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Реферат: Maximum-profit equilibrum: monopoly

                      MAXIMUM-PROFIT EQUILIBRIUM: MONOPOLY                      
     1. If an industry is to be classed as one of pure (or perfect)
competition, there are said to be two basic requirements.It is argued that when
these two conditions are satisfied, the result is, for the individual firm, a
demand curve that is virtually horizontal—i.e., perfectly or almost perfectly
elastic with respect to price. The firm is free to sell as much or as little as
it pleases at a market price over which it has no control.
Very few real-life firms find themselves in this position. This is because (so
the present chapter argues) of failure to satisfy one or both of the two basic
requirements for perfect competition. In real life, that is, the number of
firms may be too (large/small) for perfect competition. In addition,
the products sold by the various firms may be (identical among all
firms/differentiated from one firm to the next).
(i) many small firms, (ii) all selling identical pro-ducts:
small: differentiated from one firm to the next.
     2. These two characteristics—a too-small number of sellers and/or the
differentiation of the competing products—are said to have "monopolistic"
Notice that this word "monopolistic" does not mean that the firms
involved are monopolies. The conventional defini­tion of a monopoly situation
is this: (i) only one firm in the industry, and (ii) no close substitutes
available for the product of that one-firm industry.
Except in a few special areas such as public utilities, cases approximating
genuine monopoly are almost as difficult to find as are cases of perfect
competition. Monopoly is a kind of extreme instance of competitive
imperfection. Economist Edward H. Chamberlin, who did much to develop the
ideas set out in the first part of this chapter, argued that the typical
real-life situation is one of "monopolistic
competition." Each firm finds that it must reckon with the competition of
close substitute products (so that it is not a monopoly); and yet its
situation is not that of pure or perfect competition.
The word "monopolistic" is used because it is argued that there is one
monopoly-like characteristic to be found in all such cases of monopolistic or
imperfect competition.
less than perfectly elastic with respect to price—i.e., it is "tilted" rather
than horizontal.
     3. If the number of selling firms is small, the name given to the
resulting situation is
If the number of selling firms is large, but competition is not perfect, this
must be (in the language of the text) a situation of
oligopoly: many differentiated sellers.
In its opening sections, this text chapter describes the circumstances of
imperfect or monopolistic competi­tion. But it does not attempt to explore
these situations in any real detail. Instead, after its introductory out­line,
the chapter turns to an examination of the profit-maximizing behavior of a 
monopoly firm. Analytically, this monopoly case is decidedly easier than the
so-called "intermediate" cases—those not perfectly competitive, and yet not
completely monopolistic. It would be un­wise to tackle these more intricate
cases before having mastered the elementary ideas of monopoly pricing.
Even the terms and diagrams involved in a descrip­tion of monopoly pricing
may seem complicated at first. Yet the basic idea involved is simple. The
monopoly firm is assumed to behave so as to "maximize its profit"—which is
exactly what the firm in pure (or per­fect) competition was assumed .The
monopoly firm simply operates in rather different circumstances.
To review the basic ideas of "profit maximization":
     1. "Maximizing profit" means making as much money as supply conditions
will permit.
     2. To "maximize profit," there must be something the firm can do 
that will influence its profit. There must be some variable which changes
profit, and which the firm can control.
     3. This chapter assumes that the monopoly firm can control the quantity
it sells, just as the firm in pure (or perfect) competition can do. (In real
life, this con­trol is at best indirect and incomplete; there are other and
more complex decisions to be made. But this chap­ter tackles a simple case.) So
the variable which the monopoly firm can control is its sales quantity: it
looks for the particular sales quantity that will maximize its profit.
     4. The monopoly firm is assumed to have control over its sales quantity
because it knows the demand schedule for its product—i.e., it knows the sales
quantity that goes with each and any price it might charge.
     5. From this demand schedule, it is easy to develop a revenue 
schedule (Total Revenue being quantity sold multiplied by price per unit)—i.e.,
a schedule showing revenue associated with each possible quantity sold.
     6. The firm must know also the Total Cost of each and any output
quantity. By bringing together the revenue and cost schedules, it can then
identify that output quantity at which the excess of revenue over cost (profit)
is greatest. (And it can tell the price to charge for this Maximum-profit
output just by consulting the demand schedule once again.)
To repeat, the essential thing to grasp about this se­quence of ideas is that 
it is simple. It is only when the monopoly firm's profit-maximizing
"equilibrium posi­tion" (with respect to sales output and price) is outlined in 
marginal terms that it may seem complicated. But these marginal terms are
essential analytic tools when one moves on to more complex situations. Hence
the emphasis on Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost in the text chapter and in
the review questions which follow.
