Реферат: Job Satisfaction
American University in Kyrgyzstan
Student: Kanatbek Beishekeev
Do people really like their jobs? Definitely, everyone knows from the news about
dissatisfied workers going on strike or even acting violently toward their
supervisors, directors, but overall people are quite satisfied with their jobs.
According to the surveys percentage of satisfied people averages in the US is
about 85 percent. The feelings, reflecting attitudes toward one’s job, are
known as job satisfaction.
Settings, related to the personnel job satisfaction and devotion to the
company, are presenting special interest for the theory of organizational
behavior and practice of human resource management.
A discussion of the job satisfaction problem concentrates attention on the
employees’ attitude toward their job, and a discussion of organization
devotion –on the attitude toward the organization in the whole.
What is job satisfaction once more?
Lock gives a following detail definition of job satisfaction: “
pleasant, positive emotional condition coming from your job evaluation or job
experience.”1 Job satisfaction is a result
of the very employees perception of the fact for how much their job provides
important, from their viewpoint, things.
There are three most important parameters of job satisfaction. First, job
satisfaction represents emotional reaction for the situation lay at the
office. It’s impossible to see it, it can be only experienced. Second, job
satisfaction is defined often by that extent how much results of work
correspond to expectations. For instance, if organization employees see they
work much more, than other department employees, but receive less for that,
more probably, they will have negative attitude toward their job, supervisor
They will experience dissatisfaction feeling. From another hand, if they see,
they get favorable attitude and materially rewarded, their attitude toward
the job will be positive. They will experience satisfaction feeling from
their job. Third, through job satisfaction some another settings are
expressed. Smit, Hendall and Hulin suppose that there is five parameters of
job, most exactly characterizing it from the viewpoint of those affective
reactions, which job causes by people. These parameters are enumerated below:
1. Job itself. The extent, in which job gives people
interesting assignments, opportunities to perceive new, experience
responsibility feeling for the job laid upon.
2. Payment. The sum of money reward, which is paid for the
job, and that in which way the given sum corresponds to reward, receiving by
other organization member.
3. Promotion possibilities. Career promotion opportunities.
4. Management. The capacity of a head to provide as technical, as
5. Colleagues. The extent of technical knowledge of colleagues and
the level of social support.2
Factors influencing on Job Satisfaction
Let’s mark several factors, influencing on Job Satisfaction. For example, last
research show that if after college graduation students are immediately
employed according their specialization, then on the basis of both events
coincidence it’s probable to predict a following job satisfaction.
3 There are the main factors influencing on Job Satisfaction below:
Job itself. The main source of satisfaction is, of course, job
itself. Thus, for instance, research, dedicated to job characteristics and
carried out in correlation with working place projecting, testify that the very
content of work and autonomy by its implementation represent two most important
motivation factors correlated with labor. As research indicated, other main
components of job satisfaction are interesting and difficult job without time
for tedium and job giving a man one certain status.
Payment. The system of money rewards is considered as a
significant but multicomplex and multisided job satisfaction factor. Money not
only gives people an opportunity to satisfy their primary needs, but also
fosters satisfaction of higher levels needs. Employees more often perceive
their salary’s level as a reflection of that how management estimates their
contribution to the company’s activity. Additional indulgences are also
important, but their role is less meaningful. One of the reasons is that
employee more often have no the slightest idea about the amount of received as
indulgences. Moreover, many are prone to underestimate these indulgences;
insofar they do not see their practical value.
5 Nonetheless, recent research indicated that if employees have an
opportunity to choose themselves to some extent independently indulgences from
the whole package rendered by the company that is named a flexible indulgences
system, then they receive greater satisfaction from indulgences receivables and
the job in the whole.6
Job promotion. Promotion opportunities make different influence on
job satisfaction. That comes because of that promotions can be implemented in
various forms and be accompanied with diverse rewards. For instance, people
receiving promotion for the length of service, although experience satisfaction
from job but not in such an extent as employees, which receive promotion for
the results achieved. Aside from, job promotion with salary increase of 10%
usually does not give that pleasure as position promotion with a supplement of
20%. These differences can explain, why promotions on the level of high
management bring larger contenting than advancements on the lower levels of
Guidance. Guidance also represents moderately important
factor by the analysis of job satisfaction. In some other places the importance
of leadership skills could be analyzed. Here it’s sufficient to restrict
yourself with a comment of that there are two main leadership parameters
influencing on job satisfaction. First is an orientation of the chief on the
employee that is measured by the degree of getting interest of the management
in his colleagues’ favorability. As a rule, this interest exerts in that if
chiefs verify the activity of their subordinate, give advices regarding his
work, support, and also treats him not only officially, formally, but also
informally. In the US employer are usually discontented with their principals
just on the given parameter. For instance, recently navigated questioning
showed that less than half of respondents receive regular feedback and support
in their problems solving from the side of principals.
