Лекция: Lectures on marketing
LECTURE 1: INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING RESEARCH
The American Marketing Association Redefines Marketing Research
The New Definition: Marketing research is the function which links the
consumer, customer, and public to the marketer through
- Used to identify and define market opportunities and problems
- Generate, refine, and evaluate marketing performance
- Monitor marketing performance
- Improve understanding of marketing as a process
The Role of Marketing Research
-Customer Groups (Consumers, Employees, Shareholders, Suppliers)
-Controllable Marketing Variables (Product, Pricing, Promotion. Distribution)
-Uncontrollable Environmental Factors (Economy, Technology, Laws &
Regulation,Social & Cultural Factors, Political Factors)
-Assessing Information Needs
-Marketing Decision Making
--Marketing Managers (Market Segmentation, Target Market Selection, Marketing
Programs, Performance & Control
-Specifies the information necessary to address these issues
-Manages and implements the data collection process
-Analyzes the results
-Communicates the findings and their implications
Classification of Marketing Research
- Problem Identification Research
--Market potential research
--Market share research
--Market characteristics research
--Sales analysis research
--Business trends research
- Problem Solving Research
Problem Solving Research
--Determine the basis of segmentation
--Establish market potential and responsiveness for various segments
--Select target markets
--Create lifestyle profiles: demography, media, and product image
--Determine optimal product design
--Brand positioning and repositioning
--Control score tests
- Pricing research
--Importance of price in brand selection
--Product line pricing
--Price elasticity of demand
--Initiating and responding to price changes
- Promotional research
--Optimal promotional budget
--Sales promotion relationship
--Optimal promotional mix
--Creative advertising testing
--Evaluation of advertising effectiveness
--Types of distribution
--Attitudes of Channel members
--Intensity of wholesale & resale coverage
--Location of retail and wholesale outlets
Management Information Systems versus Decision Support Systems
-Use of Reports
-Information Displaying Restricted
-Can Improve Decision Making by Clarifying Data
-Use of Models
-User Friendly Interaction
-Can Improve Decision Making by Using “What if” Analysis
Marketing information system (MIS)
-MIS – is a system to generate, store, and disseminate information to
marketing managers (internal Data, -External Data)
-Recurrent info – info provided by a MIS on a periodic basis
-Monitoring info – info derived from regular scanning of selected sources
-Requested info – info developed in response to a specific request by a
Marketing Research Supplier and Services
-FULL SERVICE (Syndicate Services, Standardized Services, Customized
Services, Internet Services)
-LIMITED SERVICE (Field Services, Coding and Data Entry Services, Analytical
Services, Data Analysis Services, Branded Products and Services)
Organization of Marketing Research at Oscar Mayer
--Conducts Primary & Secondary Research
--Serves As Marketing Consultants
--Analyzes Market Trends
--Advances the State of the Art in Marketing Research
-Marketing Systems and Analytics (MSA)
--Performs Sales Analysis Based on Shipment & Store Scanner Data
--Supports Computer End Users within Marketing Department
--Serves as Source of Marketing Information
Top market research firms on the Russian market
-Comcon – 2 (main information product – R-TGI Russian Target group index –
36000 respondents from-13 regions and cities of Russia) – Panel research
-Gallup media research
-MAGRAM market research
Selected Marketing Research Career Descriptions
Vice-President of Marketing Research: The senior position in marketing
research. The vice president (VP) is responsible for the entire marketing
research operation of the company and serves on the top management team. This
person sets the objectives and goals of the marketing research department.
Research Director: Also a senior position. The research director has the
general responsibility for the development and execution of all the marketing
Assistant Director of Research: Serves as an administrative assistant to
the director and supervises some of the other marketing research staff members.
(Senior) Project Manager: Has overall responsibility for design,
implementation, and management of research projects.
Statistician/Data Processing Specialist: Serves as an expert on theory
and application of statistical techniques. Responsibilities include
experimental design, data processing, and analysis.