     4. Columns (1) and (2) of Study Guide Table 1 repre­sent  a demand
schedule. This schedule has been computed or estimated by a firm as indicating
the quantities it can sell daily at various prices.
     Table 1
This firm must operate under conditions of (perfect/im­perfect) 
competition, since as the output to be sold increases, price (remains
constant/must be reduced).
     5. We treat the first two columns of Table 1 as repre­senting a monopoly
firm's demand schedule. Our task is to determine what price the
monopolist will charge, and what output it will produce and sell—if its
objective is Maximum-profit.
o. Column (3) of Table 1 shows Total Revenue—price times quantity. Complete
the four blanks in this column.
Then use Columns (2) and (3) figures to illustrate Total Revenue on Study Guide
Fig. 1—i.e., show Total Revenue associated with various output quantities. Join
the points with a smooth curve. Disregard momentarily the TC curve
already drawn on Fig. 1.
с. Notice that this demand schedule becomes price-inelastic , when price is
sufficiently lowered—specifically, when price reaches $(8/7/6/5/4).
The graph of Columns (1) and (2) of Table 2 is already drawn on Fig.1 as a Total
Cost curve (TC). (Mark the curve you drew in question 5 as TR, to
distinguish it from the cost curve.)
It is now possible to see at once why the profit-maximizing process outlined
here is a simple one. The firm is doing nothing more than to search for the
output at which the vertical distance between TR and TC is
greatest. This dis­tance, for any output, is (fixed cost/price/profit or
loss). (If TR is above TC, it is profit; if TC is above, it is
loss.' So it is preferable to look for "greatest vertical distance" with ГД 
above TC. The greatest distance with ГС on top marks the maximum-possible
loss, which is somewhat less desirable as an operating position.)
     6. Figure 1 is too small to indicate quickly the precise Maximum-profit
position. But even a glance is sufficient to indicate that this best-possible
position is approximately i.45/65/85) units of output.
The firm can be thought of as gradually increasing its output and sales,
pausing at each increase to see if its profit position is improved. Each extra
unit of output brings in
a little more revenue (provided demand has not vet moved to the price-inelastic
range); and each extra unit incurs a little more cost. The firm's profit
position is improved if this small amount of extra revenue (exceeds/is
equal to/is less than) the small amount of extra cost.
More elegantly put, output should be increased, for it will yield an increase in
profit, if Marginal Revenue (MR) (exceeds/is equal to/is less than) 
Marginal Cost (MC). The firm should cut back its output and sales if it
finds that MR (exceeds/is equal to/is less than) MC.
And so the "in-balance" position is where MR is (less than/equal
to/greater than) MC.
     7. A more careful development of the Marginal Revenue idea is needed.
Column (4) in Table 1 shows the extra number of units sold if price is reduced.
Column (5) shows extra revenue (positive or negative) accruing from that price
reduction. Complete the blanks in these two columns to familiarize yourself
with the meanings involved.
     8. The general profit-maximizing rule is: Expand your out­put  until you
reach  the  output  level  at which MR = MC—and stop at that point.
The profit-maximizing rule for the firm in pure (or perfect) competition: P = 
MC. This is nothing but a particular instance of the MR = MC rule.
It is as­sumed in pure (or perfect) competition that the demand curve facing
the individual firm is perfectly horizontal, or perfectly price- 
(elastic/inelastic}. That is, if market price is $2, the firm receives 
(less than $2 /exactly $2/more than $2) for each extra unit that it sells.
In this special case, MR (extra revenue per unit) is (greater than/the same
thing as/less than) price per unit (which could be called Average Revenue,
or revenue per unit). So in pure (or perfect) competition, P == MC and
MR = MC are two ways of saying the same thing.
     9. In imperfect competition, the firm's demand curve isand things
are different. From inspection of the figures in Table 1 [compare Columns (1)
and (6)], it is evident that with such a demand curve, MR at any particular
output is (greater than/the same thing as/less than) price for that
Why is this so? Suppose, at price $7, you can sell 4 units; at price $6, 5
units. Revenues associated with these two prices are respectively $28 and $30.
Marginal Revenue from selling the fifth unit is accordingly $(2/5/6/7/28/30).
