs.
Alternative versions of such notions as "production", "refining",
"processing", "storage reserves", "state storage reserves", "import-export"
and others were removed. For the first time, a list of medicines containing
drugs was established and production, processing, use, exportation and
importation of them would now be controlled. The system of evaluating and
estimating the overall demand for drugs in all countries regardless of their
membership in the given Convention was perfected. Accountability for the
commitments of member governments was enhanced. A special agency, the Control
Commission, was set up to study data from governments about the quantity of
narcotics and accounts about their receipt and use. In case the Commission
found any deviations or the demand for drugs was too large in its judgment,
the Commission had the right to question the examined figures and carry out
its own calculations. The extradition of criminals was envisaged (under
certain conditions) for committing crimes linked to drugs. The convention
stipulated that member-countries had to have norms in their national
legislation concerning the criminal punishment of persons who encouraged the
illegal spread of the most dangerous forms of drugs.
The Convention also contained some administrative decisions aimed at
perfecting the domestic control over drugs. It urged member-countries, in
particular, to set up a special body that was to apply the Convention's
decisions; regulate, supervise and control the trade in medicines on the
Convention's list; act against toxicomania using all possible measures for
halting its development, and bar, in particular, the illegal trafficking of
Under the Convention cooperation between member-countries expanded
considerably. Along with the traditional exchange of the texts of legal acts,
an annual report was to be submitted to the Secretary General of the League
of Nations about the Convention's implementation on the territories of the
member-states. The report was to be compiled in accordance with the model
agreed upon by the Consultative Commission on the Turnover of Opium and other
medicines containing harmful substances.
The contracting parties also pledged to inform each other, through the office
of the League of Nations Secretary General, about all the important cases of
illegal drug trafficking. These reports had to highlight sources or methods
of illegal trafficking, the nature and the amount of drugs, the time and
place of their discovery, smuggling methods and sanctions and measures in
acted by the government.
The Geneva Convention of 1936:
The convention against illegal trade in drastic medicines signed on 26th June
1936 in Geneva became the next important document.
That Convention introduced a number of new essential amendments corresponding
with its title containing the word 'struggle', which opened a prospect for a
juridical cooperation in campaigns against drug abuse. The range of crimes
subject to prosecution was outlined and expanded considerably. Contracting
parties pledged to prosecute persons engaged in the illegal manufacture,
storage, shipment, exportation, sale or purchase of drugs or who organized
conspiracies with the aim of premeditated participation in the illegal drug
trade. The Convention also provided for the extension of reciprocal legal
assistance through the exchange of necessary information to identify and
arrest criminals and extradite them to a foreign country.
World War II pushed the problems of international cooperation and control of
narcotic substances to the background. But right after the end of the war
this problem came to the foreground once again. In view of this, some
international acts were adopted that regulated relations in the area of
narcotics. The following documents seem to be of interest.
The Protocols of 1946 and of 1948:
The Protocol on Drugs signed in Lake Success (New York) on 11th December,
1946 provided for the introduction of changes into the agreements,
conventions and protocols on drugs signed in the Hague on 23d January 1912;
in Geneva - on 11th February 1925, 19th February 1925 and 13th July 1931; in
Bangkok - on 27th November 1931 and in Geneva - on 26th June 1936. The
Protocol on Drugs covered issues that arose in view of the dissolution of the
League of Nations and the transferring of some of its drug control functions
to the Organization of United Nations, the World Health Organization or its
Interim Committee, and of the transferring of duties of the League of Nations
Secretary General- to the UN Secretary General. The Protocol was the first UN
document that introduced necessary re-naming although in reality changed
nothing in the system of control and cooperation that existed hitherto.
The Protocol signed in Paris on 19th November 1948 dealt with the
establishment of international control on medicines that were not put on the
list of the 1931 Convention which limited the production and regulated the
distribution of narcotics (changes to this Protocol were introduced by the
1946 Lake Success Protocol).
The signatories of this Protocol pledged to inform the UN about any substance
that could possibly be abused and also to spread control onto synthetic drugs
that had appeared by the time of the signing, and had not been previously
listed in earlier international regulations.
Discussion of drug issues at the international level and the adoption of
decisions under international law brought national legislation closer
together, helped define priorities of the anti-narcotics movement, form an
understanding of the danger posed by narcotics and control the lists of
narcotics whose manufacture and use was subject to international control.
Yet, the existence of such simultaneously operating legal acts and
international bodies failed to ensure sufficient legal regulation and control
of all the issues connected with narcotics. This failure created certain
difficulties for exercising control over drug abuse. The existing
international acts also lagged behind the realities of life.
Many issues remained unresolved. For example, only some narcotic preparations
were controlled whereas the production of raw materials for the making of
synthetic drugs remained uncontrolled. The cultivation and use of drug-
bearing plants and other problems related to narcotics required a legal
regulation. In view of this, two important international acts were worked out
and approved within the United Nations framework. They were the Uniform
Convention on Drugs of 1961 amended later by the 1972 Protocol on Drugs, and
the United Nations Convention of 1988 which provided for action against the
illegal trafficking of narcotics and psychotropic substances.
One need not think however that the provisions of the earlier approved acts
were so out-dated that they required to be radically changed. The two
Conventions left intact therefore many time-tested provisions of the above-
cited documents. At present they form the main legal foundation for the
system helping exercise international cooperation and control over drugs.
The Uniform Convention of 1961:
The 1961 Uniform Convention regulates questions pertaining to the legal use
of drugs. Its adoption was a landmark in the development of relations based
on international law. The Convention is designed to promote decisive actions
against narcotics at the international level through the building of a system
of international cooperation and control over narcotics. In fact, this one
document is a substitute for all the previously accepted international acts
(with the exception of some points of the 1936 Convention). It diminished the
number of international bodies in charge of the control over narcotics, and
established control over the production of drug-bearing raw materials.
The participants in the Convention expressed the wish to sign a universally
accepted international convention to limit the use of narcotics to medical
and scientific purposes only and to maintain permanent international
cooperation in order to accomplish the principles and aims of the Convention.
The parties to the Convention pledged to adopt not only necessary legislative
measures, as the case had been here-to fore, but also administrative measures
and to ensure fulfillment of the Convention's decisions. They took upon
themselves to limit the production, exportation, importation, distribution,
use, storage, and trade in narcotics and limit their use and storage for
medical purposes exclusively in order to diminish sufferings and pain.
Instead of the previous four international agencies, which controlled
narcotics, the Convention authorized the formation of just two: the
Commission on Drugs under the UN Economic and Social Council and the newly
formed International Committee on Drug Control of the United Nations
The Convention endowed these two bodies with broad authority.
The Commission on Drugs of the UN ECOSOC:
The Commission examines all issues that bear relation to the aims proclaimed
by the Uniform Convention. Every year it approves and amends the List of
substances, plants and preparations, the use, dissemination, cultivation and
storage of which is under international control. It introduces corresponding
changes and additions to the List and informs the national governments. The
Commission also informs the Committee of any circumstances that may bear upon
execution of its functions. Finally, it issues recommendations concerning the
implementation of the Convention's aims and decisions, including the program
of research and the exchange of scientific and technical information.
For example, one of the recommendations calls for the need to provide
countries where the illegal cultivation of drug-bearing plants is practiced
with an access to modern reconnaissance technology which makes it possible to
discover and then destroy such fields. This recommendation also calls for the
need to promote the economies of these countries so that their farmers could
earn a living by working at legal agricultural and other enterprises; to
combine steps against the illegal production and spread of narcotics with the
efforts to build a more just international order, give help to third world
countries in boosting their economies, developing their traditional export
industries and agriculture, and train specialists; to regard programs for
preventing drug addiction and curing drug addicts as top priorities.28
Member countries may also be asked to submit their own recommendations. These
may include annual reports about the Convention's implementation on their
respective territories, texts of laws and rules passed with the aim of
implementing the Convention's provisions; names and addresses of government
agencies authorized to give permits for the exportation or certificates for
the importation of narcotics; or any other reports about cases of illegal
The UN Committee on Drug Control:
In accordance with the requirements of the 1961 Uniform Convention (with
amendments) the Committee consists of 13 members elected for the term of 5
years. 3 members with medical, pharmaceutical and pharmacological experience
from the list of persons submitted by the WHO and 10 members-from the list of
persons submitted by countries belonging to the UN. Persons recommended as
members of the Committee have to meet special requirements such as
competence, non-involvement, impartiality, trustworthiness and must have an
awareness of the situation in the countries where narcotics are produced,
made and consumed.
The Committee performs important functions, which actually form the essence
of the system of international control over the legal use of narcotics. They
- using the system of estimation of the countries' demand for drugs. The
countries concerned are obliged to submit the following annual estimations
written in special forms to the Committee: the quantity of drugs used for
medical and scientific purpose and for the preparation of other narcotics,
medicines and substances not covered by the given Convention; the quantity of
stored available narcotics as of December 31st of the reported year; the size
and the geographical position of the field used for cultivating opium poppy
and the approximate quantity of opium expected to be obtained from it, and
the number of enterprises producing synthetic drugs and the quantity of such
drugs produced at each enterprise;
- estimating the overall level of drugs produced and imported by any country
or territory throughout one year (quantity of drugs imported which is above
the reported figures cannot be permitted without a sanction from the
- introducing a regulated order for endorsing the demand for drugs used for
medical purposes. To ensure a balance between the demand and supply of
opiates used in medicine, the Committee sends information with estimates of
the demand for these preparations to the country producing these drugs. The
country is to agree with these estimates and then decrease (or increase)
- using the system of statistical reports. The governments submit statistical
reports to the Committee about the production and preparation of specific
drugs, their use and consumption, their exportation and importation, their
detention, their stocks and fields used to cultivate opium poppy and other
data which allows the Committee to determine if countries are abiding by the
Convention's decisions and then take appropriate measures to ensure their
implementation and the accomplishment of the control functions.
The Committee collects and analyzes information submitted to it by the United
Nations agencies, individual governments and international organizations,
including Interpol. This information features the production, manufacture,
modification, and consumption of drugs, as well as international trade in
them, supply and confiscation of drugs. The Committee also points to the
shortcomings in the arrangement of control functions and offers
recommendations as to how these shortcomings can be dealt with. If need be,
the Committee has the right to invite representatives of any country to its
Upon getting the information that the target set by the Convention is
endangered in any country due to its failure to abide by the Convention's
decisions, the Committee has the right to ask for an explanation and also to
recommend adjustment measures. If a particular government fails to provide a
satisfactory explanation or to accept the adjustment measures proposed by the
Committee, the problem can be brought to the attention of the involved
parties, of the Council or the Commission. The involved party may be
recommended to stop the importation or exportation of narcotics to given
countries or territories for a specific period of time until the Committee
recognizes that the situation in that country has become satisfactory.
The Committee is endowed with the right to impose restrictions, under certain
conditions, on the manufacture and import of drugs.
Since a large volume of information is available at the Committee it is able
to prepare reports, publish them and forward them to the Council to be sent
to the parties concerned. In these reports the Committee can touch upon any
issues connected with drugs and inform its readers about newly passed
decisions. For example, in its report of 1989 (Vienna) the Committee called
on the governments of all countries to strictly observe the Convention's
provisions, to submit statistical accounts about the available quantities of
narcotics and trade in them, among other related data.