Vice President of Marketing Research
-Part of company’s top management team
-Directs company’s entire market research operation
-Sets the goals & objectives of the marketing research department
-Also part of senior management
-Heads the development and execution of all research projects
Assistant Director of Research
-administrative assistant to director
-supervises research staff members
Senior Project Manager
-Responsible for design, implementation, & research projects
-Participates in the development of projects
-Carries out execution of assigned projects
-Coordinates the efforts of analyst, junior analyst, & other personnel
development of research design and data collection
-Prepares final report
-Handles details in execution of project
-Designs & pretests questionnaires
-Preliminary analysis of data
-Secondary data analysis
-Edits and codes questionnaires
-Conducts preliminary analysis of data
-Serves as expert on theory and application on statistical techniques
-Oversees experimental design, data processing, and analysis
Field Work Director
-Handles selection, training, supervision, and evaluation of interviewers and
Marketing Research at Marriott Corporation
Marriott functions in three main areas: lodging (Marriott Hotels and Resorts,
Marriott Suites, Residence Inns, Courtyard Hotels, and Fairfield Inns),
contract services (Marriott Business Food and Services, Education, Health-
Care, In-Flight Services, and Host International, Inc.) and restaurants
(family restaurants, Travel Plazas, and Hot Shops). It is probably best
known, however, for its lodging operations.
Marketing research at Marriott is done at the corporate level through the
Corporate Marketing Services (CMS). CMS’s goals include providing the
management of the different areas of Marriott with the information they need
to better understand the market and the customer.
CMS conducts many different types of research. They use quantitative and
qualitative research approaches such as telephone and mail surveys, focus
groups, and customer intercept to gain more information on market
segmentation and sizing, product testing, price sensitivity of consumers,
consumer satisfaction, and the like.
The process of research at Marriott is a simple stepwise progression. The
first step is to better define the problem to be addressed and the objectives
of the client unit and to develop an approach to the problem. The next step
is to formulate a research design and design the study. CMS must decide
whether to conduct its own research or buy it from an outside organization.
If the latter option is chosen, CMS must decide whether or not to use
multiple firms. Once a decision is made, the research is carried out by
collecting and analyzing the data. Then, CMS presents the study findings. The
final step in the research process is to keep a constant dialogue between the
client and the CMS. During this stage, CMS may help explain the implications
of the research findings or may make suggestions for future actions.
Marketing Research Associations Online
AAPOR: American Association for Public Opinion Research (www.aapor.org)
AMA: American Marketing Association (www.marketingpower.org)
ARF: The Advertising Research Foundation (www.amic.com/arf)
CASRO: The Council of American Survey Research Organizations (www.casro.org)
MRA: Marketing Research Association (www.mra-net.org)
QRCA: Qualitative Research Consultants Association (www.qrca.org)
RIC: Research Industry Coalition (www.research industry.org)
ESOMAR: European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (www.esomar.nl)
MRS: The Market Research Society (UK) (www.marketresearch.org.uk)
MRSA: The Market Research Society of Australia (www.mrsa.com.au)
PMRS: The Professional Marketing Research Society (Canada) (www.pmrs-aprm.com)
In Russia: Russian Marketing association ( www.rma.ru)
Gildia of marketers – professional marketers organization
Steps in decision making process
-Select problem/opportunity to pursue
-Choose best alternative
-Modify as necessary
LECTURE 2: DEFINING THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROBLEM AND DEVELOPING AN APPROACH
Marketing research process
Identifying a management problem or opportunity; translating that into a
research problem; and collecting, analyzing, and reporting the results
Determining the best course of action to take to maximize the organization’s
Marketing research design
The specification of procedures for collecting and analyzing data to help
identify or react to a problem or opportunity
Types of research design
-Exploratory research:attempts to discover the general nature of
the problem and the variables that relate to it
-Descriptive research: focuses on the accurate description of the
variables in the research model
-Causal research: attempts to specify the nature of the functional
relationship between two or more variables in the problem model
Steps in the research design process
-Define the research problem
-Estimate the value of the info to be provided by the research
-Select the data collection methods
-Select the measurement techniques
- Select the sample
-Select the analytical approach
-Evaluate the ethics of the research
-Specify the time and financial cost
-Prepare the research report
Factors to be Considered in the Environmental Context of the Problem
-past information and forecasts
-resources and constraints
-marketing and technological skills
Proper Definition of the Research Problem
Broad Statement--->Specific Components
The Role of Theory in Applied Marketing Research
1. Conceptualizing and identifying key variables- Provides a conceptual
foundation and understanding of the basic processes underlying the problem
situation. These processes will suggest key dependent and independent
2. Operationalizing key variables- Theoretical constructs (variables)
can suggest independent and dependent variables naturally occurring in the real
3. Selecting a research design- Causal or associative relationships
suggested by the theory may indicate whether a causal or descriptive design
should be adopted.