It is the difference in revenue obtained as a result of selling the one extra
unit. Why only $2—when the price at which that fifth unit sold was 86? Because
to sell that fifth unit, price had to be reduced. And that lowered price
applies to all 5 units. The first 4, which formerly sold at $7, now
bring only $6. On this account, revenue takes a beating of $4. You must
subtract tins $4 from the $6 which the fifth unit brings in. This leaves a net
gain in revenue of $2—Marginal Revenue.
     10. To return to the fortunes of the firm in Tables 1 and 2: The
tables do not provide sufficient unit-by-unit detail to show the exact
Maximum-profit output level. But Table 1 indicates that between sales outputs
of 63 and 71, MR is $1.63. The MR figures fall as sales are
expanded, so that the $1.63 would apply near the midpoint of this range, say at
output 67. It would be somewhat higher between 63 and 66; somewhat lower
between 68 and 71.
Similarly, MC (Table 2) would be SI.60 at output of about 67 units. So
the Maximum-profit position would fall very close to 67 units produced and sold
per period.
To sell this output, the firm would charge a price (see Table 1) of about 8(7 
'5.75/4/1.60). Its Total Revenue [look for nearby figures in Column (3)]
would be roughly $(380/580/780). Its Total Cost (Table 2) would be
roughly ^(310/510/710), leaving profit per period of about $70.
$5.75; $380; $310.
11. The text notes that in geometric terms Marginal Revenue can be depicted as
the slope of the Total Revenue curve.
12. Tills can be illustrated by looking more carefully at the Total Revenue
curve you have drawn in Study Guide Fig. 1. Study Guide Fig. 2 shows an
enlargement of a small segment of that curve: that part of the curve between
output quantities of 25 and 31. If 25 units are sold, the price is 810 and
Total Revenue is $250. This is point A on Fig. 2. If price is reduced
to $9, that increases sales by 6 units, from 25 units to 31 units. Thus Total
Revenue becomes $279 (31 multiplied by $9). So, if the firm reduces price from
$10 to $9, in effect it moves from point A to point B.
Figure 2's heavier, curved line is the smooth curve used to join points A and 
B. It is an approximation of the points that would be obtained if we had
quantity and revenue information on prices such as '59.90, S9.SO, and so on.
There is also a straight line (the thin line) joining A and B. It is
close to the probable true Total Revenue curve although it is not likely to be
the exact curve.
Instead of dropping from price $10 all the way to $9, suppose we had moved
only to (say) $9.60. That would have produced (roughly) a 2-unit increase in
quantity demanded. In this way, we would move closer to the true MR figure
than our previous 6-unit approximation supplied. In Fig. 2 terms, we would be
moving from A only to
D, not from A to B. Notice carefully that the straight line (the thin line)
joining A to D becomes a (better/poorer) approximation of the presumed
true Total Revenue curve than was the case when the points involved were A and
In sum, the closer we move point B to point A (for example, if we make it D
rather than B), the closer the slope figure comes to being a measure of the
true MR figure. Strictly speaking, we have true MR (the rate of change
in revenue as measured in terms of 1-unit output changes) only when the line
whose slope is being measured and used to indicate MR is actually 
tangent to the Total Revenue curve.
In its near-closing section Bygones and Margins, the text chapter emphasizes
that if a firm is setting its price and output according to MR = MC 
principles, it will disre­gard Fixed Cost.
                          QUIZ: Multiple Choice                          
     1. If a firm's Marginal Revenue exceeds its Marginal Cost,
Maximum-profit rules require that firm to (1) increase its output in both
perfect and imperfect competition; (2) in­crease its output in perfect but not
necessarily in imperfect competition; (3) increase its output in imperfect but
not necessarily in perfect competition; (4) decrease its output in both perfect
and imperfect competition; (5) increase price, not output, in both perfect and
imperfect competition.
     2. Whenever a firm's demand curve is horizontal or "per­fectly
elastic," then (1) the firm cannot be operating under conditions of perfect
competition; (2) the profit-maximizing rule of MR-equal-to-MC does not apply;
(3) price and Marginal Revenue-must be one and the same; (4) price and Marginal
Cost must be one and the same; (5) none of the above is necessarily correct.
     3. A basic difference between the firm in perfect (or pure)
competition and the monopoly firm, according to economic analysis, is this: 
(1) The perfect competitor can sell as much as he wishes at some given price,
whereas the monopolist must lower his price whenever he wishes to in­crease the
amount of his sales by any significant amount;
(2) the monopolist can always charge a price that brings him a substantial
profit, whereas the perfect competitor can never earn such a profit; (3) the
elasticity of demand facing the monopolist is a higher figure than the
elasticity of demand facing the perfect competitor; (4) the monopolist seeks
to maximize profit, whereas the perfect competitor's rule is to equate price
and Average Cost; (5) none of the above.
