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Реферат: Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine

     1.  Educational System in Great Britain
     Types of Schools 
All British children must stay at school from the age of 5 until they are 16.
Many of them stay longer and take final examination when they are 17 or 18.
Before 1965 all children had to go through special intelligence tests. There
were different types of state secondary schools and at the age of 11 children
went to different schools in accordance of with the results of the tests.
State schools are divided into the following types:
-         Grammar schools. Children who go to grammar schools
are usually those who show a preference for academic subjects, although many
grammar schools now also have some technical courses.
-         Technical schools. Some children go to technical
schools. Most courses there are either commercial or technical.
-         Modern schools. Boys and girls who are interested in
working with there hands and learning in a practical way can go to a technical
schools and learn some trade.
-         Comprehensive schools. These schools usually combine
all types of secondary education. They have physic, chemistry, biology
laboratories, machine workshops for metal and woodwork and also geography,
history and art departments, commercial and domestic courses.
There are also many schools which the State doesn’t control. They are private
schools. They charge fees for educating children and many of them are
boarding schools, at which pupils live during the term time.
After leaving school many young people go to colleges or further education.
Those who become students at Colleges of Technology (called “Techs”) come
from different schools at different ages between 15 and 17. The lectures at
such colleges, each an hour long, start at 8,15 and end at 4,45 in the
afternoon.
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British Schools
Schooling is voluntary under the age of 5 but there is some free nursery
school education before that age. Primary education takes place in infant
schools for pupils ages from 5 to 7 years old and junior schools (from 8 to
11 years). Some areas have different systems in which middle schools replace
junior schools and take pupils ages from 9 to 11 years. Secondary education
has been available in Britain since 1944. It is compulsory up to the age of
16, and pupils can stay at school voluntarily up to three years longer.
In 1965 non-selective comprehensive schools were introduced. Most local
education authorities were have now completely changed over to comprehensive
schooling.
At the age of 16 pupils take school-leaving examinations in several subjects
at the Ordinary level. The exam used to be conducted by eight independent
examining boards, most of them connected with the university. This
examination could also be taken by candidates at a further education
establishment. This exam was called the General Certificate of Education
(GCE). Pupils of comprehensive school had taken the examination called the
Certificate of Secondary Education either with or instead of the GCE.
A GCE of Advanced (“A”) level was taken two years after the Ordinary level
exam. It was the standard for entrance to university and to many forms of
professional training. In 1988 both examinations were replaced by the more or
less uniform General Certificate of Secondary Education.
The private sector is running parallel to the state system of education.
There are over 2500 fee-charging independent schools in GB. Most private
schools are single-sex until the age of 16. More and more parents seem
prepared to take on the formidable extra cost of the education. The reason is
the believe that social advantages are gained from attending a certain
school. The most expansive day or boarding schools in Britain are exclusive
public schools like Eton college for boys and St. James’ school for girls.
                                                                      3
Universities and Colleges in Great Britain.
There are over 90 universities in GB. They are divided into three types: the
old universities (Oxford, Cambridge and Edinburgh Universities), in the 19th
century universities, such as London and Manchester universities, and the new
universities. Some years ago there were also polytechnics. After graduating
from polytechnic a student got a degree, but it was not a university degree.
31 formers polytechnics were given university status in 1992.
Full courses of study offer the degree of Bachelor of Art or Science. Most
degree courses at universities last three years, language courses 4 years
(including year spent aboard). Medicine and dentistry courses are longer (5-7
years).
Students may receive grants from the Local Education Authority to help pay
for books, accommodation, transport, and food. This grant depends on the
income of their parents.
Most students live away from home, in flats of halls of residence.
Students don’t usually have a job during term time because the lessons called
lectures, seminars, classes of tutorials (small groups), are full time.
However, many students now have to work in the evenings.
University life is considered «an experience». The exams are competitive but
the social life and living away from home are also important. The social life
is excellent with a lot of clubs, parties, concerts, bars.
There are not only universities in Britain but also colleges. Colleges offer
courses in teacher training, courses in technology and some professions
connected with medicine.
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2.  Educational System in the USA
General Pattern of Education in the USA
The general pattern of education in the USA is an eight-year elementary
school, followed by a four-year high school. This has been called 8—4 plan
organization. It is proceeded, in many localities, by nursery schools and
kindergartens. It is followed by a four-year college and professional
schools. This traditional pattern, how­ever, has been varied in many
different ways. The 6—3— 3 plan consists of a six-year elementary school, a
three-year junior high school, and a three-year senior high school. Another
variation is a 6—6 plan organization, with a six-year elementary school
followed by a six-year sec­ondary school.
American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6
and continuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in
others.
The elementary school in the United States is gener­ally considered to
include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending
upon the orga­nization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It
has been called the "grade school" or the "grammar school".
There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the American school
system, different types of orga­nization and of curriculum are tried out.
The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variation exists
also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in
session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the
af­ternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is
often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework
to be done by ele­mentary pupils. Elementary Schools, High Schools and
Institutions of Higher Learning
                                                                               5
Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of
Higher Learning
There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is
followed by four years of second­ary school, or high school. Often the last
two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined
into a junior high school.
The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and
sometimes a shorter one in spring. There are slight variations from place to
place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is
compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has
finished the eighth grade.
The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally
larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small
town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some
rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be