4. Selecting a sample- The theoretical framework may be useful in
defining the population and suggesting variables for qualifying respondents,
imposing quotas, or stratifying the population (see Chap. 11).
5. Analyzing and interpreting data- The theoretical framework (and the
models, research questions and hypotheses based on it) guide the selection of a
data analysis strategy and the interpretation of results (see Chap. 14).
6. Integrating findings- The findings obtained in the research project
can be interpreted in the light of previous research and integrated with the
existing body of knowledge.
Development of Research Questions and Hypotheses
At United, Food is Uniting the Airline With Travelers
United Airlines, as other major airlines, had to deal with passenger loyalty
(management decision problem: how to attract more and more loyal passengers).
The broad marketing research problem was to identify the factors that
influence loyalty of airline travelers.
The basic answer is to improve service. Exploratory research, theoretical
framework, and empirical evidence revealed that the consumers’ choice of an
airline is influenced by: safety, price of the ticket, frequent-flyer
program, convenience of scheduling, and brand name.
A graphical model stipulated that consumers evaluate competing airlines
based on factors of the choice criteria to select a preferred airline. The
problem was that major airlines were quite similar on these factors. Indeed,
"airlines offer the same schedules, the same service, and the same fares.”
Consequently, United Airlines had to find a way to differentiate itself. Food
turned out to be the solution.
Secondary data, like the J. D Power & Associates' survey on "current and
future trends in airline food industry", indicated that "food service is a
major contributor to customers’ loyalty". This survey also emphasized the
importance of food brands.
The airline's Marketrak survey told United Airlines that "customers wanted
more varied and up-to date food.”
The following research questions and hypotheses may be posed.
RQ1 How important is food for airline customers?
H1: Food is an important factor for airline travelers
H2: Travelers value branded food
H3: Travelers prefer larger food portions, but with consistent quality
H4: Travelers prefer exotic food
Characteristics which influence the research design included the
identification of competing airlines (Delta, American, Aeroflot etc.),
factors of the choice criteria (already identified), measurement of airline
travel and loyalty.
This kind of research helped United Airlines to define their marketing
research problem, and develop the approach. Focus groups and surveys were
conducted to check customers' perceptions of food in United Airlines'
aircraft. The results provided support for all the hypotheses (H1 to H4).
United Airlines then made a few changes: new "culinary menus," larger
portions of food, new coffee and branded products (e.g., Godiva chocolates).
This resulted in better service, increasing customer satisfaction and
LECTURE 3: RESEARCH PROCESS AND RESEARCH DESIGN, RESEARCH BRIEF AND
Classification of Marketing Research Designs
-Exploratory Research Design
-Conclusive Research Design
-- Descriptive Research
----Single Cross-Sectional Design
----Multiple Cross-Sectional Design
-- Casual Research
Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional
ADV: Representative Sampling, Response bias
ADV: Detecting Change, Large amount of data collection, Accuracy
Cross-Sectional Data May Not Show Change
Longitudinal Data May Show Substantial Change
Difference between Exploratory and Conclusive Research
Objective: To provide insights and understanding.
Characteristics: Information needed is defined only loosely.
Research process is flexible and unstructured. Sample is small and
non-representative. Analysis of primary data is qualitative
Outcome: Generally followed by further exploratory or conclusive research.
Objective: To test specific hypotheses and examine relationships.
Characteristics: Information needed is clearly defined. Research
process is formal and structured. Sample is large and representative. Data
analysis is quantitative.
Outcome: Findings used as input into decision making.
Comparison of Basic Research Designs
Objective: Discovery of ideas and insights
Characteristics: Flexible, versatile. Often the front end of total
Methods: Expert surveys, Pilot surveys, Secondary data, Qualitative research
Objective: Describe market characteristics or functions
Characteristics: Marked by the prior formulation of specific
hypotheses. Preplanned and structured design
Methods: Secondary data, Surveys, Panels, Observation and other data
Objective: Determine cause and effect relationships
Characteristics: Manipulation of one or more independent
variables. Control of other mediating variables
Problem-How to find the answer
What is the need, problem? Observation studies, habits and attitudes, market
What benefit and reason why?