To avoid alternative versions and form a single understanding, the Uniform
Convention establishes identical definitions of special terminology related
Drug-related Terminology as Established by the Uniform Convention:
For example, according to the Convention a "narcotic substance" is any of the
substances included in List I and List II regardless of whether it is
synthetic or natural. Lists I, II, III, and IV are enumerations of narcotics
or drug-bearing preparations and are supplements to the Convention in which
possible changes may be made from time to time in accordance with the
procedures established by the Convention.
Definitions are also given for cannabis and its plant and resin, cocaine
shrub, coca leaves, opium, opium poppy and poppy straw.
Significantly, the international understanding of the word "cultivation"
pertaining to drugs covers only the cultivation of opium poppy, cocaine brush
or the cannabis plant. It should be mentioned at this point that the 1988 UN
Convention defines this term differently. But this will be discussed below.
The term "illegal trafficking" means the cultivation of or any action
relating to the sale of narcotics in violation of the Convention's decisions.
The term "importation" and "exportation" mean the physical shipment of
narcotics crossing the boundaries of one country to another or from one
territory to another within one and the same country. The term "territory"
means any part of a country defined as a separate unit for the purpose of
applications of the system of drug importation certificates and drug
exportation permits to it.
The term "manufacture" implies (with the exception of production) all the
processes that pertain to obtaining narcotic substances, including refining
or turning one narcotic into another.
The term "production" means the separation of opium, coca, cannabis leaves
and cannabis resin from the plants, which they are obtained from.
The term "preparation" means a hard or liquid mixture containing a narcotic
The term "storage stocks" is used in relation to the amount of narcotics
which are available in a particular country or on its territory and meant to
be used for medical or scientific purposes, for exportation or for the needs
of various pharmacists, authorized traders and specialists or institutions
where medical or scientific research is carried out.
Included in this term is also the notion "special storage stocks" which is
used to describe the amount of narcotics available within a country or a
territory of that country and put at the disposal of its government to be
used for special purposes or in case of an emergency.
The Uniform Convention introduces a number of specific restrictions and bans
and a special procedure for the cultivation of drug-bearing plants. The most
important restrictions are those concerning the cultivation of opium poppy,
cocaine shrub or cannabis plant.
Special provisions are envisaged in the first place in relation to opium.
Government-run institutions (one or several) should be set up to deal with
the cultivation of opium poppy and with opium production. They should have
the right to determine areas and sizes of fields, and issue licenses and
permits for land plots where a certain amount of opium poppy can be grown and
a certain amount of opium-produced. These government-run institutions should
be endowed with the exclusive right to buy opium poppy crops from farmers and
to import, export, conclude wholesale trade deals and maintain storage opium
stocks (with the exception of medicinal opium and preparations from it.)
The responsibilities of persons are outlined who have permits (licenses) to
grow drug-bearing plants, to turn over crops of opium poppy only to the
institution which they had received their permits from. Any departures from
the established procedures are qualified as violations of the law. The
Convention permits narcotics to be made only at government-run enterprises or
in accordance with licenses issued to persons with necessary qualifications.
The Convention introduces uniform rules for storing narcotics to ensure that
the substances are maintained in proper condition. It envisages the
responsibility of member-states for taking precautionary measures to prevent
the inappropriate use of narcotics or the possibility for them to become part
of illegal trafficking in cases when, for example, they are kept in
airliners' first aid compartments.
Narcotics can be stored only legally. Their producers are not allowed to keep
them in quantity exceeding the established norms. A compulsory registration
system is established under which the quantity of each prepared, acquired or
used drug should be recorded. Drugs can be stored for no more than 2 years.
The signatories of the Convention are obliged to take specially stipulated
measures to combat illegal drug trafficking. The Convention therefore grants
the contracting parties the right to control the work of persons and
enterprises engaged, on a legal basis, in the cultivation, manufacture,
storage and use of narcotics and of those engaged in the drugs' exportation,
importation, distribution and trade.
The participating countries, besides, have the following duties: to take
steps at home towards coordinating preventive and repressive measures against
illegal drug trafficking; to help each other in carrying out campaigns
against illegal drug trafficking; to closely cooperate with competent
international bodies in carrying out coordinated actions for the purpose of
combating narcotics and also to ensure an effective international cooperation
and a quick transfer of legal documents for launching prosecution.
Punishability of Drug-related crimes:
The Uniform Convention institutes the punishment for drug-related crimes and
obliges member-countries to take specific actions when crimes that are
recognized as punishable by the Convention are committed intentionally.
Serious crimes should be punished by imprisonment or some other form of
deprivation of freedom. Intentional crimes which are punishable include: the
cultivation and production, manufacture, extraction, preparation, storage,
offer, offer with commercial intentions, distribution, purchase, sale,
delivery on any conditions, drug-pushing, dispatch, transit re-dispatch,
shipping, and importation and exportation of narcotics. Each of these crimes,
if committed in more than one country, must be considered as a separate
crime. Intentional complicity in any of these crimes, participation in a
community with the aim to commit or attempt to commit a crime, preparatory
actions or financial operations related to the above cited crimes must also
be recognized as punishable actions. Sentences passed by foreign courts for
such crimes must be taken into account when considering recidivism.
The Convention recommends that any extradition treaty should make these
crimes subject to extradition.
Yet while instituting punishment for a long list of drug-related crimes the
Uniform Convention also includes a special decision on treating drug addicts.
It calls on the member-states to create conditions conducive to providing
them with rehabilitation and restoring their ability to work. If economic
opportunities are available in the country, appropriate conditions should be
created providing preventive treatment to drug addicts.
The UN Convention of 1988:
The 1988 Convention regulates questions relating to the illegal trafficking
of drugs and psycho tropes. The aim of this Convention is to promote
cooperation between the contracting parties so as to more effectively solve
various problems involving worldwide illegal drug trafficking, curtail its
size and prevent its grave consequences. The Convention particularly
emphasizes the danger of the proliferation of illegal drug trafficking and
the involvement of children in it. It points to the need to ensure control of
easily accessible substances and those, which are used to make narcotics
Special attention is paid to the need to improve international cooperation to
block illegal drug trafficking at sea. The Convention envisages steps to
prevent a certain number of offenses.
The contracting parties are expected to adopt necessary legislative and
organizational steps. The following provisions seem to be the most
The Notion of Illegal Drug Trafficking:
Firstly, there is a provision, bearing the form of a recommendation, for
member states that national legislation should recognize certain premeditated
actions included by the Convention into the notion of "illegal trafficking"
as common crimes. Actions that violate the 1961 Convention (with amendments)
include: production, manufacture, preparation, offer for sale, distribution,
sale, delivery on any terms, middleman services, shipping, transit shipping,
transportation, and importation or exportation of any narcotic. Other actions
which should be recognized as crimes are the cultivation of specially
indicated narcotic-bearing plants in order to turn out drugs; storing or
purchasing any narcotic for illegal trafficking; making, transporting or
distributing equipment, materials or substances for the purpose of illegal
cultivation, production or manufacture of narcotics; organization, guidance
or financing of any offenses listed above; conversion or transfer of property
obtained from the above mentioned offenses in order to conceal or cover up an
illegal source of property or in order to help a person who is taking part in
committing the listed offenses to evade responsibility for his actions;
concealment or secrecy of the true nature of the source, whereabouts,
arrangement method, transfer of the rights in relation to property or its
belonging if it is known that this property is gained as a result of the
listed offenses; possession of equipment or materials needed to illegally
cultivate, produce or make any narcotic; public encouragement or incitement
of other persons by any means to commit any of the above-mentioned offenses;
participation or involvement in a criminal collusion in order to commit the
mentioned offenses, as well as accomplice, incitement, assistance or advice
during their commission; and intentional storage, acquisition or cultivation
of any narcotic for personal use in defiance of the provisions of the 1961
Convention (with amendments).
Secondly, there is a provision concerning matters of responsibility and
punishment of people convicted of dangerous drug-related crimes. This
provision recommends such sanctions as imprisonment or the deprivation of
freedom, as well as additional measures in the form of rehabilitation,
restoration of the ability to work, or social reintegration with subsequent
Thirdly, there is a provision about the use of controlled deliveries at the
international level based on mutual accords. Controlled delivery is a method
under which exportation, transportation or importation of illegal or
suspicious batches of drugs are allowed on the territory of one or several
countries with the knowledge and under the supervision of competent agencies
in order to identify the participants in these offenses.
Most norms covered by international conventions are part of the laws of the
Russian Federation, and more of these norms may be registered in the future
provided there are suitable conditions.
Measures to Prevent Drug Money Laundering:
There are two documents, which have been mentioned earlier that are very
important in controlling drug abuse because they affect the "sore points" of
narco-business. Both of these documents need to be applied in the Russian
Federation. One, from 12th December 1988, is a statement by the Committee on
Banking Rules and Banking Supervision. Its aim is to prevent the criminal use
of the banking system for laundering money gained from the trade in drugs.
The other is the decision by the heads of state and government of the 7
leading industrial countries and by the European Commission Chairman. Under
this decision taken at the 15th Economic Summit in Paris in July 1989, a
Special Operations Group on financial issues was set up.
It must also be noted that the past few years have seen the convocation of
numerous official and unofficial conferences, symposia and meetings of
experts specializing in combating drug abuse, including one held in 1996 in
Baku. They all worked out and recommended for implementation various measures
to control narcotics.
Par. 2. Tendencies in the World Community's Reaction to Drug Abuse.
The world community counteracts the negative tendencies of drug abuse. This
can be clearly seen in the materials of the world fora and in the
international legal acts.
The Overriding Tendency of Combating Drug Abuse:
The overriding tendency is the expanding scale, and improvement of
activities, as well as of the international legal regulations combating drug
abuse. The core of this tendency is expressed in the following trajectory
from the study of drug abuse, and exerting influence by the world community
through establishing international control over legitimate distribution and
consumption of drugs, to the adoption and implementation of the increasingly
diversified, detailed, rationalized and tough measures combating illegal drug
trafficking and criminal drug money laundering. These measures are being
worked out by international agencies and organizations and are aimed at fully
blocking the spread of narcotics.
This overall tendency can be seen in several of its more concrete
manifestations, such as bringing the problem of narcotics to the forefront;
expanding the sphere of the international legal regulation by amending
existing measures and approving new international legal norms; making actions
against drug abuse more purposeful by revealing its most vulnerable spots and
controlling them by using new, more perfected international legal norms;
ensuring a more universal, unified and standardized understanding of
international legal terms regulating narcotics and; adopting international
legal norms that pave the way for a real opportunity to combat narcotics;
bringing international and national legal acts in line concerning actions
against narcotics in the process of nations joining international legal acts
and ratifying them; increasing the number of countries taking part in
international conferences on actions against narcotics and the number of
countries joining international legal acts and setting up and expanding the
functions of specialized international agencies that work to combat
Bringing to the Foreground Problems of Combating Drug Abuse:
Nearly 80 years since the convocation of the Shanghai Opium Commission in
1909, the first official body on the international scene that had drawn
attention to the problems of narcotics, its regulation and gradual
restriction, public attention to the problem has been steadily growing in
proportion to the rise in the degree of public danger and the spread of
narcotics. This is manifested by the increasing number of conferences,
meetings, and symposia that concentrate on working out and adopting various
international legal acts regulating measures to combat narcotics along with
producing recommendations aimed at improving these types of measures and
Expanding the Sphere of International Legal Regulation:
Expanding the sphere of international legal regulation means that each
successive forum and each new international legal act against narcotics has
focused on such areas of drug abuse, which have not been previously subject
of international regulation.