     4. "Oligopoly" means (1) the same thing as imperfect competition;
(2) a situation in which the number of compet­ing firms is large but the
products differ slightly; (3) a situation in which the number of competing
firms is small;
(4) that particular condition of imperfect competition which is just removed
from monopoly, regardless of the number of firms or type of product: (5) none
of these.
     5. When a monopoly firm seeking to maximize its profits has reached
its "equilibrium position," then (1) price must be less than Marginal Cost;
(2) price must be equal to Marginal Cost; (3) price must he greater than
Marginal Cost; (4) price may be equal to or below Marginal Cost, but not above
it; (5) none of the above is necessarily correct since equilibrium does not
require any particular relation between price and Marginal Cost.
     6. To explain why imperfect competition is far more prevalent than
perfect competition, the text lays considerable emphasis upon the following: 
(1) the fact that Marginal Revenue is less than price; (2) the tendency of
Marginal Cost to continue to fall over substantial levels of output produced;
(() the disposition of firms to try to maximize the profit they can gain from
sales; (4) the tendency of Marginal Cost to rise after some particular level of
output produced has been reached; (5) the fact that large firms now typically
produce many different products, thus squeez­ing smaller firms out of their
     7. Among the five statements below, one must be false with
respect to any firm operating under conditions of imper­fect competition. Which
one? (1) The number of com­peting sellers offering similar (although
differentiated) products can be large.  (2) Other firms may sell products
which are identical or almost identical with this firm's product.  (3) The
number of competing sellers offering similar (although differentiated)
products can be small. (4) The firm's Marginal Revenue will be less than the
price it obtains.  (5) The demand curve facing the firm can be perfectly
     8. A level of output for a firm at which Marginal Cost had risen to
equality with price would (1) be a profit-max­imizing output level in both
pure (or perfect) competition and imperfect competition; (2) be a
profit-maximizing out­put level in pure (or perfect) competition but not in
imper­fect competition; (3) not be a profit-maximizing output level either in
perfect or in imperfect competition; (4) be a profit-maximizing output level in
imperfect competition but not in pure (or perfect) competition; (5) definitely
be a profit-maximizing output level in imperfect competition, but might or
might not be in pure (or perfect) competition.
     9. A firm in conditions of imperfect competition which finds itself
at an output level where Marginal Cost has risen to equality with price, and
which wants to maximize its profit, ought to (1) increase its output; (2)
change (either increase or decrease) its price but not its output; (3) maintain
both price and output at their present levels; (4) increase its price; (5)
perhaps do any of the above—information furnished is insufficient to tell.
     10. The essence of the general rule for maximizing profits given in
the text chapter is that a firm should set its price, or its output, as
follows: set its (1) price at a level where the excess over the
minimum-possible level of Average Cost is at its maximum; (2) output at a level
where the extra production cost resulting from the last unit produced just
equals the extra revenue brought in by that last unit; (3) price at the highest
level which the traffic will bear; (4) price at a level just equal to Marginal
Cost (assuming that Marginal Cost would rise with any increase in output); (5)
output at a level where Average Cost is at a minimum.
     11. A firm would be designated as a monopoly, according to the
definition conventionally used by economists, in any situation where (1)
the firm's Marginal Revenue exceeds the price it charges at all levels of
output (other than the first unit sold); (2) the firm's Marginal Revenue is
less than the price it charges at all levels of output (other than the first
unit sold); (3) the firm has at least some degree of control over the price
that it can charge; (4) the profit earned by the .firm significantly exceeds
the competitive rate of return, after proper allowance has been made for risk
undertaken; (5) there is no other firm selling a close substi­tute for the
product of this firm.
     12. The Marginal Revenue (MR) associated with any given point on a
firm's demand curve will be related to the elasticity of demand at that point
(with respect to price) as follows:
     (1) When demand is inelastic, MR will be negative in value;
(2) when demand is elastic, MR will be negative in value;
(3) when demand is inelastic, MR will be zero in value; (4)
when demand is elastic, MR will be zero in value; (5) .VR         of monopoly
or imperfect competition. The AR line is Aver-is always positive in value
(although below price) regardless       age Revenue—in other words, it is
price obtainable per unit. of elasticity, except at the point or region of
unit elasticity.