How good is the idea / concept? Innocheck or Falcon
How good is the product? Product Test
How good is the advertising? PreView
How functional is the packaging? In Use Test
How good is the packaging design? Pack Test
How viable is the mix (Product, Pack, Adv, Price)? Simulated Test Market
How good is the distribution? Retail Index. Distribution Check
Were our pricing objectives met? Retail Index. Distribution check
How much shelf space did we get? Retail Index. Store Checks, Brand Tracking
How effective is my advertising campaign? Retail Index, Consumer Panel
How well are we doing? Brand Tracking
THE RESEARCH BRIEF (“A PROBLEM WELL DEFINED IS A PROBLEM HALF SOLVED”)
THE WHEEL OF RESEARCH
-Present results /Report
To give a ...COMPLETE AND CLEAR DESCRIPTION of the.
-Decisions likely to be taken
MARKET RESEARCH IS AS GOOD AS ITS BRIEF
- Written (never only verbal)
-Available in advance
-Personal discussion with agency, MRM and Brand Office
RELEVANT APPENDICES : BRAND POSITIONING / PERSONALITY /
ADVERTISING PACKAGING BRIEF
ATTRIBUTES/DATA FORMAT etc.
Essential information required for understanding the need for research
-Resume of the status quo
-Description of the problem and reasons for the problem (CORRECTLY IDENTIFY
Items of information required in order to solve the marketing problem
(FOCUSED / SPECIFIC / KEY)
TECHNIQUE / TEST DESIGN
-Sampling method (venue, home, postal, telephone, etc.)
-Use of special equipment / methods
-Size of sample / sub-samples
-Justification of sample size
-Universe covered / justification
-How respondents qualify to be interviewed
-Validity / reliability of sample
-Clear breakdown by sub-sample
-Relevance to market / brand positioning
-Relevance to problem
-Exact breakdown for each question
-Justification for these breakdowns
-Special analysis (mapping / modeling, etc.)
-Experience with this type of analysis
QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES
-Both field and DR procedures
-Numbers / types of checks done
-Who involved / experience
Detailed time plan from day of acceptance of proposal must include estimated
report / presentation date. Where timing is unusual, should justify.
REQUIREMENTS FROM CLIENT
-Detail all products, advertising material, etc. needed, including date by
when required and venue to be delivered
-Include all details of client participation
-Way in which data will be reported / presented
-Details of special graphs / charts
-Number of report copies will provide
-What report will contain
Full details on cost and what is included, broken down by stage (if relevant)
-Method of billing
-Responsibilities and limitations
-Codes which are adhered to
A GOOD PROPOSAL MUST CONTAIN
-Background / problem definition
-Objectives of project
-Technique / test design
-Quality control measures
-Requirements from client
-Reporting / presentation format
Potential Sources of Error in Research Designs
-Random Sampling Error
-- Response Error
----Surrogate Information Error
----Population Definition Error
----Sampling Frame Error
----Data Analysis Error
----Respondent Selection Error
Citicorp Banks on Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research
Marketing Research at Citicorp is typical in that it is used to measure
consumer awareness of products, monitor their satisfaction and attitudes
associated with the product, track product usage and diagnose problems as
they occur. To accomplish these tasks Citicorp makes extensive use of
exploratory, descriptive, and causal research. Often it is advantageous to
offer special financial packages to specific groups of customers. In this
case, a financial package is being designed for senior citizens.
The following seven step process was taken by marketing research to help in
1) A taskforce was created to better define the market parameters to include
all the needs of the many Citicorp branches. A final decision was made to
include Americans 55 years of age or older, retired and in the upper half of
the financial strata of that market.
2) Exploratory research in the form of secondary data analysis of the mature
or older market was then performed and a study of competitive products was
conducted. Exploratory qualitative research involving focus groups was also
carried out in order to determine the needs and desires of the market and the
level of satisfaction with the current products.
In the case of senior citizens, a great deal of diversity was found in the
market. This was determined to be due to such factors as affluence, relative
age, and the absence or presence of a spouse.
3) The next stage of research was brainstorming. This involved the formation
of many different financial packages aimed for the target market. In this
case, a total of 10 ideas were generated.
4) The feasibility of the 10 ideas generated in step 3 was then tested. The
ideas were tested on the basis of whether they were possible in relation to
the business. The following list of questions was used as a series of
hurdles that the ideas had to pass to continue on to the next step.
-Can the idea be explained in a manner that the target market will easily
-Does the idea fit into the overall strategy of Citicorp?