In particular, the 1912 Hague Convention was the first to define types of
narcotics - raw opium, smoke opium, medicinal opium, morphine and some
others, which were placed under international control. Later this list was
expanded. Under the Convention of 19th February 1925, some additional raw
materials such as coca leaves, raw cocaine and Indian hemp (cannabis) were
included. Also any other drug capable of causing harmful affects, according
to the finding of a competent body, could be added to the list. Under the
Protocol of 19th November 1948 the list was further extended by synthetic
drugs that had come into being by that time and had not been regulated by any
of the previously adopted international legal acts. The 1961 Uniform
Convention contained a much longer list of narcotics allowing for further
subsequent changes and additions.
The 1912 Hague Convention obliged the participating countries to pass
national legislation controlling the production, distribution, importation
and exportation of raw opium as well as measures scaling down production,
domestic trade and consumption of smoke opium, banning its import and export.
The Agreement of 11th February 1925 envisaged setting up a government
monopoly for opium production and monopoly associations for opium trade. The
Geneva Convention of 19th February 1925 introduced new measures, such as
exercising control over the activities of persons who held permits to
manufacture, import, export, sell, distribute and apply narcotics, as well as
control over the premises where these persons practiced their trade. The
Convention also limited the number of ports, cities and other populated
centers through which the import and export of drugs was allowed, and urged
the adoption of domestic legislation qualifying violation of these provisions
of the Convention as criminal offence. The Convention of 13th July 1931
formulated the following additional measures: extradition of criminals for
committing drug-related crimes; setting up domestic government agencies to
implement the Convention's decisions and regulations, supervision over the
trade in drug-bearing medicines, listed in the Convention, and a clamp-down
on illegal drug trafficking. The Bangkok agreement of 27th November 1931
contained such amendments as limiting retail opium trade to government
agencies only. For persons under 21 years of age visiting opium dens, was a
criminal offence. The Convention of 26th June 1936 was the first to introduce
the word "struggle" and provided for a much wider range of criminal drug-
related offenses. Under the Protocol of 19th November 1948, the signatories
had to inform the UN about any substance that had the potential of being
abused in the future.
The 1961 Uniform Convention (with amendments) broadened international legal
norms, over new aspects of drug abuse. For example, it established a special
procedure for cultivating narcotic-bearing plants and manufacturing narcotic
substances, it established uniform rules for storing drugs. These procedures
bound the signatories to cooperate with each other and with authorized
international organizations in arranging and holding campaigns against
illegal drug trafficking, and in applying imprisonment and against those
guilty of premeditated drug-related crimes.
The 1988 UN Convention contained recommendations to define concrete
premeditated actions as crimes in national legislation. An extended list of
these crimes was included into the concept "illegal drug trafficking." The
Convention also listed such measures as medical treatment of addicts,
restoration of their working capabilities or social re-integration under
subsequent supervision. The Convention outlined recommendations on using
controlled deliveries at the international level on the basis of mutual
Purposeful Actions Against Drug Abuse:
Intensifying actions against drug abuse by revealing and attacking vulnerable
spots of narco-business through the help of new, more perfect law as the
world community increasing realized the danger of narcotics, it displayed a
growing ability to apply new international legal norms. As a result the world
community has been approving appropriate legal norms to check the spread of
narcotics. For example, on the basis of the 1912 Hague Convention the
signatories pledged to undertake measures to gradually stop the production,
domestic trade, and consumption of smoke opium, as well as to ban its import
and export. The 1988 Convention registered the provision on controlled drug
deliveries at the international level on the basis of mutual accords. In
accordance with the statement by the Committee for Banking Rules and Banking
Supervision of 12th December 1988 and the decision of July 1989 by the heads
of states and governments of the seven leading industrial nations and by the
European Commission Chairman, measures were taken to prevent criminal use of
the banking system for laundering money obtained from drug trade.
The Universalization of Legal Norms:
The trend to ensure universalization, unification and standardization of the
international legal norms on narcotics first manifested it self in the 1912
Hague Convention, the Convention of 19th February 1925 and the Uniform
Convention. These contained uniform lists of controlled narcotics. The
Convention of 13th July 1931 introduced the notions "production", "refining",
"processing", "reserve storage stocks", "government storage stocks", "export-
import", "cultivation", "illegal trafficking", "territory", "manufacture",
"preparation", "storage stocks", and "special storage stocks". The 1961
Uniform Convention and the 1988 Convention provided unified lists of socially
dangerous activities, qualified as criminal offenses.
Raising the Effectiveness of the International Legal Norms:
More and more specific and not just declarative norms ensuring effective and
lasting actions against narcotics have been introduced into law-enforcement
practice at each new stage in the international legal regulation of
narcotics. The adoption of these international legal norms is paving the way
for a real opportunity to oppose drug abuse.
Whereas the 1909 Shanghai Opium Commission failed to generate any
constructive measures against narcotics, the 1912 Hague Convention managed to
define the kinds of narcotics to be placed under international control. The
Agreement of 11th February 1925 provided for the establishment of monopoly
institutions to deal with opium and for the transfer of the smoke opium
production to a government monopoly. The Convention of 19th February 1925
extended the list of controlled narcotics and introduced new restrictions.
Appropriate provisions of the 1931 Bangkok Agreement, the Convention of 13th
July 1931, of 26th June 1936, the Protocol of 19th January 1948, the 1961
Uniform Convention (with amendments), the 1988 UN Convention and documents of
the European Community of 1988 and 1989 as discussed above, have also been
raising the effectiveness of the drive against narcotics.
Bringing into Line the International and National Legal Norms:
Increasingly international and national legal norms against narcotics are
brought into line as nations sign and ratify international acts. This leads
to the mutual enrichment of the international and national legal norms aimed
at blocking narcotics. On the one hand, the world community elevates national
legal norms to international level by instituting international legal norms.
On the other hand, nations ratify international legal acts thus adopting them
as domestic legislation. International and domestic legal norms coincide
almost completely sometimes, in such areas the list of narcotics and drug-
related actions considered a criminal offense, as well as the procedure of
filing criminal charges against persons committing drug-related crimes, and
The Rise in the Number of Countries Taking Part in International Conferences:
There has been an increase in the number of nations taking part in
international conferences on narcotics and in the number of nations signing
international legal acts. This is evident in the fact that 13 nations took
part in the Shanghai Opium Commission in 1909, whereas 73 nations attended
the New York conference, which adopted the Uniform Convention in 1961. Since
then, many nations have ratified the Uniform Convention and the 1988 UN
Convention and more are going to sign them.
Setting up Specialized Agencies:
The world community has created and keeps expanding the functions of the
specialized agencies dealing with narcotics, such as Permanent Central
Committee on Drugs of 1925, the Special Commission of 1928, the Control
Commission of 1931, the Commission on Drugs of the UN Economic and Social
Council of 1961 and the UN International Committee on Drug Control, and the
special operations group on financial matters of 1989 dealing with money
laundering resulting from drug trafficking. These agencies handle more and
more functions in response to the ever more sophisticated dissemination of
drugs, and money laundering resulting from drug trafficking.
The reaction of the world community to narcotics examined above shows a
deeper understanding of this dangerous phenomenon, along with the increasing
sophistication of measures against it. One can predict that this tendency
will remain steadfast and keep progressing.
Chapter IV. Measures to Suppress and Prevent Drug Abuse
Measures to Prevent Drug Abuse Regulated by Law:
International legal acts are realized on a national scale. National measures
in turn are of the three basic types: suppression, prevention, and
Legal measures of suppression are coercive measures in regard to crimes that
have already been committed. They are a combination of criminal-legal,
criminal-executive and legal-administrative measures.
The criminal-legal measures must be fully compatible with the criminal law
and registered in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. They are
expected to safeguard the public from the drug-related crimes by inflicting
punishment on persons who have committed these crimes and also, in
combination with it, in cases stipulated by the law, apply coercive measures
of medical nature or, if need be, a system of guardianship. These measures
can be divided into two groups: those referring to crime and those referring
to punishment. Measures of the second group, though they are envisaged by the
norms of the criminal law, seem to be closer to legal-executive measures, and
can therefore be grouped, with a certain degree of relativity, into the
The legal-executive measures include punishment, coercive measures of medical
nature, as well as the process of executing punishment and coercive measures
of medical nature along with putting under guardianship, if required.
Legal-administrative measures are covered by the norms of the administrative
law, establishing responsibility for the infringements of the law and
regulating compulsory treatment of drug addicts.
Measures to prevent narcotics are very diverse. Their aim is to exert
influence on various elements such as on persons using drugs, sowing and
raising drug-bearing crops, manufacturing, acquiring, storing and selling
narcotic substances and committing other drug-related crimes; on persons
committing crimes with the aim of getting the means to purchase drugs or
those undertaking criminal actions in the state of narcotic intoxication; and
on circumstances that are seen as causes and conditions of drug addiction,
etc. The preventive influence on all these persons may take three forms:
persuasion, compulsion and stimulation.
The last two forms can only be applied if they are regulated by law.
Measures to Prevent Drug Abuse Unregulated by Law:
In terms of goals these measures can be divided into general social and
special ones. General social measures have to do with society's social and
economic development, the rise in cultural, educational and moral standards
of all citizens. The economic development measures aim to increase the
production of material benefits, as well as of intellectual output making the
nation richer and the living standards higher. Social measures are apparent
in rational distribution of funds in increase the government provides for
social needs. Cultural and educational measures aim to promote the
development of art, literature, science and education; they draw an ever-
greater number of people into this process and ensure that they gain
knowledge, know-how, and skills. Measures aiming to raise moral standards are
expressed in inculcating an awareness of the need to abide by the social,
particularly, legal, religious and other norms and rules of conduct in
society. All these measures are designed to prevent crimes and violations,
including drug-related crimes, and drug abuse particularly.
Special are those measures that prevent drug abuse as such, and crimes
related to it, including those recommended by the international organizations
These are, for example, measures to promote a healthy way of life without
consumption of narcotics and censuring the harm caused by narcotics and drug-
related crimes. These measures are implemented by means of: 1) education -
lectures, presentations at schools and other training centers, statements on
the radio, television or press; 2) training law enforcement officers and
medical personnel in the techniques of combating narcotics and drug-related
crimes by creating special educational programs and setting up special
training centers; 3) treatment and rehabilitation of addicts; 4) collection,
analysis, summary, and transmission of information about narcotics,
particularly, about new areas of drug-bearing plants, and methods of their
production, illegal channels for their exportation, as well as the methods
for moving them, using different kinds of transport; 5) preventing the sowing
and the growing of drug-bearing plants by replacing them with other crops and
stimulating the farmers and providing them an all-round assistance; 6)
blocking the channels through which narcotics are moved along; curbing the
smuggling of drugs through the joint efforts of customs and law-enforcement
officers of neighboring countries specializing in actions against narcotics;
7) supervising the fulfillment of anti-drug laws regulating the sowing and
growing of drug-bearing plants, drug circulation, etc; 8) reducing the demand
for drugs by preventing their transfer from the legal to the illegal domain,
including the use of a "daily dosage method" which makes it possible to
determine the correlation between the quantity of drugs necessary for medical
and research needs and the volume of sale; 9) introduction of remote control
devices to estimate the scale of illegal cultivation of drug-bearing plants
in remote places and creating obstacles for laundering money and other
property acquired as a result of drug trafficking.
