Реферат: Hepatitis A Prevention
- How do you get hepatitis A?
- Who is at risk for hepatitis A?
- How do you know if you have hepatitis A?
- How can you prevent hepatitis A?
- Who should receive hepatitis A vaccine?
- Can you get hepatitis A from food or water?
- Can HAV be killed?
How do you get hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is found in the stool of persons with hepatitis A.
HAV is usually spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth
that had been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. For
this reason, the virus is more easily spread in areas where there are poor
sanitary conditions or where personal hygiene is not observed.
Persons with hepatitis A can spread the virus to others who live in the same
household or with whom they have sexual contact. Casual contact as in the
usual office, factory, or school setting does not spread the virus.
Who is at risk for hepatitis A?
Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A can affect anyone. In the United States, hepatitis A can occur in situations ranging from isolated cases of disease to widespread epidemics.
Good personal hygiene and proper sanitation can help prevent hepatitis A. Vaccine are also available for long-term prevention of hepatitis A virus infection in persons 2 years of age and older. Immune globulin is available for short-term prevention in all ages.
How do you know if you have hepatitis A?
Three of every four adults who get hepatitis A have symptoms that usually
develop over a period of several days. Children who are infected often have
If you have symptoms
- Persons who share a household or have sex contact with someone who
has the hepatitis A
- Travelers to countries where
hepatitis A is common and where clean water and proper sewage disposal are
- Men who have sex with men
who use street drugs
- Children and employees in child care
centers (especially centers that have children in diapers) where a child
or employee has hepatitis A
- Residents and staff of
institutions for developmentally disabled persons when a resident or
employee has hepatitis A
- Workers who handle HAV-infected
animals or work with HAV in a research laboratory setting. (This does not
include laboratories doing routine testing.)
- Persons with
clotting factor disorders who receive clotting factor concentrates
A person can spread HAV about one week before symptoms appear and during the
first week of symptoms. Persons with no symptoms can still spread the virus.
This often happens with young children who unknowingly spread HAV to older
children and adults.
Unlike hepatitis B and hepatitis C, hepatitis A causes no long-term liver
damage and usually does not cause death. There is no chronic carrier state
with hepatitis A. Having had the disease produces life-long immunity from
future HAV infection.
How can you prevent hepatitis A?
- your eyes may turn yellow and you may have dark urine
you may be tired
- you may lose your appetite
you may have nausea, vomiting, fever, or stomach ache
Children and adults need two shots of hepatitis A vaccine for long-term
protection. Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to return for the second
Immune globulin, a preparation of antibodies, is recommended for short-term
protection against hepatitis A and for persons who have already been exposed
to HAV. Immune globulin must be given within two weeks of exposure to HAV for
Who should receive hepatitis A vaccine?
You should always wash your hands after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, and before eating or preparing food.
Hepatitis A vaccines provide long-term protection against hepatitis A and are licensed for use in persons 2 years of age and older.
Can you get hepatitis A from food or water?
- Persons who work in or travel to areas where hepatitis A is common.
(first dose should be given at least 4 weeks before travel)
Children in states and countries with constant increased rates of hepatitis
A. County and state health departments can tell you whether your areas
have these higher hepatitis A rates.
- Men who have sex
- Persons who use street drugs
with clotting factor disorders, such as hemophilia
who work with HAV-infected animals or work with HAV in a research setting
(hepatitis A vaccine is not generally recommended for health care
Can HAV be killed?
The virus is killed by boiling at 85 degrees C (185 degrees F) for 1 minute.
However, the disease can still be spread by cooked foods if they are
contaminated after cooking. Adequate chlorination of water, as recommended in
the United States, kills HAV.
The material has been taken from
In addition to getting hepatitis A directly from infected people, you can get hepatitis A by:
- swallowing contaminated water or ice
- eating raw shellfish harvested from sewage-contaminated water
- eating fruits, vegetables, or other food that may have become contaminated during handling