-Is there an available description of a specific target market for the
-Does the research conducted so far indicate a potential match for target
market needs and is the idea perceived to have appeal to this market?
-Is there a feasible outline of the tactics and strategies for implementing
-Have the financial impact and cost of the program been thoroughly evaluated
and determined to be in line with company practices?
In this study, only one idea generated from the brainstorming session made it
past all the listed hurdles and on to step 5.
5) A creative work-plan was then generated. This plan was to emphasize the
competitive advantage of the proposed product as well as better delineate the
specific features of the product.
6) The previous exploratory research was now followed up with descriptive
research in the form of mall intercept surveys of people in the target market
range. The survey showed that the list of special features was too long and
it was decided to drop the features more commonly offered by competitors.
7) Finally, the product was test marketed in six of the Citicorp branches
within the target market. Test marketing is a form of causal research.
Given successful test marketing results, the product is introduced
The Greenfield of Online Research
Greenfield Online Research Center, Inc. (http://www.greenfieldonline.com),
based in Westport, Connecticut, is a subsidiary of the Greenfield Consulting
Group. The Online Research Center conducts focus groups, surveys, and polls
over the Internet. The company has built up a “panel” of close to 200,000
Internet users, from which it draws survey samples. The samples may be used
for descriptive research designs like single or multiple cross sectional
designs, as well as longitudinal designs. Causal designs can also be
implemented. Respondents may also be chosen from the registered Internet
Internet users wishing to take part in surveys and other projects begin by
registering online at the company’s Web site. The registration consists of a
“sign-up survey” that asks for e-mail address, type of computer used,
personal interests and information about the respondent’s household. Once an
Internet user is registered, Greenfield Online matches the user with research
studies that are well-suited to his or her interests.
Incentives to take part in focus groups or special surveys are offered by the
companies whose products or services are being researched. This incentive is
cash or valuable prizes. Incentives are also offered to Internet users to
encourage them to register with Greenfield’s Internet panel. New registrants
automatically qualify for prizes that are awarded in monthly drawings.
LECTURE 4: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH DESIGN: SECONDARY DATA
Comparison of Primary & Secondary Data
Primary Data Secondary Data
Collection purpose for the problem at hand
for other problems
Collection process Very involved
Rapid & easy
Collection cost High
Collection time Long
Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data
Classification of Secondary Data
--Ready to Use
--Requires Further Processing
Type of Individual/Household Level Data Available from Syndicated Firms
I. Demographic Data
-Identification (name, address, telephone)
-Names of family members
-Age (including ages of family members)
-Number of children present
-Length of residence
-Number and make of cars owned
II. Psychographic Lifestyle Data
-Interest in golf
-Interest in snow skiing
-Interest in book reading
-Interest in running
-Interest in bicycling
-Interest in pets
-Interest in fishing
-Interest in electronics
-Interest in cable television
There are also firms such as Business Information which collect demographic
data on businesses.
Classification of Published Secondary Sources
-General Business Sources
--Other Government Publications
Classification of Computerized Databases
Classification of Syndicated Services
Unit of Measurement
---Psychographic & Lifestyles
--Mail Diary Panels
--Electronic scanner services
---Volume Tracking Data
---Scanner Diary Panels
---Scanner Diary Panels with Cable TV
Overview of Syndicated Services
The New York Times on the Web: A New Way to Target Consumers
The New York Times Electronic Media Company offers The New York Times on the
Web database information to advertisers in a manner that enables firms to
leverage the site’s 2 million registrants. The database contains demographic
information, such as age, gender, income, and zip code, that ties to an e-
mail address for each of the members. This new database marketing system can
identify and customize user groups, target web messages to specific segments
of the population, and adjust the message based on audience reaction. It can
also increase targeting opportunities through third-party data or additional
information supplied by the user.
For example, the database enables an automobile firm to emphasize safety to
older customers, luxury to affluent ones, and roominess to families. The
system is set up so that near real-time data can be received from the web
that indicates how well ads are performing relative to age, gender, and
income characteristics. Thus, this system allows a firm to maintain up-to-
date information on audiences in order to position its products effectively.
Classification of International Sources
International Secondary Data
-International Organizations in Russia
-Organizations in Foreign Countries
LECTURE 6: DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH DESIGN SURVEY & OBSERVATION
Survey Research is in the Cards for DEC
Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) has made a conscious effort in the past
years to shift from a product-driven focus to a more market-and consumer-
driven focus. The product focus is not unusual in companies manufacturing
hi-tech products. There is a serious need for market research in these hi-
tech companies as they direct their products to the market. Still, market
research in this arena is difficult. It is complicated by the rapid change of
technology as well as the sheer size of the application market. Often the
technology will be employed in many different industries.