Another parameter is involving or influence; this is illustrated by the
managers’ activity that let their colleagues participate in decision making
that has direct relation to their work. In the majority of cases this approach
draws to the job satisfaction feeling boost. In particular, deep metaanalysis
brought to the conclusion that employees’ involving into the process of
decision-making really positively affects on job satisfaction. The whole
climate of involving created by a principal makes larger impact on job
satisfaction than participation in the making of decision of limited range.
Working groups. Direct affect on job satisfaction makes the very
nature of work groups. Benevolent, ready to come to help colleagues are
personally a certain source of job satisfaction feeling for any individual.
Working group serves for a single office worker is a source of support,
comfort, advice and enjoyment from the very job. A “good” working group fosters
a gaining of a greater joy and pleasure from job. On another hand, when the
opposite situation is observed, i.e. when it is hard to get along with the
people, the given factor imposes negative impact on job satisfaction.
Working conditions. One more factor imposing moderate impact on
job satisfaction is working conditions. If conditions are good (e.g. offices
are neat and cosy, clean and engaging), staff could easier manage their job. If
bad working conditions were available (e.g. it is hot or noisy in the office),
it would be more difficult for employees to implement their work. Otherwise,
working conditions affect job satisfaction similar to working group’s
influence. If all were favorably around, there would not be problems with job
A majority of people does not pay any special attention, if only these are
not excessively bad. Moreover, availability of numerous claims on working
conditions often testifies an availability of other problems. For example, a
manager may claim on that evening before his office has been badly cleaned,
however anger indeed is the result of his morning meeting with chiefs during
that he had been reproved for bad implementation. Nonetheless, for the last
years working conditions obtain once again great importance in terms of work
force diversification. For instance, several organizations included an
opportunity to choose a flexible work schedule in employers’ working
conditions that illustrates a fragment “Diversification management in action:
Flexible approach –key to success”.
The consequences of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is presented desirable as from a viewpoint of a single
employer as society in total.
Never the less, pragmatically, from personnel effective management side and
organization in the whole, it is important to determine, in which detailed way
job satisfaction corresponds to the results of industrial activity. Otherwise,
if employers are content with the job, it is asked, whether it means that they
would work better, and also whether organization productivity will increase in
the whole. On other hand, by the low satisfaction one may ask, if there would
be problems with productivity and low efficiency. During many years this
question interests as researches, engaged in the given sphere, as
managers-practicians. There are no simple answers for these questions.
9 Observing the results of job satisfaction, it is necessary to break
analysis apart onto some specific sub chapters. The most important of them
could be considered below.
Job satisfaction and labor productivity. So, one can say
that employees satisfied with their labor are of high productivity than those
who are discontented with the job? An absence of direct correlation between
satisfaction and labor results during many years embarrasses researches.
Indeed, it is natural to suppose a direct dependence between satisfaction and
labor results, however the data given show that there is no close correlation
between them. In particular, implemented metaanalysis of scientific literature
on the given question shows that only in 17 cases out of 100 between these two
parameters it is succeeded in the direct correlation identification. Not always
satisfaction experiencing employees are characterized with utmost productivity.
There are different altering factors influencing on this dependence. The most
important form such factors, apparently, is material encouragement for
employers. If people receive material spur that they consider as adequate their
satisfaction increases, and altogether, as a rule, and labor productivity.
Further, recently certificates were gotten that even if job satisfaction does
not lead to the productivity growth of separate employers, it can forward
positive budges on the level of the whole organization.
10 At last, alive discussions are still kept arising if job satisfaction
leads to the productivity growth or not or, on the contrary, the growth of
productivity – to job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction and personnel turnover. Does a high degree of
employees’ labor satisfaction lead to low stuff turnover? In difference from
labor productivity in correlation between labor satisfaction and personnel
turnover it can be noticed some laws-guidance. High degree of satisfaction
cannot itself hold turnover at the low level, however, undoubtedly, can improve
situation significantly. On one hand, in case of low labor satisfaction it is
likely to have a high staff turnover. One group of researchers revealed that
for women of age from 18 to 25 years old a degree of their labor satisfaction
helps foretell if they would change their jobs. On other hand, by the process
of augmenting their length of service (duration of working in the given
company) a likelihood of their move to another job place decreases. Service
length for men is a serious factor as well, neutralizing later discontent
feeling with their job.11
There are also other factors, such as devotion to organization, which plays
important role in the correspondence defining between job (labor)
satisfaction and personnel turnover. Some people just cannot imagine
themselves at any other place, which is why they stay working at the same
work place regardless of contentment degree. Another factor is a common
economy state. When economical situation is stable and unemployment rate is
low, personnel turnover as a rule magnifies, insofar people start seeking for
them new better places in other organizations. Even if they are content with
their available job, many still desire leave in that case if in another place
there would be better opportunities, scopes, or chances granted. When an
opposite situation is observed, i.e. by the lack of job places, employees can
stay at their job, even if it does not suffice them. Summarizing above-
mentioned, one must note that labor, or job satisfaction plays important role
in the defining of personnel turnover. Although full absence of this staff
turnover not always fruitful for organization, none the less, maintaining at
the low level, as a rule, imposes favorable impact on organization due to
costs decrease on training and costs linked to the utilization of unqualified
employees at the work places.
