Статья: Air contamination caused by human activity
AIR CONTAMINATION CAUSED BY HUMAN ACTIVITY
1. AIR CONTAMINATION
Insertion into atmosphere or the creation of the chemical agents and substances
caused by natural, and anthropogenous factors forms an air contamination. The
natural sources of contamination of an atmosphere are volcanos, wood fires,
dusty storms, a weathering etc. These factors do not threaten with negative
consequences to natural ecosystems, except some catastrophic natural
phenomena. For example, the eruption of a volcano Cracatao in 1883, when into
atmosphere 18 km cubes of ashes powder were thrown out ; eruption of a volcano
Catmay (Alaska) in the 1912 that had thrown out 20 km cubes of friable
products. The ashes of these eruptions were spread over large part of the
surface of the Earth and has caused the reduction of solar radiation by 10-20 %
that accordingly has caused in northern hemisphere reduction of annual average
temperature of air by 0.5 C.
However per the last decades the anthropogenous factors of an air
contamination became to exceed by scales natural factors, acquiring global
character. They can render various effects on atmosphere: direct - on state
of the atmosphere (heating, change of humidity etc.); influence on chemical
properties of the atmosphere (change of structure, increase of concentration
of carbon dioxide, aerosols, freons etc.); influence on properties of a
spreading surface (change of size, albedo, system «ocean - atmosphere» etc.)
To basic sources of contamination we can refer: the industrial enterprises,
transport, power system, agriculture etc. Among industries especially toxic
wastes are made by enterprises of colour metallurgy, chemical, petrochemical,
black metallurgy, wood-working, pulp&paper industry etc.
«If you live in the advanced country, with probability 2:3 you breathe by air
that does not meet the standards»
. Is this air bad enough? It's bad enough to cause 50 thousand anticipatory
death annually. It's potentially enough bad to destroy ecosystem and to make
the Earth uninhabited.
2. AIR CONTAMINATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The ecological problems of the Russian society have become aggravated recently
so, that without their consideration it is impossible to decide political and
economic tasks, to form a notion of prospects of social development. «A Level
of ecological safety, in opinion of the experts, is lowest: 94 % of the
interrogated experts have evaluated an ecological situation in country as
The analysis of the statistical data of the amount of wastes of harmful
substances in atmosphere during 90-s' has shown that on the whole in Russian
Federation during this period there was a significant decrease of wastes by
6525000 tons or 19 % .
So, «in 1992 in comparison with 1991 wastes of contaminating substances in
atmospheric air from stationary sources have decreased less than by 17 %.
Althogh the level of production in almost all branches was decreased by 35-30%»
«Leaders» of wastes of harmful substances in an atmosphere during 3 years are
Krasnoyarsk region, the Tyumen, Sverdlovsk, Chelyabinsk, Kemerovo area and
these areas only by the given parameter it is necessary to attribute to a
zone of the ecological catastrophe (see table). As you see most contaminated
regions are economic centers of Russian Federation and unfortunately most
AIR CONTAMINATION IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Source: Demidenko L.О. Changing atmosphere. Moscow., 1996.78 p.
For example, as a result of activity of the industrial enterprises Cherepovetsk
is lead up to the verge of the ecological catastrophe. And the main part here
belongs to joint-stock company «Severstal»; the share of the company in wastes
into atmosphere annually has constituted 95 % of all-urban's.
As to Yakutsk, in opinion of the chief of the group of the monitoring center of
the environment pollution of Yakutsk hydroweather station headquarter Ludmila
Yushkova, it is contaminated by the weighted substances (dust), oxide of
carbon, dioxide of nitrogen and, that especially alarms, by benzapiren. In
winter northern part of Yakutsk hardly suffer where the industrial objects are
concentrated. The greatest pollution by dust and oxide of carbon is noted in
the center of the city owing to the large congestion of motor-vehicle transport
there. Nevertheless the concentration of heavy metals in air is lower than norm
and lower than estimates over cities of Russian Federation.