This holds true for the computer market where DEC is a key player. Computers
are bought by individuals in every walk of life as well as by businesses in
every market imaginable. The breadth of the market makes useful market
research a formidable task. This task is being undertaken at DEC in their
Corporate Marketing Services (CMS) Division.
Digital’s Corporate Marketing Services Division has been a core element in
the company’s transition to a market-driven strategy.”
CMS is coordinating the company’s strategy to redefine their product from
simply computers to a broader view of the business solutions. The CMS has
employed many research techniques to gain a better understanding of the
“business solutions” market. Both primary and secondary data are collected.
Primary data are obtained through the use of phone and mail surveys as well
as seminars and focus groups. Phone surveys have been used to define
customer needs better and to direct products to the customers better. Mail
surveys have been used to study customer purchasing habits as well as future
purchasing plans. Seminars are held to gain feedback on the long-term
production plans at DEC. Finally, focus groups are used to determine whether
the chosen strategy is good and one that will effectively manage and use the
market’s potential. Without CMS and marketing research, DEC would be facing the
unknowns of their technology as well as the market. This combination of
obstacles would have made the transition from a product-focused to a market-
and consumer-focused company an impossibility.
Classification of Survey Methods
--Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing
--Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing
Some Decisions Related to the Mail Interview Package
Outgoing envelope: size, color, return address
Postage Method of addressing
Sponsorship Type of appeal Postscript
Length Size Layout Format
Content Reproduction Color Respondent anonymity
Type of envelope Postage
Monetary versus non-monetary. Prepaid versus promised amount.
Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods
Criteria Phone In-home
Mall- CAPI Mail Mail E-mail
CATI Interview Intercept surveys panels
Random Digit Directory Designs
Adding a Constant to the Last Digit
An integer between 1 and 9 is added to the telephone number selected from the
directory. In plus-one sampling the number added to the last digit is
1.Number selected from directory: 237-12-03 (exchange-block). Add one to the
last digit to form 237-12-04. This is the number to be included in the
Randomizing the r Last Digits
Replace the r (r = 2, 3, or 4) last digits with an equal number of randomly
selected digits. Number selected from directory: 237-10-23. Replace the last
four digits of the block with randomly selected numbers 5, 2, 8, and 6 to
The first stage consists of selecting an exchange and telephone number from
the directory. In the second stage, the last three digits of the selected
number are replaced with a three-digit random number between 000 and 999.
Selected exchange: 636
Selected number: 636-3230
Replace the last three digits (230) with randomly selected 389 to form 636-
3389. Repeat this process until the desired number of telephone numbers from
this cluster is obtained.
Contacting Respondents (call-backs)
-Prenotification (by letter is a cost effective method of increasing response
-Type of postage
-The length of questionnaire
-Promised monetary incentives
-Promises of anonymity
Classification of Observation Methods
Observation – a data collection technique in which the situation of
interest is watched according to prespecified rules based on a stated objective
Building Accord According to Personal Observation
Honda Motor Co. had a lot of complaints on their sporty, restyled Accord (not
big enough for U.S. drivers, not stylish enough for the Japanese drivers).
Being afraid to lose its market, Honda sent teams to visit U.S. families and
observe how the Americans used their Honda Accords. By personal observation,
the teams found out that the Americans like lots of compartments for storing
maps and change. The teams also actually took U.S. road trips in Accord and
in Ford Taurus and Toyota Camry as its rivals in midsize cars. The results of
this observation study were used to design a new 1998 Accord for U.S.
drivers which has 101.7 cubic feet for passenger space compared to 101.5
cubic feet for Ford Taurus and 97.9 cubic feet for Toyota Camry. Moreover,
Accord also delivered higher customer value by cutting the price. With these
changes, Honda executives are expecting to increase U.S. sales to a total of
1 million units by the year 2000.
Using the results of personal observation studies, Honda customizes the
Accord to world markets. U.S. Accord is designed as a family car by
providing extra headroom and a roomy interior to keep up with the demands of
its aging baby-boomers customers, while Japanese Accord is designed as a
compact, sporty car loaded with high-tech gizmos aimed at young
professionals. It is also smaller to adjust to narrower roads in Japan.