In terms of the time, frame measures against narcotics and drug-related
offenses can be divided into early warning, direct impact and
The early warning measures are expected to exert influence on persons, who
are not well-versed in drugs and their danger, and who are informed on the
subject but do not take drugs. The preventive influence on poorly informed
persons is made by disseminating knowledge. In this respect the experience of
the United States is worthy of attention and could be borrowed by the Russian
Federation. For as long as a quarter of a century, preschool children,
especially, the ones who attend day care centers have been educated that any
medicines, including drug-bearing ones are harmful for their health, if they
are taken without a doctor's prescription and the knowledge of the exact
dose. To achieve a more vivid effect an album for coloring pictures featuring
narcotics and health is used.
In Australia, there are centers for preventing drug abuse where school
students between 5 and 12 years old have 7 lessons a year forming a certain
attitude to narcotics, as well as an awareness of the danger of drug
The influence on persons who are aware of the harm of narcotics and do not
take drugs can be achieved by "tearing them away," so to speak, from their
surroundings where drugs may be used or are used already. This can be
accomplished by conversation with individuals, their families, and colleagues
living in similar environment.
Direct impact prophylactic measures are expected to influence persons taking
drugs, including drug addicts. This impact brings or may bring positive
results when medical treatment is combined with the social rehabilitation.
Postpenitentiary measures should influence persons who have served prison
terms for drug-related offenses by continuous treatment of drug addiction,
securing the results of previous treatment, and neutralizing a possible
unfavorable influence of their immediate surroundings, finding jobs and also
forestalling the repetition of drug-related offenses.
International, National and Regional Measures:
In terms of their level, the measures to prevent drug abuse can be divided
into international, national and regional.
International measures are the ones, which are carried out on an
international scale. They include a number of earlier listed special measures
to prevent drug abuse. Apart from that, they also include measures carried
out by the international agencies and organizations, such as 1) creation of
programs to prevent the advancement of narcotics; 2) assistance to countries
in implementation of the conventions provisions; 3) providing assistance in
bringing national legislation in line with the conventions; 4) training
officers specializing in actions against narcotics for law-enforcement and
other agencies of different countries; 5) supporting the scientific
development of laboratories in the members countries; 6) providing financial,
technical and other kinds of assistance to raise the effectiveness of
national efforts against drug abuse and ensure access to the international
system of information about narcotics. It should be noted at this point that
the Russian Federation adheres to the international measures because it has
joined the world legal effort aiming to combat narcotics.
National measures to prevent drug abuse are the ones, which are carried out
on the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Regional measures cover
the territory of a region, city or district. Any of the mentioned general or
special measures against narcotics can be used on a national or regional
It should be stressed at this point, that the last few years have seen a
sharp decline in the effort of law-enforcement bodies, government agencies
and other organizations to prevent offenses, including drug abuse and drug-
related crimes. This state of affairs cannot help but arouse deep concern. In
this context the approval of the national program for combating drug
addiction in the Russian Federation is a necessary step towards improving the
work of preventing narcotics and drug-related crimes, along with other
Chapter V. Organized Measures to Counteract Narcotics
Par. 1. General Provisions for Counteracting Narcotics
The multiplicity of drug abuse necessitates a joint combative effort
involving a large number of participants who have a broad spectrum of powers
and who will act simultaneously in different directions, performing a variety
of functions. The joining of anti-narcotism forces can be achieved through a
flexible system of measures against this deplorable social phenomenon.
Organizing a System of Measures Against Narcotics:
The multifaceted nature of drug abuse necessitates forming a single united
front with many participants acting simultaneously in different directions,
performing various functions with a wide spectrum of measures. This can be
achieved by the mobile and flexible system of measures and means. In terms of
overcoming drug abuse, organization is a system of measures to combat drug
abuse and means of their implementation with regard to the division of the
spheres of activity, responsibilities and hierarchical order.
Based on the social and economic reality, actions against narcotics should
comply with the national and international norms of law and with the
scientifically based principles of management. They should take account of
the new developments in medicine, pharmaceutics, psychology, psychiatry,
pedagogy, sociology, instrument building, and have substantial legislative,
material, informational, and research backing. They must have clear
parameters of time and space and, most importantly, professionally trained
At the same time, the anti-narcotics strategy must reflect the irksome
particularities and complicated nature of this phenomenon as it combines two
interrelated sides - that of illness and that of crime. This defines our
approach to drug abuse as a medical, as well as a social problem and it
determines what steps and means must be chosen.
Drug Abuse as an Object of Government Action:
Narcotics-related issues, including organizational ones, cannot be isolated
either from the social, economic, political, historical, legislative,
medical, and biological problems or from other social pathologies that call
for counteraction. The definition of drug abuse as a phenomenon of multiple
factors is not therefore accidental.
Therefore, efficient counteraction requires much organization and precisely
Such a stance justifies the view of drug abuse as an object for state action.
This approach makes a broad analysis of the wide-ranging problems and ways to
solve them possible. Besides, drug abuse helps to define who the subject
(subjects) of influence are, its (their) condition and functioning, the
influence its (their) structure projects, as well as choice of goals and
function. These properties also define clear goals and a reasonable choice of
means to attain them as well as to ensure an overall realization.
Observing the fundamental properties of drug abuse, researchers call upon us
to be ready for new and unusual capability of this phenomenon to adapt to any
conditions and manifest itself in new forms in most undesirable
circumstances. On this occasion A. Gabiani writes: "Hardly had they banished
the opium poppy, when the niche was quickly filled by common poppy. When the
entire hemp-growing regions were cut off from black markets, the
pharmaceutics flooded the market. The channels for natural drugs were
blocked, then the far more dangerous chemicals began spreading.»
The specificity of drug abuse, and its forms and degree of proliferation,
stress the need for a regular re-evaluation of its rapidly changing state in
order to promote the methods of counteraction, discard the outlived methods,
bring all techniques of exerting influence in line with the legislation and
day-to-day reality. Experience proves that an objective assessment of any
process demands for corrections to be made which take due notice of reality.
A system of measures to combat narcotics presupposes that its elements are
mutually compatible and that the system itself can be a part of a higher
order -(law enforcement and crime-prevention systems, and social
administrative systems, as a whole). This means that not one subject or
measure in the counter-narcotics system may contradict the values accepted by
the society. The authority of the subjects must be sufficiently reflected in
their rights and duties.
It is essential that all elements of the anti-narcotics system have enough
potential possibilities to ensure its effective operation. The utmost goal of
the organization is, in this case, to transform the potential possibilities
into the real functions and make them serve as a system of counteraction
measures. For example, the professional duty of medical institutions and
doctors who provide treatment for drug addicts is manifested as a certain
function performed by the elements of the system of counteraction to drug
A solution of the problems of drug abuse requires, on the one hand,
considerable efforts by national, international and other organizations and
their numerous divisions that act in different directions and focus on
different target groups of people, and on the other hand, it requires
coordination and accord in their activities.
The interaction of different elements of the system may be indirect, through
the understanding of common objectives. This, however, requires a link in
management. Such a link "is based on a certain program of action and is, in
itself, a method of implementing this program. There is always a general
structure of the process behind a developing operational system.»
General Provisions of Organizing Action Against Drug Abuse:
The above mentioned makes it possible to outline the following principles of
an efficiently organized effort against drug abuse in the Russian Federation.
As the manifestations of drug abuse continue to grow and diversify, a real
counteraction is possible only in the framework of a well-tested and
scientifically based government policy which defines the forms, tasks and
contents of the government's contribution to this effort. The understanding
of drug abuse phenomenon should be reflected in the Concept of the government
policy towards narcotics. Its principal goal is to secure legislative and
organizational realization of anti-narcotics efforts, bring harmony and
coordination into the activities of different ministries and departments,
draw up a list of priorities and concentrate the available resources for
their synchronized deployment. No other document but such a Concept can lay
the solid foundation for the National Program of Counteraction against
Narcotics. The Program necessarily requires an approval at the highest level
by the President, the government and the parliament to make all of its
provisions mandatory for everyone.
The development of the National Program stands out as one of the most
important tasks among the anti-narcotics measures. It is essential to invite
experts in different fields of research, as well as the practitioners from
the concerned departments to participate in it. The list of participants, the
scope of their duties and the financing are to be endorsed by the government.
The authors of the Program have personal responsibility for producing a
profound analysis of the situation with drugs, and for the efficiency of the
recommended methods for combating drug abuse. They are also responsible for
providing research or organizational background during the implementation of
the steps they have recommended. The time frame and other specifics of the
program must be included in the resolutions of the government and the
2. The main goal of the government policy in regard to narcotic substances
should be: a) to prevent their use for other than medical purposes; b) curb
the demand for them; c) and curtail their illegal manufacturing and turnover.
This goal is attainable in practical terms only through a set of coordinated
steps in politics, economy, legislation and public health. They should be
directed at perfecting the laws regulating narcotics. Methods should be
developed of an early identification of the persons who use drugs for non-
medical reasons, of their treatment and rehabilitation. Policies should be
developed counteracting the unlawful production and sale of drugs at the
national and international setting.
3. The mandatory measures of organizational, legislative and material support
of the government policy in the field of drugs fall into two categories.
The first category implies the establishment of an inter-departmental anti-
narcotics system of measures, which will incorporate the following elements.
Information support of the program. The departments involved should set up a
data bank to store information about the state of affairs in narcotics, the
proliferation of drugs, the accurate techniques of drug identification, and
other data - national and international - which will help make decisions and
implement measures against narcotics.
Research and technical support. Conducting fundamental research of and quick
response analysis on drugs, the development of advanced techniques and
technologies of halting narcotics should be implemented.
Administrative support. The President, the parliament or the government
should found a special committee entrusted with the overall monitoring of the
drug abuse in the republic. This agency also should map out a uniform
national strategy and tactics, direct and coordinate all the elements of the
struggle against narcotics, and set up subordinate regional committees and
commissions. As need be, it should be able to amend the state policy in
regard to drugs. This agency surely must include psychiatrists specializing
in the treatment of addicts, lawyers, psychologists, sociologists, teachers,
pharmacists, journalists and other specialists and experts, as well as
representatives from the ministries of public health, social welfare,
education, agriculture, foreign economic ties, industry and trade, transport,
telecommunications, foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, national
security (as well as of the foreign intelligence service), air, maritime, and
inland water transport, of the State Bank, Intourist, customs service, and
the Prosecutor's Office.
Material support. Financing should be provided for the National Program to
Counteract Drug Abuse in general and for its specific aspects. The financing
structure may include specialized funds.
Medical support. A mechanism of medical interaction on the issues of drugs
must involve all the agencies and departments concerned and their separate
Support from the system of education. It is necessary to train an appropriate
number of anti-drug specialists with due regard to the experience gained by
their foreign counterparts.
Accountability. Regulated accountability and control of all the agencies and
departments participating in the campaign against narcotics should be
established. The participants will be furnished with special sets of
documents and evaluation criteria. They will bear personal responsibility for
the final results.
The second category of mandatory measures defines the direction of the effort
against narcotics, sets out the target goals and names the participants. At a
minimum, the main direction should be of a simultaneous offensive on the
production, trade and consumption of drugs.
