Каталог :: Программирование и комп-ры

Реферат: Computer's Software and Hardware

     Computer's hardware and sotware 
                                                                 Elena Safronova
                                                        Baltic Russian Institute
                                                                     1 year, BA.
                                   Riga, 2004                                   
1. What is a computer?
2. Base configuration of the computer system
2.1 System unit
2.2 Monitor
2.3 Keyboard
2.4 Mouse
3. Internal devices of the system unit
3.1 Motherboard
3.2 Hard drive
3.3 Floppy dick drive and CD-ROM
3.4 Video card
3.5 Sound card
4. Systems of the mother board
4.1 RAM (Random Access Memory)
4.2 Processor
4.3 Chip of ROM and system of BIOS
4.4 Volatile memory
5. Peripheral devices of the PC
5.1 Data input devices
5.2 Data output devices
5.3 Data exchange devices
6. Functions of operation system of a computer
7. Software
                      1. What is a computer?                      
The computer is an electronic instrument, intended for automation, creation,
storage, processing and transportation of the data.
Computer - the universal information computer. One of main assignments of a
computer is processing and storage of the information. With appearance of the
computer began possible to operate inconceivable earlier with information
contents. In the electronic form translate the libraries containing
scientific and artistic literatures. Old photos and film-archives find a new
life numerically.
           2. Base configuration of the computer system           
The personal computer is universal technical system. His configuration
(structure of the equipment) can be changed as required. But there is a base
configuration which contains 4 devices : system unit, monitor, keyboard and
     2.1 System unit
In a system unit are placed the most important components which are called
internal. To a system unit also are connected external and peripheral units.
On appearance system units differ with the form of tank. Tanks can be
horizontal (desktop) and vertical (tower).
     2.2 Monitor
Monitor is the device of a visual data representation. This is main output
device. Key parameters of the screen monitor:  size, frequency of upgrade
(regeneration) maps, a class of protection.
     2.3 Keyboard
The keyboard is the key control unit of the PC. Is used for input of the
alphanumeric (sign) data, and also commands of handle.
     2.4 Mouse
The mouse is the control unit manipulation type. As against the keyboard the
mouse cannot be used on a straight line for input of the sign information -
the principle of handle is event. Movements of the mouse and clicks of
buttons are events.
              3. Internal devices of the system unit              
     3.1 Motherboard   
The motherboard is the host board of the PC. It contains: the processor, a
microprocessor package (chipset), buses, the RAM, ROM (permanently  storage
device) and plugs for connection of additional devices.
     3.2 Hard drive
Hard disk is the main device for long-time storage of the big sizes of the
data and programs.
     3.3 Floppy disk drive and CD-ROM
For operative carry of small information amount use floppy disks which are
inserted into a special disk drive. Standard floppy disk has a size of 3.5
inches, which capacity is 1.4 Mb. It is labeled by characters HD (high
The principle of operation of the device will consist in reading numerical
data with the help of the laser ray mirrored from a surface of a disk. The
digital recording on CD differs from record on a diskette with high density.
     3.4 Video card
Together with the monitor the video card will derivate a video system of the
PC. During existence of the PC some standards of video cards were replaced:
MDA (Monochrome); CGA (4 colours); EGA (16 colours); VGA (256 colours); SVGA
(16.7 mln colours).  Key parameters of a video card: screen resolution,
colour permission (colour depth) and video expedition (plane and three-
     3.5 Sound card
The sound card processes sounds, music and speech. The sound is reproduced
through the external stereo speakers connected to a sound card. Key parameter
of a sound card is the word length determining quantity of bits per second.
                  4. Systems of the mother board                  
     4.1 RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM is a file of the crystal cells, capable to store the data. There is a
dynamic (DRAM) and static (SRAM) memory.
Chips of a dynamic memory use as the main RAM of a computer. Chips of static
memory use as an auxiliary memory (cache memory) intended for optimization of
operation of the processor.