Honda also paid attention to its European market. The 1998 Accord for
European version was a short, narrow body customized to tiny streets in
Europe but not losing its stiff and sporty ride aimed at the Old World
Comparative Evaluation of Observation Methods
Specifications & methodology
Error & Accuracy
Data collection method, response rate, quality & analysis of data, sampling technique & size, questionnaire design, field work.
Examine errors in approach, research design, sampling, data collection & analysis, & reporting.
Time lag between collection & publication, frequency of updates.
Why were the data collected?
Definition of key variables, units of measurement, categories used, relationships examined.
Expertise, credibility, reputation, trustworthiness of the source.
Data should be reliable, valid, & generalizable to the problem.
Assess accuracy by comparing data from different sources.
Census data are updated by syndicated firms.
The objective determines the relevance of data.
Reconfigure the data to increase their usefulness.
Data should be obtained from an original source.
Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods for International Marketing Research
Degree of structure
Degree of disguise
Ability to observe
in natural setting
Low to high
Low to high
Low to high
LECTURE 7: QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN
Youth Research Achieves Questionnaire Objectives
Toy-Opinion Research (YR) of Saint-Petersburg, conducts an omnibus survey of
children every quarter. Typically, YR interviews 150 boys and girls between
ages 6 and 8, along with 150 boys and girls between ages 9 and 12.
Toy-Opinion uses mall intercepts of mothers to recruit for its one-on-one
interviews, which last eight minutes!. The study obtains children’s
views on favorite snack foods, television shows, commercials, radio, magazines,
buzzwords, and movies.
Toy-Opinion intentionally keeps its questionnaire to eight minutes
because of attention span limits of children. President Ivan Virlov
notes that some clients attempt to meet all their research objectives with one
study, instead of surveying, fine-tuning objectives, and re-surveying. In
doing so, these clients overlook attention limits of young respondents when
“The questionnaires keep going through the approval process and people keep
adding questions, ‘Well let’s ask this question, let’s add that question, and
why don’t we talk about this also,” Virlov said. “And so you end up keeping
children 25 minutes in a central location study and they get kind of itchy.”
The response error increases and the quality of data suffers.
Virlov notes other lessons from interviewing children. When asking
questions, interviewers should define the context to which the questions
refers. “It involves getting them to focus on things, putting them in a
situation so that they can identify with it,” Virlov said. “For example,
when asking about their radio listening habits we said, ‘What about when you’re
in Mom’s car, do you listen to radio?’ rather than, ‘How often do you listen to
radio? More than once a day, once a day, more than once a week?’ Those are kind
of big questions for little children.”
Questionnaires designed by Toy-Opinion to obtain children views on favorite
snack foods, television shows, commercials, radio, magazines, buzzwords, and
movies attempt to minimize response error.
Questionnaire Design Process
-Specify the Information Needed
-Specify the Type of Interviewing Method
-Determine the Content of Individual Questions
-Design the Question to Overcome the Respondent’s Inability and Unwillingness
-Decide the Question Structure
-Determine the Question Wording
-Arrange the Questions in Proper Order
-Identify the Form and Layout
-Reproduce the Questionnaire
-Eliminate Bugs by Pre-testing
Questionnaire Design Checklist
Step 1 Specify the Information Needed
1. Ensure that the information obtained fully addresses all the сcomponents
of the problem. Review components of the problem and the approach,
particularly the research questions, hypotheses, and characteristics that
influence the research design.
2. Prepare a set of dummy tables.
3. Have a clear idea of the target population.
Step 2 Type of Interviewing Method
1. Review the type of interviewing method determined based on considerations,
discussed on the last lecture
Step 3 Individual Question Content
1. Is the question necessary?
2. Are several questions needed instead of one to obtain the required
information in an unambiguous manner?
3. Do not use double-barreled questions (Do you think that Coca Cola – tasty
fresh soft drink?)
Step 4 Overcoming Inability and Unwillingness to Answer
1. Is the respondent informed?
2. If respondents are not likely to be informed, filter questions
that measure familiarity, product use, and past experience should be asked
before questions about the topics themselves.
3. Can the respondent remember?(Do you remember brand of T-shirt you had last
4. Avoid errors of telescoping and creation.
5. Questions which do not provide the respondent with cues can underestimate
the actual occurrence of an event.