found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught
by the same teacher.
Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the
elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student
studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these
subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In ad­dition, the student
usually has classes in physical educa­tion, music, and art several times a
week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of
the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order
to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation.
Institutions of higher learning supported by pub­lic funds are not absolutely
free. The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or
registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state.
Working one's way through college is common­place.
Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for
those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain
pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state
universities require a certain scholastic average, or aver­age of high school
grades.
Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones
such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for
entrance, includ­ing an examination.
                                                                       6
Higher Education Institutions
It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad fields,
such as languages and literature, the social sciences, the sciences and
mathematics, and the fine arts .Many colleges require all freshmen and
sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields.
Certain Courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with
some election permitted in the other fields.
Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of regents or
a board of trustees.
The executive head of a college or a university is usu­ally called the
president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are
headed by deans. Within a school or college there may be departments
according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a
professor who is designated as department head or chairman. Other members of
the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor,
associate professor, and professor. Graduate students who give some part-time
service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows.
Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law,
engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teach­ing, etc. is pursued in professional
schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions
which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or
four years of pre-professional liberal arts edu­cation are required before
admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized
training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bache­lor
of Law, etc.
7
Private and State Colleges and Universities
Harvard College was established in 1636, with the principal purpose of providing
a literate ministry1 for colonial churches. It was a small
institution, enrolling only 20 students in 1642 and 60 in 1660. It soon be­came
more than a theological training school2 and es­tablished itself as
a liberal arts college. The next insti­tution of higher learning established in
the American colonies was the College of William and Mary, which opened in 1693
at Williamsburg, Virginia. Other col­leges were founded in the next century,
but all of them remained small schools for long periods. Students en­tered at
the age of 14 and remained until they were 18, and the curriculum, while
rigidly academic and classic was by modern standards rather secondary in
nature.
Private colle­ges and universi­ties were estab­lished in various states. The
first state university was the Univer­sity of Virginia, founded in 1819. Some
state uni­versities have lar­ge endowment fu­nds1 which pro­vide a
substantial portion of their support. Other sources of income are stu­dent
fees, gifts and endowments.
In general, higher education in the USA may be di­vided into two broad
fields: liberal arts and professional. Each of these fields may be further
subdivided into un­dergraduate and graduate levels. The liberal arts program,
on the undergraduate level, may be a two-year junior college course, or a
four-year course leading to a degree of Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of
Science. The four-year course is usually subdivided into a lower division
(which may be called the junior college), consisting of the two first years,
and the upper division, which is the last two years. The first two years
continue the general education and specialization begins in the third year.
                                        8                                        
                   3. Educational System in Ukraine.                     
Ukrainians have always shown a great concern for education. The right to
education is stated in the constitution of Ukraine. It’s ensured by
compulsory secondary schools, vocational schools and higher education
establishment. It is also ensured by the development of extramural and
evening courses and the system of state scholarship and grants.
Education in Ukraine is compulsory up to the 9th form inclusive. The stages
of compulsory schooling in Ukraine are: primary education for ages 6-7 to 9-
10 inclusive; and senior school for ages 10-11 to 12-13 inclusive, and senior
school for ages 13-14 to 14-15 inclusive. If a pupil of secondary school
wishes to go on in higher education, he or she must stay at school for two
more years. Primary and secondary school together comprise 11 years of study.
Every school has a «core curriculum» of academic subjects, such as.
After finishing the 9th form one can go on to a vocational school which offer
programmes of academic subjects and a programme of training in a technical
field, or a profession.
After finishing the 11th form of a secondary school, a lyceum or a gymnasium
one can go into higher education. All applicants must take competitive exam.
Higher education institution, that is institutes or universities, offer a 5-
years programme of academic subjects for undergraduates in a variety of
fields, as well as a graduate course and writes a thesis, he or she receives
a candidates degree or a doctoral degree.
Higher educational establishments are headed by Rectors. Protectors are in
charge of academic and scientific work. An institute or a university has a
number of faculties, each specializing councils which confer candidate and
doctoral degrees.
The system of higher and secondary education in Ukraine is going trough a
transitional period. The main objectives of the reforms are: to decentralize
the higher education system, to develop a new financial mechanism, to give
more academic freedom to faculties and students. All secondary schools,
institutes and universities until recently have been funded by the state. Now
there is quite a number of private fee-paying primary and secondary schools,
some universities have fee-paying departments.
9
     4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class 
     

How do you evaluate

the following

Like

(number of pupils)

Don’t like

(number of pupils)

Indifferent

(number of pupils)

School

27

6

3

Subjects:
Literature

21

5

12

Mathematics

11

23

5

History

19

7

12

Geography

29

6

3

Biology

23

10

6

English

32

4

2

Music

25

12

2

Art

20

11

8

Out-of-class activities

24

4

11

Sports/Gym classes

22

13

4

School library

27

10

2

School canteen

23

3

13

Learning to get along with others

25

9

5

Making friends

34

0

5

10 5. Used Literature: 1. Internet 11 Contents 1. Educational System in Great Britain · Types of Schools · British Schools · Universities and Colleges in Great Britain 2.Educational System in the USA · General Pattern of Education in the USA · Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher learning · Higher Education Institutions · Private and State Colleges 3. Educational System in Ukraine 4. Results of Interrogation in Our Class 5. Used Literature 1 Educational System in Great Britain, USA and Ukraine. Boyko Maksim Form 8-V Ukrainian Grammar School #6