In the field of legislative regulation, a set of laws on combating narcotics
should encompass a) perfection of the effective legal acts on drugs, b) the
legally defined rules of identification, check-up and voluntary/compulsory
treatment of drug addicts, c) the rules of drug identification, d)
legislative support of international cooperation including the obligations
that arise from the international treaties and agreements, e) elaboration of
legal norms to fight drug-related money-laundering, f) and bringing national
legislation in line with the international laws.
In the field of medicine: the identification, medical treatment and social
rehabilitation of drug addicts presupposes improving the methods of early
diagnosis and treatment of addiction, the development of prophylactic
measures, a system of registering and monitoring drug abusers, the gathering
and analysis of information and information exchange between relevant
In the sphere of combating drug-related crimes, it is essential to suppress
the illegal cultivation of plants containing narcotic substances, improve
control over the transportation of narcotics across borders, and curb their
clandestine manufacture. It is also necessary to control the manufacturing,
storage and trade in the chemicals and equipment, which may be used in the
illegal production of drugs. The stamping-out of such crimes necessitates
stringent regulatory mechanisms in the production, transportation and use of
narcotic substances for medical and research purposes, as required by the
international conventions, advancement of investigative methods, improvement
in the customs service, administrative and other forms of curtailing crimes
linked to drugs and limiting the illegal demand for them. The circle of
involved participants in actions against narcotics, especially in the field
of prophylactics and halting the spread of drug abuse should be enlarged
through unconventional forms and methods of work, such as invigorating the
efforts of religious and charitable organizations, private companies,
psychological aid centers, army units, and so on.
Understandably, the suggested list of efforts is not exhaustive. Nonetheless,
it puts the emphasis on the main directions and can be viewed as a version of
a multifaceted approach toward organizing a program of action combating drug
The Experience of Countries:
The experience of countries that have developed national programs against
drug abuse can be very instrumental in drawing up a national anti-narcotics
In 1982, the United States adopted a program against drug trafficking and
organized crime. Its implementation presumed mapping out a special
presidential policy and the participation of the governors of all the states.
The then US President Ronald Reagan sanctioned the allocation of an
additional USD 130 million to the Department of Justice budget for the
implementation of that program. These funds were distributed to the federal
law-enforcement agencies, the judiciary, penitentiaries and the police. The
administration envisioned an increase in the number of prosecutors, FBI
agents, and the personnel of anti-drug departments, customs services, the
coast guards, Internal Revenue Service, Immigration Naturalization Service,
and other departments.
More than a half of the allocation was set aside as salary and bonuses for
special service agents. The rest was spent on modernizing police equipment,
the renovation of the state and federal prisons, and enhancement of the FBI
technical capabilities in neutralizing criminals who can afford the most up-
to-date listening devices and surveillance equipment.
The program also made provisions for creating special regional task force,
and creating programs for participation in actions against drug abuse by the
state, as well as for more room in federal jails. Coordination committees
responsible to the Secretary of Justice were established in all of the 94
Federal judicial districts. The committees were obliged to make up plans for
fighting grave crimes at the county, state and national levels.
It was for the first time that a program envisioned deployment of the armed
forces against the spread of drugs. Their task was to detect and detain
traffickers, especially at the US-Mexican border and in the Caribbean.
A variety of drug prevention programs were developed at the regional level,
such as the program of aid to potential abusers and their victims in the
District of Columbia or the program against the abuse of drugs and alcohol by
adolescents in Maryland. Many of them, however, remained ineffective not
because they lacked professionalism, but more often because the moves lacked
coordination. Not rare was the shortage of financing, technical and personnel
In 1989, the US adopted the national strategy against drugs, which is
executed by more than thirty federal departments, including the CIA. American
experts believe that the US share of the worldwide consumption of drugs is
more than a fifty per cent. They also consider drug trafficking as a global
threat which cannot be controlled by the efforts of a single country. There
must be international cooperation to settle this bedeviling problem.
Since the bulk of drugs originate outside the US, the Administration put an
emphasis on attacking drug dealers on their home territory and on stepping up
counteraction to the proliferation and sale of drugs inside the country. The
strategy evidently has flaws, as the situation shows no signs of dramatic
On May 25th, 1987, the Canadian government officially introduced a national
strategy against drug abuse. The strategy had resulted from long
consultations with provincial governments, different private organizations
and individual specialists. The goal of the strategy was to shape a unified
course of actions against the abuse of drugs in Canada.
The general supervision of its implementation was vested in the Ministry of
Health and Social Welfare. Other participants were the Royal Mounted Police
of Canada, the Directorate of the Penitentiaries, the Ministry of Justice,
the Customs Department and the Excise Tax Service, the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs and the Ministry of Training and Youth.
The main goal was to work out a balanced line of action that would meet the
needs of all Canadians, bring down the impact of alcohol and other stimulants
on individuals, families and entire communities. The strategy comprised six
directions of action: 1)education and prevention, 2)control over law
abidance, 3) medical treatment and rehabilitation, 4) gathering of
information and research, 5) international cooperation 6) and national
policy. Over two-thirds of the resources were directed into the educational,
preventive and treatment programs to curtail demand on the banned substances.
The Royal Mounted Police had the assignment to help develop and implement
five initiatives on restraining the supply of and the demand for drugs,
namely 1) a program to curb the black marketing of drugs, 2) the coordination
of coastal guard patrol, 3) the gathering and processing of data on drugs, 4)
technical assistance to foreign countries and 5) an educational program.
Canadian experts note that it is hard to measure the effects of this program
yet, but all the above measures contribute to saving lives and making the
The United Kingdom:
The British government is acting upon a multifaceted anti-narcotic strategy
that it adopted in 1994. There are five strategic priority aspects in it 1)
cutting down drug imports, 2) raising the efficiency of law enforcement, 3)
exercising effective deterrence measures and strict control inside the
country, 4) organizing preventive efforts, and improving the treatment and 5)
the rehabilitation of drug addicts.
The government strategy is based on the assumption that all the problems of
narcotics are inter-related. Therefore, parallel measures against the supply
and demand of drugs are necessary. It is intended to scale down illegal
imports of drugs by supporting international efforts against their
manufacture and trade, reinforcing the customs and police force, toughening
control over the legitimate production, and consumption of drugs for medical
purposes, deterring drug dealers by heavy fines and depriving them of their
The struggle to curtail demand must follow two general lines - keeping the
new addicts from abuse and rendering aid to those whom have developed
To ensure proper interaction of all the elements of this strategy, the
British government has set up a working inter-departmental group from among
the ministers and high-ranking executives. The parliamentary deputy home
secretary heads the group. Also participating in its work are officials of
the home office, the ministries of health, social welfare, and finance, the
customs service, the department of overseas territories, the environmental
department, and so on.
The new government-run intelligence service for drugs has replaced the older
drugs central intelligence. Police and customs officers staff the government-
run intelligence. Its duty is to gather, analyze and distribute information
obtained either abroad or at home.
The regional anti-drug departments have special support units. The customs
service has been reinforced by top-class specialists and top-notch smuggling
clampdown equipment. In compliance with the 1986 law on illegal drug trade,
the police and the courts have received broader authority as to the
identification, freezing and confiscation of drug dealers' profits. In 1988
the UK and the USA signed a bilateral agreement on the confiscation of the
discredited bank assets.
The police and the customs service have formed a special financial division
to accumulate on a national scale, survey and pass down for further
investigation the data on financial issues, i.e. reports from the banks and
other financial institutions on monetary deposits of questionable origin.
The government has outlined the procedure for police operations against the
three categories of drug dealers, big, medium and small.
Great Britain upholds the international community's efforts by contributing
annually Pound Sterling 150,000 to the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control. As
mentioned before, the UK also runs a program of assistance to overseas
Regarding the drug abuse situation, a review of the government measures
underlines that the government-sponsored policy works toward a closer
international cooperation, enhances the efforts of the law-enforcement
agencies, helps the younger generation realize the impact of drug addiction
and boosts the effort against this evil.
The drug control programs in Mexico differ from those in other countries as
Mexico is a hotbed of manufacture and export of opium, heroin and marijuana
and a major cocaine trafficking transit point to the United States. Some
Mexican states have traditional plantations of opium poppy, marijuana and
Indian hemp. Economic hardships often force the farmers into dealing with
drug dealers and prompt the growing of illegal crops, which produce profits
higher than the earnings from lawful businesses. The anti-drug programs,
therefore, focus on mass destruction of narcotic crops from the air or
manually and the involvement of army units in such operations, harsh penal
sanctions, intensive investigation of drug cartels and trafficking channels,
and dissemination of information among the public.
Growing cooperation with the USA on the basis of bilateral agreements and a
treaty of juridical assistance is an important element of the anti-narcotic
policy. It facilitates the identification of drug-related money laundering in
the financial and commercial institutions both in Mexico and the US. The
Advance Guard program presupposes operations to detect and destroy the
plantations of drug-bearing crops. Starting from 1986, units of the Mexican
Army and of the US Coastal Guard have been conducting operations to detain
suppliers of drugs in the Mexican territorial waters, to confiscate their
cars and arms, and to control flights in the border area as part of the
American Mexican operation Alliance.
The national program against drug abuse in Spain deserves notice as the
Spanish laws permit soft narcotic substances. Despite the expectations and
arguments of the proponents of drug legalization, drug abuse in Spain does
not subside. Neither does the crime rate. The number of violent assaults to
obtain money for drugs is on the rise. The law-enforcement agencies' task has
been set as eradicating drug abuse, opening specialized medical centers for
the addicts who volunteer to undergo treatment, and combating drug addiction
and prostitution as the factors increasing the risk of AIDS infection.
The main goals of the Spanish program against drug abuse are to halt the
proliferation of the most heinous drugs like heroin and cocaine, organize
prophylactic measures among the young people of 16-to-18, promulgate popular
knowledge about medicine and treatment of drug addicts by way of educational
lectures, and advance public organizations' activities.
The French national program against narco-business sponsored by the Ministry
of the Interior and Public Safety focuses on curbing the illegal trade in
drugs, and, in particular, the street vending of narcotic substances. The
document provides for the creation of special-task police units and a
national center to coordinate all police operations against drug abuse.
Narco-business-suppression training courses have been introduced at police
schools. Large police commissariats now have specialized branches to monitor
drug abuse. These branches render practical and financial assistance to
various organizations engaged in fighting against the abuse of narcotic and
toxic chemical substances.
The experience of foreign anti-narcotics programs can be adapted to the
requirements of the Russian Federation and help work out a feasible National
Program of Comprehensive Counteraction to Narcotics
Par. 2. Organization of Medical Counteraction to Narcotics
The primary aspect of the entire anti-narcotics effort is a series of medical
treatment measures. They are carried out by different medical institutions as
actions against narcotics is inalienable from the activities of public health
services of all levels, including the medical service of the Ministry of
Internal Affairs. In 1975 the former Soviet medical authorities detached the
addictions treatment service from psychiatry. Thus the treatment of drug and
other addicts became a separate branch of medicine known as narcology.
The efforts of the medical institutions make up a significant part of the
anti-narcotics strategy. Their goal is to bring about a decrease in the
demand for drugs. This is achieved by the treatment and rehabilitation of
abusers and, in the final run, is a positive factor of a general improvement
in the drug abuse situation.