6. Can the respondent articulate?
7. Minimize the effort required of the respondents.
8. Is the context in which the questions are asked appropriate
9. Make the request for information seem legitimate.
10.If the information is sensitive:
a. Place sensitive topics at the end of the questionnaire.
b. Preface the question with a statement that the behavior of interest is
(for instance, if you are going to ask about debts on the credit card you
can say, that situation with debts is very common)
c. Ask the question using the third-person technique.
d. Hide the question in a group of other questions which respondents are
willing to answer.
e. Provide response categories rather than asking for specific figures.
f. Use randomized techniques, if appropriate.
Step 5 Choosing Question Structure
1. Open-ended questions are useful in exploratory research and as
2. Use structured questions whenever possible.
3. In multiple-choice questions, the response alternatives should
include the set of all possible choices and should be mutually
4. In a dichotomous question, if a substantial proportion of the
respondents can be expected to be neutral, include a neutral
5. Consider the use of the split ballot technique to reduce order
bias in dichotomous and multiple-choice questions.
6. If the response alternatives are numerous, consider using more
than one question to reduce the information processing demands on
Step 6 Choosing Question Wording
1. Define the issue in terms of who, what, when, where, why, and way (the
(What brand of shampoo do you use?)
2. Use ordinary words. Words should match the vocabulary level of the
(Do you think that distribution of soft drink was organized adequately?)
3. Avoid ambiguous words: usually, normally, frequently, often, regularly,
occasionally, sometimes, etc.
(How often do you visit department store:
-Never; - Seldom; - From time to time; - Often; - Regularly.)
4. Avoid leading questions that clue the respondent to what the answer should
(What do you think: should patriots buy import products? - Yes; - No; - Do
5. Avoid implicit alternatives that are not explicitly expressed in the options.
(Do you like to use airlines for short journeys?)
6. Avoid implicit assumptions.
(Do you have positive attitude to the balanced state budget?)
7. Respondent should not have to make generalizations or compute estimates.
(What are the grocery expenses in your family per capita?)
8. Use positive and negative statements.
Step 7 Determine the Order of Questions (Questions sequence)
1. The opening questions should be interesting, simple, and non-threatening.
2. Qualifying questions should serve as the questions at the end (info about
demographic and personal characteristics).
3. Basic information should be obtained first, followed by classification,
and, finally, identification information.
4. Difficult, sensitive, or complex questions should be placed late in the
5. General questions should precede the specific questions. (Funnel approach)
6. Questions should be asked in a logical order.
7. Branching questions should be designed carefully to cover all possible
8. The question being branched should be placed as close as possible to the
question causing the branching, and (2) the branching questions should be
ordered so that the respondents cannot anticipate what additional information
will be required.
Step 8 Form and Layout
1. Divide a questionnaire into several parts.
2. Questions in each part should be numbered.
3. The questionnaire should be pre-coded.
4. The questionnaires themselves should be numbered serially.
Step 9 Reproduction of the Questionnaire
1. The questionnaire should have a professional appearance.
2. Booklet format should be used for long questionnaires.
3. Each question should be reproduced on a single page (or double-page
4. Vertical response columns should be used.
5. Grids are useful when there are a number of related questions which use
the same set of response categories.
6. The tendency to crowd questions to make the questionnaire look shorter
should be avoided.
7. Directions or instructions for individual questions should be placed as
close to the questions as possible.
Step 10 Pre-testing
1. Pre-testing should be done always.
2. All aspects of the questionnaire should be tested, including question
content, wording, sequence, form and layout, question difficulty, and
3. The respondents in the pretest should be similar to those who will be
included in the actual survey.
4. Begin the pretest by using personal interviews.
5. Pretest should also be conducted by mail or telephone if those methods are
to be used in the actual survey.
6. A variety of interviewers should be used for pretests.
7. The pretest sample size is small, varying from 15 to 30 respondents for
the initial testing.
8. Use protocol analysis and debriefing to identify problems.
9. After each significant revision of the questionnaire, another pretest
should be conducted, using a different sample of respondents.
High sample control
Difficulty in locating
respondents at home
Inaccessibility of homes
Unavailability of a large
pool of trained interviewers
Large population in rural areas
Unavailability of maps
Unavailability of current
Unavailability of mailing lists
Low penetration of telephones
Lack of an efficient postal system
Low level of literacy
Face-to-face communication culture
Poor access to comps. & Internet