Job (Labor) satisfaction. Researches enough convincing show
converse proportional dependence between labor satisfactions and absents. If
satisfaction degree is high, a number of absents is insignificant, if it is low
– their number increases. Never the less, like other cases, there are some
averaging factors, such as people realization of the importance of their work.
For example, research carried out among governmental institutions employees
showed that people considering their job important more rarely afforded absents
than those that thought otherwise. Aside from, one should remember that if high
labor contentment not compulsory brings to absent number decrease, then low
satisfaction would lead to their number boost with a high likelihood.
Other consequences of job (labor) satisfaction. In addition to
above-mentioned there are other consequences caused by high contentment with
their job. The results of researches show that employees experiencing job
satisfaction feeling with their job possess better physical and moral health,
master faster necessary skills, more rarely suffer from industrial traumatism
and come with claims. Another positive factor disclosed in one recent research
is that employees satisfied with their labor more often demonstrate examples of
pro-social, “civilized” behavior and deeds, for instance more frequent assist
their colleagues and clients and in common exert inclination to co-operation.
In the very whole overview researches occupied in a sphere of organization
behavior equally with managers-practicians consider that labor contentment is
very important for organization. Some critics notice that this statement
still a conjecture, insofar, positive affect of labor contentment still
little researched. On other hand, negative impact of labor contentment on
organization is unquestionably acknowledged fact. That is why even if
consider job satisfaction as a minimal claim, it represents a certain value
for the whole health and efficacy of organization and, therefore, deserves
study and utilizing in sphere of organizational behavior.
1 Terence R. Mitchell and James R. Larson,
Jr. People in Organization, 3d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1987, p.146
2 P. C. Smith, L. M. Kendall, and C. L.
Hulin, The Measure of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement, Rand Mc
Nally, Chicago, 1969.
3 Mary Ann M. Fricko and Terry A. Beehr, “A
Longitudinal Investigation of Interest Congruence and Gender Concentration as
Predictors of Job satisfaction”, Personnel Psychology, September 1992,
4 Jane Ciabattari, “The Biggest Mistake Top
Managers Make”, Working Woman, October 1986, p.48
5 Brenda Major and Ellen Konar, “An
Investgation of Sex Differences in pay Expectations and Their Possible Causes”,
Academy of Management Journal, December 1984, pp.777-792.
6 Alison E. Barber, Randall B. Dunham, and
Roger A. Formisano, “The Impact of Felxible Benefits on Employee Satisfaction:
A Field Study”, Personnel Psychology, September 1992, pp.55-76.
7 “Labor Letter”, The Wall Street Journal, Dec.22, 1987, p.1.
8 Katharine I. Miller and Peter R. Monge,
“Participation, satisfaction, and Productivity: A Meta-Analytic Review”,
Academy of Management Journal, December 1986, p.748.
9 Look, e.g.: Barry M. Staw and Sigal G.
Barsade, “Affect and Managerial Performance: A Test of the Sadder-but-Wiser vs.
Happier-and-Smarter Hypotheses”, Administrative Science Quarterly, June
1993, pp. 304-331.
10 Cheri Ostroff, “The Relationship
Between Job Performance and Job Satisfaction”, in E. A. Locke (ed.),
Generalizing from Laboratoryto Field Settings, Lexington Books, Lexington,
11 Herbert Parnes, Gilbert Nestel, and
Paul Andrisiani, The Pre-Retirement Years: A Longitudinal Study of the
Labor Market Experience of Men, vol.3, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C., 1973, p.37.
12 C. W. Clegg, “Psychology of Employee
Lateness, Absenteeism, and Turnover: A Methodological Critique and an Empirical
Study: Journal of Applied Psychology, February 1983, pp.88-101.
13 D. W. Organ, Organizational
Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome, Lexington Books,
Lexington, Mass., 1987