The measures, which the health centers, are obliged to take, can roughly be
divided into two groups. Group One includes the properly medical efforts in
the treatment and rehabilitation of addicts. Group Two embraces other
organizational steps to keep narcotics at bay.
The international community also pays considerable attention to the treatment
of drug addicts. Article 38 of the Uniform Convention on Drugs states that
the signatory countries will take every possible step to prevent the misuse
of narcotic substances, ensure an early identification of abusers, treat
them, restore them to full working capability, re-socialize, and monitor them
after the completion of treatment (Paragraph 1). The countries will train
appropriate personnel (Paragraph 2), and will inform the population about the
hazards of drug abuse (Paragraph 3). The medical treatment of drug addicts is
also presupposed by Resolution II of the UN conference on implementing the
Uniform Convention on Drugs. Reminding of the provisions of Article 38, the
conference stressed that hospital treatment in a drug-free atmosphere is the
most efficacious medical approach to the issue. It recommended that
economically potent countries where drug abuse is a serious problem provide
the opportunities for such treatment.
The Treatment and Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts:
The issues of medical treatment/social rehabilitation of addicts and other
relevant measures are to a greater or lesser degree incorporated in the
public health programs of all nations and have found reflection in certain
regional programs. As a rule, these documents emphasize perfection of the
strategies and organization of drug abuse services on the assumption that
drug abuse is a social disease. The other important aspects are financing and
material/technical support, personnel, informing definite sectors of society
on the hazardous impact of addiction, research in the field of more effective
Experts, however, warn against an overly simplified belief that containing
drug addiction boils down to the availability of medicines and available
hospital beds. The prophylactics of social illnesses like alcoholism, misuse
of narcotics and toxic chemicals cannot be built upon the same methods as the
treatment of serious infectious diseases. Alongside pharmaceutics, it
requires psychological aid and education which more and more often involves
the addicts' families and friends. It is naive to believe that medicines and
injections alone can bring about the desired results and that the selection
of individually suitable pharmaceutical preparations gives a clue to the
problem of treatment. Good results are yielded by a combination of psychology
and pharmacy. Therefore, the treatment for drug addiction consumes much
painstaking effort of a doctor, psychologist, educator and other specialists
working with a person who is likely to develop the illness or is ill already.
On the face of it, the issues of treatment and prophylactics necessitate
comprehensive programming and proficient organization. Their solution lies in
the medico-biological, medico-psychological and medico-social spheres.
From the standpoint of government policy, public health institutions have the
exclusive authority to treat drug addicts by officially approved methods,
including compulsory treatment of the addicts who pose danger to society.
According to the results expected in this field, health centers must organize
and effectuate a series of measures destined to establish firm grounds for
progress in the drug abuse situation.
In the first place, this means the early identification, diagnosis and
registration of the persons who use drugs for non-medical purposes and hence
stand in need of prophylactic and treatment. However, shortcomings in the
existing methods of express-diagnostics and in the expert check-ups of drug
addicts make establishing the degree and the type of drug dependence somewhat
Identification, Diagnosis, and Registration of Drug Users:
The identified addicts may belong to different age and social groups; their
condition may have a different degree of narcotic neglect. This fact may
influence the choice, distribution and intensity of medical measures, as well
as their combination with other types of aid.
Of particular importance is the early identification of addicts among the
young and the adolescents. A timely medical interference, caring
participation and influence of parents, relatives, teachers, police officers,
and the atmosphere of friendliness can stop the youngsters' slump into
When the consumers of different drugs have been identified, it is exigent to
inform the police to enable it to find the sources of drugs and trafficking
channels and execute other preventive measures.
Information is especially important if the drugs have been manufactured
illegally or their origins are unclear.
The following list of measures can help identify the individuals who misuse
medical check-ups of industrial labor staffs, school and college students;
medical check-ups of inmates in jails and penitentiaries;
medical examination of the perpetrators of drug abuse for further
registration and treatment, including compulsory treatment;
specialized testing of certain professionals (the military, pilots, drivers
of all means of transport, police officers) for the bodily presence of
revealing the most dangerous forms of drug abuse that complicated
detoxification, revealing the cases of multiple drug misuse (the combined use
of more than one drug) and the cases of an intertwined abuse of drugs and
identification of addicts who carry the HIV and other infectious diseases,
elimination of the consequences of infectious transmission;
timely registration, treatment and rehabilitation of those who need it.
Another way to improve the health servicing of drug abusers is to organize:
fundamental research; development of efficacious pharmaceutical preparations
and novel methods of treatment for different types of narcotic dependence,
their speedy translation into public health practices; large-scale
contribution to research from Russian and foreign scientists (the Academy of
Sciences, medical, pedagogical, psychological and other research
institutions, application of practices adopted abroad);
accelerated training of highly qualified personnel (addictive conditions
psychiatrists, psychologists, educators, social workers) at medical colleges
and upper level courses, specialized training of medical attendants, nurses
and technicians. The study program should cover not only the novel methods of
treatment, but also the specifics of contacts with the drug addicts and
methods of readiness for treatment and prophylactic practice;
organization of new preventive-treatment/ registration clinics, out-patient
departments at industrial facilities and offices, emergency aid centers and a
wide publication of data on their mode of operation, anonymous and commercial
treatment centers for drug addicts;
extensive adoption by drug-abuse monitoring services of the achievements in
the medical science, psychology, pedagogy, pharmacy, and special-purpose
modernization of drug-abuse monitoring services, improvement of material
supplies and provision of the necessary personnel.
The post-treatment rehabilitation measures should include: a) the creation of
purpose-oriented government-run and charity funds, ex-drug abusers support
funds and diverse forms of work with them; b) development of rehabilitation
methods based on the effective analysis of the existing rehabilitation
procedures and of qualification levels of the personnel; c) psychological
assistance to the former abusers' families, relatives, and friends who must
be taught the techniques of exerting favorable influence on the patients.
Equally important is the organization of other anti-narcotics efforts taken
by public health institutions.
The health of the nation is an important element of the social and economic
development of a country. From this angle, the popularization of a rational
way of life, the cultivation of respect for human health as the basic value
of society ranks high among the priorities of medical institutions.
Publicizing Information Against Drugs:
A skillful and persistent dissemination of knowledge about the destructive
impact of drugs and their detriment for the future generations is a crucial
activity of medical institutions in the struggle against narcotics.
It is advisable to find a particular audience and do masterly presentations.
Lectures and discussions are not the only means of knowledge dissemination.
Meetings with former drug addicts and presentations about broken human lives
have also proved productive.
To increase the prophylactic effects of popularization, it would be useful to
train the instructors on the methods and tactics of campaigning against
narcotics, design a system of mass anti-narcotic education, based on medical
science, provide the necessary teaching aids, control and stimulate this
Organization of Control Over the Use of Narcotic Substances:
Public health institutions have responsibilities in exercising control over
narcotic substances under international conventions, treaties, agreements and
other forms of international cooperation in combating drug abuse. As
mentioned earlier, their primary responsibility is to control the proper use
of drugs, the correct taking of their stock, their storage, distribution and
removal. The issue of special prominence is the storage of narcotic
substances at medical institutions and warehouses and the thwarting of
attempts to misappropriate them. Inspections often expose serious flaws in
To rule out a possible abuse, leakage or misappropriation of drugs, the
following list of measures is essential:
guarding narcotic substance storage facilities, fitting them out with new
equipment and fire/break-in alarm systems connected to the central control
panel or to the 24-hour operational medical personnel or guards mail;
proper protection of the points where drugs are stored in small quantities
for distribution as administered by the physicians;
tightened control over big-batch long-term storage facilities like the
warehouses of regional drug-store administrations, and strategic reserves
regular inspections at narcotic drug warehouses;
strict abidance by the rules of taking stock, storage and use of drugs for
a timely exchange of information with the police on the above issues and
cooperation in drawing up the lists of drug storage facilities.
Experience suggests that a successful solution of the problem depends on the
depth of our insight into it. This is especially true of such a complex issue
as the treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts regardless of what stage
they are at. That is why the fullest and the most objective information is
essential for the medical and other institutions to organize a counter-
offensive against drug abuse. With that goal in mind, public health centers
should adhere to the following organizational guidelines:
gathering and analysis of information on the conditions of drug addicts,
tendencies in and results of their treatment and rehabilitation, and types
and means of using drugs and the impact they have;
interaction with other institutions and departments in concrete forms of
anti-narcotics activities in such large-scale operations as Poppy and Doping,
in check-ups and research;
control surveys prepared by the narcology service.
Organizational support for these guidelines could be achieved through:
the establishment of a strict procedure for and the terms of turning in, and
registration of documents, supply of dependable information on the actual
situation with drugs and their sales and use for both medical and non-medical
purposes, on the individuals perpetrating misuse, supply of other data
essential for making specific decisions;
cooperation with other departments in holding joint selective research and
express-tests to obtain reliable information on the actual levels of drug
abuse, the damage it inflicts, the effects of treatment and other types of
aid to the addicts;
scheduled and unscheduled departmental and/or inter-departmental inspections
of how control over drugs is maintained, and how the rules of their use and
storage are observed;
analysis and broad publicity of the achievements of medical staffs who have a
record of positive results in combating narcotics, as well as provision of
The scope of health institutions' duties also embraces revealing and timely
informing the relevant departments and the public at large on dangerous
tendencies in drug abuse, new varieties of stupefying substances, the
techniques of their manufacture and the means of use. The public health
system develops the adequate methods of prevention, treatment, and
Par. 3. Enforcement of Legal Measures of Narcotics Counteraction
The organization of legal enforcement of anti-narcotics measures falls into
1) application of legal administrative and criminal legal norms regulating
the prevention and suppression of narcotics; 2) government legal measures to
set and refine law enforcement and other agencies combating narcotics; 3)
international anti-narcotics measures.
Group One includes compulsory treatment of drug addicts and measures against
drug-related crimes. Compulsory treatment of drug addicts is a law-
enforcement measure aimed at cutting down the non-medical use of narcotic
substances. It can be administered by the court to an addict who evades
voluntary treatment or who continues misusing drugs after a course of
treatment. If an addict commits a crime, the court metes out punishment in
combination with compulsory treatment.
Compulsory treatment of Drug Addicts:
Compulsory treatment is prescribed to all categories of abusers at medical
institutions with a specialized treatment procedure in the course of work
therapy. If criminal punishment is imposed, the treatment is executed at the
penitentiary during the term of imprisonment.
Placement of drug addicts to mandatory treatment centers is in the domain of
responsibilities of police departments. This activity goes hand in hand with
the following organizational measures:
identification of individuals perpetrating drugs abuse;
administering a medical examination, and a compulsory visit to a medical
institution in case of a refusal to undergo the procedure voluntarily;
compulsory hospitalization for complete check-up upon conclusion of a
narcologist (psychiatrist specializing in addictive conditions - translator's
note). Notification is given to the prosecutor's office and, if an underage
addict is hospitalized, to his or her parents.
timely and renewable registration of drug addicts at the drug-patient
monitoring clinics, and prophylactic registration of the individuals whose
misuse of drugs has not yet acquired the form of an illness;
supervision over the daily way of life of the registered patients and
checking their attempts to skip compulsory treatment, imposition of other
measures of educational, medical and legal influence;
issuance of documents for placing the addicts who avoid mandatory treatment
to rehabilitation and work-therapy clinics and specialized drug-abuse
Medicare centers; filing documents on treatment of evaders with the courts;
escorting of addicts to the places of mandatory treatment, registration of
individuals who were formerly sentenced for drug-related crimes or fell under
administrative liability for misuse of drugs;
individual prophylactic measures against addicts to whom corrective labor has
been meted out without a term of imprisonment, or whose sentences have been
suspended or deferred;
treatment of drug addicts at corrective labor institutions simultaneously
with serving a term, supervision over inmates' treatment and behavior.