Now 2/3 population of Russia continues to live in conditions of dangerous air
contamination. It undoubtedly has an effect on their health, as the various
chemical elements are most intensively absorbed by organism during breathing.
But the effect of changes of the environment is especially harmful for
quality of genofond.
3. ATMOSPHERE PROTECTION MEASURES
Measures of the protection of atmosphere are subdivided into three large
groups. First group: decrease measures of gross amount of contamination,
thrown out into atmosphere. This is the improvement of the quality of fuel,
using of special liquids in fuel etc. Same group of measures includes
perfecting of technological processes including development of the closed
cycle production without making of harmful substances into atmosphere.
The second group includes measures of protection of atmosphere by dispersion,
processing and neutralization of harmful wastes.
And finally the third group of measures assumes prevention of the air
contamination by rational placing of the «dirty» enterprises - sources of
harmful wastes with consideration of natural conditions and potential
possibility of the air contamination.
For realization of atmosphere protection measures the strict state control of
air environment, economic and legal stimulation of measures for control of
its pollution are also important.
But no one company begins to reduce its wastes if it does not meet their
interests, if it is not profitable for them (especially for Russia).
Unfortunately it is hard to make them reduce pollution by prohibitions. In this
connection it is offered to distribute interesting experience of the USA,
Canada, Germany and Austria where enterprises redeem quotas for wastes of
harmful gases (i.e. pay for using of natural environment belonging to all world
community). Other variant is introduction of the international "green tax " for
harmful wastes. In this case firms would be interested in ecologically clean
But unfortunately in most cases nature protection activity does not yield a
profit for enterprises, except of cases connected with useful using, that is
utilization of wastes caught during cleaning of waste water and gases. The
most of these substances are valuable raw material (sulfur, a dust of colour
metals etc.) and can be used in production, promoting thereby for receiving
of the additional profit.
This measure, certainly, requires forward scientific technologies. So, for
example, in Norway in 80's there was one factory on production of aluminium, it
threw out into an atmosphere many weighted particles, especially lead, and the
management of this factory was compelled to use special dustcatchers. By 90's
the factory became unprofitable, then it has paid attention to this thrown
leaden dust, It appears that this dust is a very valuable material for
production of completely new high-strength plates
. Now this factory exists only due to waste of this dust. In Russia, much
to our regret, there are no such examples.
Finally large significant part has an ecological culture of the population (one
of examples of respect of the nature is the act of the board directors chairman
of the company «Monsanto» Reachard Mahoney. He, having seen, how much toxic
wastes his company makes, was shocked and has decided to reduce a level of
toxic wastes by 90 %).
|Region||Wastes into atmosphere|
|The Tyumen area||2369,8||7,4|
|The Chelyabinsk area||2060,5||6,0|
|The Kemerovo area||1208,9||4,0|
|The Vologda area||978,0||3,0|
|The Orenburg area||911,8||3,0|
 Raimers N.F. Ecology (theory,
laws, rules, principles и hypothesis). Moscow., 1994. 6 p.
 Gregg Easterbrook.Cleaning Up // Newsweek. 1989.24 July.p.27-42.
 Sosunova I.A. All-Russian
conference Ministry of the Nature of RF 1994.Health.1994. Nov.
 Aisenshtat R.D. Ecological
situation in Russian Federation. Moscow, 1993.45 p.
 Roubin L.N.Especially protected territories. Moscow,1995.67 p.
 Kulikov L.М.. Bases of economic knowledge Moscow, 1998. 233 p.
 Yushkova L.What we breathe, what we drink. Yakutia.1997.22 March.
 Karin P.R. Ecological boomerang / Science and life. 1996.№ 5. P.34
 Politkovskaya А. Till catastrophe?/New times,1994.№18/19.P.51-53.
 .Stanley H. Evolution as a Disease // Chemtech. 1995. №8. P. 46-69.