     4.2 Processor
The processor - a main chip of the PC in which all calculations are made. The
processor consists of cells in which the data can vary. Internal cells of the
processor are named as registers.
Key parameters of the processor: an operating voltage, a digit capacity,
working clock rate, coefficient of an internal clock multiplying, a size of
the cache memory.
The processor is connected to other devices of a computer groups of the
explorers called as buses. Main 3 buses: the address bus, the data bus, the
bus of commands.
The address bus is connected to it the processor for copying data from a cell
in one of registers.
The data bus. On this bus there is a copying data from the RAM in registers
of the processor and back.
The bus of commands - commands act from the RAM, from areas where programs
are stored.
     4.3 Chip of ROM and system of BIOS
The chip of ROM (permanently storage device) is capable to store long time
the information, even when the computer is switched off.
BIOS (Basic Input Output System) – main assignment is to check up structure
and working capacity of the computer system and provides interaction with
keyboard, monitor and hard disk.
     4.4 volatile memory
The data are stored in a chip about floppy and hard disks, about the
processor and some other devices of the motherboard. Due to this chip the
computer precisely watches time and a calendar.
                  5. Peripheral devices of the PC                  
Peripheral devices of the PC are connected to his interfaces and intended for
execution of auxiliary operations. Due to them the computer system gains
flexibility and scalability.
     5.1 Data input devices
Devices of input of the sign data - the keyboard
Device of command handle - the mouse and special manipulators: the trackball
(installed permanently, the ball is actuated by a palm), (pen mouse clone of
a ball pen), the infra-red mouse (wireless link with a system unit.).
Devices of input of graphic data is scanners (are intended for input of the
graphics information on paper), data tablets (are intended for input artistic
graphic information) and digital cameras.
     5.2 Data output devices
As the output device of the data, in addition to the screen monitor, use
printing stations - printers, permitting to receive copies of documents on a
paper or transparent carriers.
By a principle of operation distinguish: matrix, laser, LED and ink-jet
     5.3 Data exchange devices
Modem - the device intended for information interchange between remote
computers. Key parameters of the modem: productivity (bits/s), supported
communications protocols and error corrections, the bus interface (ISA or
              6. Functions of operation system of a computer              
Operation system represents the complex of system and auxiliary resources. OS
is a support for program supports of higher level - applied and majority of
the auxiliary applications.
Basic function of all operation systems is intermediary. It consists in
support of several sorts of interface:
        user interface (between the user and soft-hardware of a computer)        
hardware-software interface (between program and hardware)
program interface (between different sorts software).
                               7. Software                                
     Programs for work with the text. 
Text editor is the elementary program for input of the text.
Word-processor - allows not only to enter and edit the text, but also to make
it out.
Spreadsheets are used for work with figures. It is possible to enter numbers,
formulas and explaining text into cells of spreadsheets. Spreadsheets are
capable to transform numbers in graphs and diagrams.
     Control systems of databases.
Databases name the huge data files, organized in tabulated structures. The
basic functions of control systems by databases are: creation of empty
structure of a DB, granting of means of its filling or import of the data
tables of other base, providing of access to the data.
     Graphic editors
Graphic editors are big class of programs, made for creation and editing of
images. There are following categories of graphic editors: raster editors,
vector editors and software for creation and processing three-dimensional
Utilities - can be named almost any program occupied with socially useful
activity. But more often as utilities name the program on care of a computer
Archivers are programs for data compression.
     Multimedia programs
Multimedia programs are application which can play sound, video or games.
     The list of the literature:
1. Materials on the INTERNET:
1.1 http: // www.kbsu.ru / ~ book (Shacukova L.Z. computer science. The
Internet textbook).
1.2 http://mega.km.ru/
2.  Computer science, base rate, the textbook for high schools (Simonovich
S.V, “Питер” 1999)
3. “Right self-instruction manual of work on a computer” (Pravin O.V, 2002)