Organizational Law Enforcement Measures against Drug-related Crimes:
Other organizational law enforcement measures against narcotics-related
crimes are: locating the illegal plantations of narcotic-bearing crops and
identifying their growers, eradicating such plantations, securing
prohibitions to grow narcotic substance containing crops, making special maps
upon the inspections of gardens, private plots of land and wastelands,
cooperating with agriculture experts, army units and other departments
concerned, carrying out special task operations and disseminating information
It is of paramount importance to reorganize the system of guarding
government-controlled plantations of hemp and the like crops or create such a
system in the places where it is absent. This measure is closely linked to
the development of advanced methods of crop guarding, especially, in
harvesting seasons. Work by shifts and material incentives may prove
effective. Good results can also be obtained through the improvement of
technical and chemical means of protection.
To limit the access of the public at large to the areas of government-
sponsored drug- bearing crop plantations, it would stand to reason to
establish special passport and traffic control in such areas.
Organization of Measures to Suppress Drug-dealing:
The measures to suppress drug dealing are the most important issue at
present. Manufacture and trade in narcotics has become a branch of the shadow
economy. It is gaining momentum, creating production facilities and channels
of distribution. In a large number of cases the understaffed law enforcement
departments are unable to rebuff the onslaught of drug manufacturers and
offer sound alternatives to all aspects of drug abuse.
The illegal production of drugs that spill over the state borders and
continents is at the top of the world community's agenda. Particular
significance is attached to the clandestine drug laboratories.
In the wake of it, it is exigent to set up specialized police departments,
which will concentrate the officers of high professional expertise, and to
provide them with the necessary material and technical support.
Foreign experts believe tangible results in eradicating clandestine
laboratories can be achieved if police operations to uncover the channels by
which the raw materials arrive and the end product is dispatched are
synchronized with the efforts to block access to chemical substances and
equipment the manufacture of drugs requires. This, however, is not easy as
some drug synthesis components such as acetic anhydride, ether, benzene,
acetone are extensively used in the industrial sector. Their industrial
consumption is not controlled in practical terms since, in most countries,
legislation does not regulate the production, storage and use of these
Experts in Germany propose in this connection that the laws against drugs
should extend to cover these chemicals too. But the output and industrial use
of the above substances is so massive that the attempts to take them under
control within the boundaries of a single country have yielded no results
while entailing substantial expenditure on organizing the control service.
Another measure suggested is marking the packing of chemical substances with
special marks that would help the police identify the country of origin and
the manufacturer. Such a step, however, is unproductive as in most cases the
police does not get a hold of packing of the chemicals which had already been
Experts consider as more promising the special laboratory tests of the
confiscated narcotic substances and chemicals used in the manufacture of
drugs. The tests can be more helpful in identifying the country of origin,
elucidating specific features of the technological process and other
fundamental properties of the chemicals.
For instance, specialists of the German institute of criminology have
designed on the basis of the American and Swedish experience methods of
identifying the places of origin of heroin through chromatographic testing.
Experts believe the most effective way to control the proliferation of the
substances used in drug manufacturing could be the marking of such substances
with dyes or radiation. The weak point of the method is a possible impact the
marking may have on the qualities of the chemicals and the end products.
Besides, it would contradict the legislation of many countries and some
international agreements. That is why the researchers of anti-narcotic
methods tend to pin hopes on the method of a different nature - self-control.
It encompasses a set of police-proposed measures that are effectuated by the
services directly involved in actions against illegal manufacturing,
trafficking and trade in drugs, as well as by all companies and individuals
who have a connection with the manufacturing, sales and use of narcotics and
auxiliary chemicals. According to this concept, the producers, suppliers and
consumers of chemicals report to the police all suspicious purchases. The
police, in its turn, work out detailed recommendation and criteria for such
cases. Examples of these criteria are above-the- statistic-average size of a
purchased batch of chemicals, a request from a new client, etc. Such kind of
reporting gives the police more opportunities to locate illegal laboratories,
channels of raw materials supplies and dispatch of the end product.
An imperative condition for putting in effect practical anti-narcotics
measures is stringent control over the narcotic raw materials and their
storage and limitations on trade in them.
It is important to note those drug-dealing affects the legitimate turnover of
narcotic substances. Violations of the rules of their storage, manufacturing,
and accounting continue increasing. There are misappropriations and other
offenses, including attacks on warehouses of narcotic preparations in health
centers, drug stores, etc. Executives do not take adequate measures to
safeguard narcotic substances and sometime become accomplices in crimes. A
possible explanation for this state of affairs is the breach of the rules
It is important to reveal violations of the effective rules of manufacturing,
storage, accounting, and sales of narcotic preparations, invoking criminal
liability when necessary. This necessitates joint steps by the anti-drug
units, licensing system of the internal affairs ministry, fire detachments
and units of extra-departmental guards.
The perpetrators of drug-related crimes' utmost secrecy calls for the
improvement in the procedures of investigation in strict compliance with the
criminal law procedures.
Crime Investigation Organizational Measures:
An important element in this process is the interaction between detectives
and investigators. The best and well-tested form of this interaction is the
setting-up of temporary or, as need be, permanently functioning
inquiry/investigation groups. These groups focus the efforts of all branches
of the police on drug-related crimes. The main directions of activities (with
due regard to the limits of professional competence of each member of the
a) gathering and systematic analysis of all the incoming and requested
information on drug-related crimes and malefactors;
b) identification of criminal groupings and measures toward halting their
c) police actions to prevent and halt misappropriations of drugs and other
offenses in medicare institutions and other organizations;
d) police actions taken simultaneously with the investigation as envisaged by
the criminal law court procedure;
e) quality emergency investigation, completeness, objectivity and timeliness
of inquiry and investigation;
f) tactical planning and expedient conduct of search and technical
operations; professional conduct of operations; employment of investigation
and other technologies to supply the investigators with testimonies and eye-
witness accounts of the offenders' guilt;
g) professional analysis of the ways of using the results of search and
technical operations in investigation procedures.
Par. 4. Other Organizational Measures to Combat Narcotics
Narcotics can be overcome only if approaches to anti-narcotics activity are
fundamentally revised, its concrete trends are mapped out and the control
over the end results achieved by each ministry and department, responsible
for curbing this social evil.
Up-to-date scales and forms of narcotics proliferation show that the
measures, applied within the framework of established structures, are not
particularly successful. There is no proper interaction between the
ministries and the departments, called upon to handle these matters; work is
carried out far too often formally without essential drive, consistence, and
organization; the system of preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitative help
remains inadequate; and anti-narcotic campaign is ineffective.
For this reason, organizational medical and law enforcement steps can and
must be backed by measures to resist drug abuse in all spheres and at all
levels of state power to avoid their imbalance and flaws in the all-out anti-
The practical experience of daily anti-narcotics activity calls for a
significant impact from the top government agencies.
It is at this level that measures should be adopted for creating and
implementing a single national strategy against narcotics. For this end, a
single permanent executive body, empowered to control narcotics and capable
of coordinating comprehensive actions daily against drug addiction and drug-
related crimes must be created. The formation of such a body, representing
all the ministries and departments concerned, will make it possible to
organize a prompt and permanent government action against narcotics,
coordinate efforts of government agencies, and other organizations, as well
as individuals, and maintain contact with international organizations.
It is important to revitalize government-sponsored efforts toward hammering
out a single anti-narcotics legislation, matching international standards,
including 1) a law on the `control over the legal distribution of narcotics,
strong substances, precursors, and 2) on the responsibility for such offences
as: drugs extortion; illegal actions with government-owned chemicals and
special equipment and their use to make drugs; 3) organizational forms of
perpetrating drug-related crimes; 4) various commercial and financial
operations on money laundering.
Due to the latter, it is necessary to give law enforcement agencies more
authority to get from banks and other institutions and organizations
necessary data on accounts and other financial transactions of persons,
suspected of unlawful actions with narcotics.
Besides, it appears reasonable to amend the current legislation by expanding
authority and creating appropriate conditions for law-enforcement agencies
(police) to a) conduct searches of luggage, including carry-on luggage, of
passengers at all kinds of transport facilities, b) check controlled
shipments and cargoes, c) check state purchases of drugs, d) conduct medical
examinations of citizens, e) set a more flexible procedure of placing drug
addicts for medical treatment, f) a more flexible system of administrative
detaining and arresting of citizens, and g) to practice more extensively the
protocol form of pre-trial materials preparation.
Organizational Measures at Government Level:
It would be expedient to carry out a number of organizational anti-narcotics
measures at government level. They include:
- creating a stable system of information for regional law-enforcement
agencies about treaties, agreements, and protocols, concluded and signed by
countries, governments, and departments, about procedures and requirements of
signing such documents, about Interpol National Central Bank's opportunities
to combat specific types of crimes, and about requests' formulation
- putting the NCB on round-the-clock duty to meet local requests;
- speeding up the creation of effective border customs control and adopting
measures against the use of a country as a transit point to ship drugs to
- toughening control over the production and supplies of drug-bearing
substances in chemical pharmacology and other areas, where they are used for
A positive solution should be found to the issue of opening more medical
centers, improving anti-drug addiction therapy, and manufacturing and
acquiring more effective medicines, which involves much government spending
and a search for sources of funding. Simultaneously, special government-
financed short and long term comprehensive medical programs should be worked
out and put into effect to block the consumption and sale of drugs; really
re-socialize drug addicts; stop AIDS from spreading; spare no effort toward
revitalizing non-governmental organizations' activity, aimed at reducing the
demand for narcotics.
Measures to Train Personnel:
One should bear in mind that in most cases, the first contact with drug
addicts, that is with seriously ill people, is made by the officers of law
enforcement (police) agencies who have neither practical nor psychological
skills of dealing with ill persons. But even a physician is required
alongside professional knowledge, to display ethical norms, which quite often
are crucial for the recovery of mentally imbalanced patients. For this
reason, it is especially urgent and important to draw up teaching aides and
methodological recommendations for law- enforcement agencies, not only on the
tactics but also on the ethics of dealing with drug addicts, especially young
ones. It is necessary to put the experience, gained by the police in anti-
drug addiction prophylactic actions, into practice as soon as possible.
Polish scientists identify three groups of young drug addicts: 1) those who
can but do not want to stop using drugs; 2) those who would like to give up
drugs but cannot do so on their own; 3) and those who do not want and can not
drop the ruinous dependence.
The principles of treating representatives of each of these groups differ
considerably. The experience of drug addicts' treatment shows that two
opposite trends dominate in the systems accepted up to date. The first
prefers tolerance, partnership, and medical treatment, excluding coercion and
punishment. The second envisages tough regimentation toward drug addicts.
However, there is one requirement that is common for both systems -
indispensable compliance with the principle of voluntary consent.
There are several varieties of pedagogics as industrial, military,
agricultural, and medical. The latter, also called orthopedagogics, deals
with upbringing children with defects. In the field of criminological
prophylaxis, essential is the role of resocialization, i.e. of the
educational effect on persons, poorly adapted to life in society. According
to the criminological literature, "the basic goal in penitentiaries, is to
create conditions for the social adaptation of persons after their prison
term is over.» All these sources of knowledge should be made instrumental in
combating drug abuse.
At the government level, interdepartmental programs involving a wide range of
experts and the media should be worked out and implemented on educational and
prophylactic campaign among the population.
Foreign Experience in Prophylactics:
Foreign experience deserves attention in this respect. Poland, for one,
attaches great significance to public anti-drug addiction campaigns.
Specialists are convinced that drug abuse should be addressed by the public
organizations and individuals, among them - well known scientists, artists,
writers, and clerics.
The catholic church plays a special role. Maximilian Conbeg's Society has all
parishes offered to its program of temperance, urging them to abstain not
only from drugs but also from all unnatural desires. The program has been
backed across the board. Each diocese has priests specially trained to render
professional aid to drug addicts and to help them return to society.
The Catholic University offers a course of lectures, which are to help drug
addicts; the newly organized Drug Prevention Society has basic activities
coinciding with that of the government and its main tasks are to treat drug
addicts, return them to society and prevent drug-related crimes. The Society
provides therapy for drug afflicted persons, and recommendations on how to
regain the healthy way of life. The Polish Psychiatrists' Society has an
anti-drug addiction commission, pursuing mainly scientific objectives.
The Monar youth movement immensely contributes to the anti-drug campaign
sparing no effort to return drug addicts to society by interacting with
medics. Religious and public organizations are actively involved in anti-
narcotics campaigns in other countries, too.
At the same time, it is only within the framework of a government-sponsored
program that all issues, pertaining to the destruction of drug-bearing crops,
must be addressed. For that it is necessary to create independent agencies,
furnished with advanced equipment, aircraft, motor vehicles and other means.
Such agencies can be allowed appropriate functions only after clearance by a
team of ecological experts. Here in, strict criminal responsibility must be
enforced for carrying out such actions that destroy the environment and harm
flora and fauna. There must be compensation.
The solution of this issue depends upon the possibility of deploying the
armed forces. In the USA the army plays a key role in monitoring drug
trafficking routes. The Defense Department carries out the following measures
against criminal narco-business:
- searching for drug-bearing crops, secret laboratories, storages and drug
- discovering and destroying sources of producing drugs (cocaine, marijuana,
- putting under control all possible routes of smuggling drugs into the
country (by sea, by air, across land border);
- assisting state law-enforcement agencies in exposing the channels of drug
proliferation by using intelligence sensors and photo equipment in border
- coordinating operations to intercept ships and aircraft, suspected of
illegal drugs shipment;
- patrolling the coast by interceptor planes, ships, posting radars, balloon
systems to monitor low-flying objects, etc.;
- measures to get enlisted and non-enlisted army personnel cut drugs
In 1990, the military, using search equipment, capable of locating submerged
cables and pipelines, discovered an underground tunnel at the border with
Mexico, a tunnel through which huge consignments of drugs were smuggled into
the USA. In the last few years, four anti-narcotics techniques have been in
focus: computerized systems, advanced means of communication, field
laboratory analyzers, remote chemical detectors (photo-acoustic and laser
spectroscopes for locating specific drug production sites.) Experts regard as
promising instruments for checking baggage and cargo containers. These
instruments operate on nonlinear radar principles.
Organization of Comprehensive Studies:
By combining the efforts of scientists and experts it would be possible to
avoid haste with setting up new creative teams and, instead, apply to the
database for information, learn its source and its author, and decide whether
it's simpler to use it rather than carry out studies anew. Such an approach
would be quite beneficial for those whose work has so far been wasted and for
those who urgently need scientific information.
This would also speed up the process of solving a number of drug problems by
cutting the time for scientific research and decreasing inevitable material
Functions of the Head Branch of the Anti-narcotics Agency:
Changes in the given situation call for an appropriate effective response, a
revision of the content and volume of work, correction of functions carried
out at the departmental level.
Particularly responsible is the role of the head branch of the agency
integrated in the Ministry of Internal Affairs which studies, analyzes, sums
up and monitors information on narcotics in the country, informs appropriate
institutions and departments about it, sets priorities in actions against
narcotics, adopts measures to attain them, and carries out other managerial
functions. This agency also arranges and takes part in concrete anti-
narcotics campaigns. These include measures to prevent the illegal growth of
drug-bearing crops (plan, organize, and carry out POPPY operations, etc.); to
curb theft of drugs and highly effective medicinal substances; discover
underground laboratories (develop, plan and carry out Doping operations);
uncover the most sophisticated crimes (by taking direct part in investigative
and search actions upon arrival on site, providing methodological,
informational and technical aid); expose persons and criminal gangs with
inter-regional and international narco-business links; join other services in
carrying out preventive operations at airports, railway stations, customs
offices to detain criminals, check the baggage, eliminate drug trafficking
channels; upgrade work toward preventing and exposing drug-related crimes.
The volume of applicable law measures at this level bears a selective nature,
being many inferiors to the volume of managerial and other functions. It
would be more rational and effective however to rid these branches completely
of any forms of direct involvement in preventing, exposing, and curbing
crimes and thereby extend managerial functions by raising demands for
professional leadership and service management by augmenting the staff
functions of these branches and limiting their role in exposing and curbing
crimes to appropriate qualified essential methods and effective control.
Perfecting Internal Affairs Ministry Work:
To make law-enforcement agencies anti-drug trafficking activity more
efficient, the Internal Affairs Ministry could:
- draft comprehensive anti-drug addiction programs;
- perfect the departmental normative basis, create methods and analysis
teaching aids and video-films;
- participate in the work to bring republican anti-narcotics legislation in
line with the international acts;
- create a normative-legal basis to ensure a mechanism for bilateral and
multilateral international cooperation;
- work out, create, and introduce in day-to-day activity a mechanism of
control over the emerging narcotic situation and coordinate reaction to its
- adopt measures to provide the branches with appropriate equipment and
- create automated information-search systems with wide-ranging possibilities
to combat criminal narco-business;
- set out short and long term guidelines;
- determine resources for the target-oriented organizational, informative,
promptly investigative and material-technical support of areas with
widespread drug abuse and rampant crime;
- control the formation of local branches and their activities;
- organize interaction between law-enforcement (police) agencies, serving at
areas where drugs are grown, trafficked, and consumed;
- coordinate various branches' activity to carry out joint measures toward
exposing criminal gangs with inter-regional contacts and carrying out
prophylactic measures on air, sea, river, and auto transport;
- form computer data banks on drug trafficking at republican and
- follow the USA and other countries' experience in setting up special mobile
units, armed with the most advanced military hardware and teach methods and
ecologically safe technologies of drug crops' destruction;
- promote law-enforcement (police) agencies' cooperation with customs,
national security agencies, army and border troops;
- educate territorial agencies on various methods of work;
- plan cooperation with foreign agencies in preventing drugs and raw material
for narcotics from being smuggled in from other regions practicing a specific
form of controllable supplies envisaged by the 1988 UN Convention and exert
control over such cooperation;
- organize and control scientific research and apply it;
- to study, sum up, and apply positive foreign experience;
One should bear in mind that the campaign against narcotics is part of the
universal action against organized crime. Efficiency at the local level makes
it possible to expose not only drug-related crimes but also felonies,
especially those involving violence and theft.
If all these organizational measures are put into practice, the campaign
against narcotics in the Russian Federation will be more effective.
The international community sees narcotics as one of the most dangerous
social evils. International legal acts, as well as national legislations,
including that of the Russian Federation, contain numerous norms regulating
actions against narcotics bound to suppress and prevent it. Moves are made to
perfect and update these norms so that they could counteract new forms and
methods of committing drug-related crimes. Naturally enough, legal
regulations trail after criminal thought in these and other criminal
To narrow the gap between the rapid advancement of criminal know-how and the
introduction of the new anti-crime legislation there is a need to monitor the
spread of narcotics, assess it, watch its dynamics, forecast its progress and
carry out appropriate research. Monitoring and research are to help pinpoint
the sensitive spots of drug abuse and work out new legal norms and methods
for dealing with them.
Highly important are the application of legal norms and the planning of
various measures aiming to oppose narcotics.
Private business has been made legal in the new social and economic
conditions. Under the guise of legally established private enterprises
underground drug manufacturing laboratories and drug trade hideouts (houses,
apartments) have begun functioning as unofficial operational reports confirm.
Illegal efforts to produce and sell drugs and the tendency for their
proliferation demand emergency antidrug legislation. Illegally-operating
drug-producing and drug-selling companies present a much bigger threat to
society than all other drug-related ventures do, now that they (a) spread new
varieties of and increasingly more hazardous drugs, (b) increase, drug
production and sales manifold, (c) promote an organized system of
narcobusiness and, consequently, the takeover of drug-trafficking by
organized criminal groups, (d) take monopoly control of drug-trafficking and
reap super-profits in this field, (e) take drug-trafficking operations beyond
the national borders and make use of their foreign connections for the
acquisition, manufacture, transportation, sending, smuggling and sale of
drugs. Their activities prompt many related crimes.
All this calls for moves to update the Russian Criminal Code with articles on
legal responsibility for the production and sale of drugs which must be
considered to belong to the categories of serious and most serious criminal
offenses punishable by ten to fifteen years of imprisonment and the
confiscation of property.
The climatic conditions on the territory of Russian Federation favor the
natural growth and cultivation of drug-bearing plants, which may be, or are
already, used for the purpose of drug production. This calls for the need to
constantly perfect methods of exposing and destroying such plants, both those
that are wild and those that are raised, which, in turn, calls for a wide
range of financial and organizational efforts.
Its geographic and geopolitical position makes the Russian Federation a
convenient trans-shipment point on the road from Asia to other former Soviet
republics and on to Europe. The Russian government, its law-enforcement
agencies, in particular, must, as a result, check illegal attempts to take
drugs across the national border, bolster up its customs services and see to
it that they upgrade their performance and work in close cooperation with the
territorial and traffic police and other agencies expected to carry out
programs of action against narcotics.
The newly gained independence requires that the Russian Federation confront
two problems directly related to narcotics and efforts to overcome it.
First of all, borders between Russia and other former Soviet republics show
the highest degree of transparency, i.e. border-crossing presents almost no
problem. Given the geographic and geopolitical position of Russia, the
transparency of the national border aggravates the problem of drug smuggling
and calls for the need to essentially fortify the border and better customs
control along it.
Secondly, there is the problem of international relations in the field of
narcotics and international efforts to deal with it. There are two angles to
this second problem. Now that it has gained sovereignty, Russia has to assume
upon itself the functions of establishing and maintaining international
relations, especially since it represents a sort of a link in the chain that
ties drug- producers and drug-consuming regions together.
The second angle of this problem lies in the fact that once being a part of
the Soviet Union, Russian Federation neither faced nor could possibly face
obstacles concerning the jurisdiction of its anti-crime effort, including
crimes committed on territories of different Soviet republics. Now that they
are sovereign nations, the former Soviet republics have national borders,
which, transparent as they are, make legal action against criminal elements
possible only in the context of international relations and in keeping with
international agreements. This, naturally, complicates the timely launching
of operational and investigative actions aimed at solving criminal cases
including those of drug-trafficking.