Каталог :: Масс-медиа и реклама

Реферат: Media in the world

     Mass media is a comprehensive term embracing television, radio, motion
pictures, and large-circulation newspapers and magazines. It refers to much
more than the journalistic aspects of the instruments of popular communication.
The mass media often function as the locus of social control and the source of
popular culture. They help create historical events, teach values, and by
virtue of the huge commercial enterprises they represent, affect the viability
of free societies.
There are five major fields of journalism: newspapers, news services,
periodicals, radio and television. Radio and television perform information
only briefly, but quickly. Newspapers include full reports on different
topics. News agencies provide them with the latest information.
News agencies are local, national, international, or technical organizations
that gathers and distributes news, selling theyr services to newspapers,
periodicals, and broadcasters; reports are also available as part of some on-
line computer services. The major news organizations in the U.S. are: the
Associated Press (AP), founded in 1892 as the Associated Press of Illinois,
which adopted its present name in 1900; the United Press Association, called
the United Press (UP), founded in 1892, which became an affiliate of the
Scripps-Howard newspaper chain; and the International News Service (INS),
founded by W.R. Hearst in 1906; in 1958 INS was merged with UP, forming
United Press International (UPI). Two major European news agencies are the
Reuter Telegram Company of London, founded in 1851 and known simply as
Reuters; and Agence France-Presse, founded in 1835 as Agence Havas of Paris.
Some countries have government-owned and -controlled agencies. News agencies
transmit copy through the use of the telegraph, telephone wires, underwater
cables, and communications satellites. Many offer their clients photographs,
news analyses, and special features.
Newspaper is a publication issued periodically, usually daily or weekly, to
present information about current events. The Roman Acta diurna (c.59 B.C.),
posted daily in public places, was the first recorded newspaper . The
invention and spread of printing in the 15th cent. was the major factor in
the early development of the newspaper. The first daily paper in England was
the Daily Courant (1702). English newspapers began to reach the masses in the
19th cent. Important English newspapers of today are The Times of London
(founded in 1785) and the Manchester Guardian. One of the oldest continental
newspapers, Avisa Relation oder Zeitung, appeared in Germany in 1609; the
Nieuwe Tijdingen was published in Antwerp in 1616; and the first French
newspaper, the Gazette, was founded in 1631. Important newspapers of the
world today include Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (Germany), Figaro
(France), Osservatore romano (Vatican), Asahi Shimbun (Japan), and the Times
of India (Delhi). The first newspaper to appear in the American colonies was
a newssheet, Publick Occurrences, which was issued in Boston in 1690. During
the 19th cent. many famous U.S. newspapers appeared: the New York Evening
Post (1801); the New York Sun, founded (1833) by B.H. Day; the New York
Herald (1835); and the New York Times (1851. Other important American
newspapers are the Washington Post; Los Angeles Times; Christian Science
Monitor (Boston); Atlanta Constitution; Chicago Tribune; USA Today, a
national paper; and Wall Street Journal (N.Y.C.), which in 1980 became the
best-selling daily newspaper in the U.S. In the 20th cent. great newspaper
empires were built in England and in the U.S. By 1980 the Australian magnate
Rupert Murdoch was publishing newspapers in Australia, Britain, and the U.S.
Since the invention of the telegraph, which facilitated the rapid gathering
of news, the great news agencies have sold their services to many newspapers.
Improvements in typesetting and printing (especially the web press) have made
possible the publication of huge editions at great speed. During the 1970s
such technological developments as photocomposition and the use of
communications satellites to deliver news and photographs revolutionized the
newspaper industry. The advent of computer technology has allowed many
newspapers to offer information through commercial on-line computer services.
but they are able to spare more attention and space to each problem. The
newspaper articles give much more information about events. That is is the
main advantage of newspapers.
Newspapers cover more stories than any ather news media does. They also cover
stories in great detail. However, the newspapers present information later
then radio or TV. The great advantage of newspapers over radio and TV is that
they can report stories in depth. Readers can skip items that doesn’t
interest them. Newspapers also can print certain material that appeals to
only a small percentage of readers.
Periodicals are publications issued regularly, distinguished from the
newspaper in format, in that its pages are smaller and usually bound, and in
that it is published weekly, monthly, or quarterly, rather than daily.
Periodicals range from technical and scholarly journals to illustrated
magazines for mass circulation. The French Journal des scavans (1665-1791) is
considered the first periodical, whereas the English monthly Gentleman's
Magazine (1731-1868) was the first to use the word magazine in the sense of a
periodical for entertainment. Famous American periodicals include Godey's
Lady's Book (1830-98), edited by Sarah J. Hale and famous for its colored
fashion prints; the Atlantic Monthly (1857-) and Harper's Magazine (1850-),
both noted for serious essays and fiction; the extremely popular Saturday
Evening Post (1821-1971) and Ladies' Home Journal (1883-); McClure's Magazine
(1893-1928), which published many articles by the Muckrakers; and The New
Yorker (1925-) known for its urbane humor and high literary standards.
Specialized magazines include the news magazines Time (1923-) and Newsweek
(1933-); the National Geographic Magazine (1888-), devoted to natural history
and anthropology; Ebony (1946-), a picture weekly directed toward African
Americans; Playboy (1953-) and other periodicals devoted to sex and
sexuality; Ms. (1972-), a forum for the women's liberation movement; and the
zany, satirical National Lampoon (1970-). Computer advances have made
possible the delivery of magazine articles through on-line services and have
begun to spawn entirely electronic periodicals, such as The Online Journal of
Current Critical Trials (1992-), a professional medical journal.
The first regularly scheduled radio broadcasts in the U.S. began in 1920. The
sale of advertising began in 1922, establishing commercial broadcasting as an
industry. A coast-to-coast hookup began early in 1924, and expansion of both
audience and transmission facilities continued rapidly. Radio is generally
the first of news media to report a local story or a news service bulletin. A
radio announcer can interrupt a programme with a news flash as soon as the
report comes in. Most stations present regular news bulletins every half-hour
or hour.The national radio broadcast  major news events. However, most radio
news bulletins do not report the news in detail. In a five minute broadcast
the stories average less then 30 seconds each. Radio also provide weather
forecasts and traffic information.
Experiments in broadcasting television began in the 1920s but were
interrupted by World War II. By 1992 the U.S. had 1,505 television stations,
and cable television systems in the U.S. served over 56 million households.
Television signals are also now transmitted from satellites direct to
household satellite dishes.
Television is the main source of news for many households around the world.
TV does what none of the other media can: it brings the sight and sounds of
some important news events by means of filmed, taped or live reports. Like
regular radio news bulletins, daily TV news programmes provide only brief
accounts of relatively new stories. But the visual aspect of TV news story
can often help viewers understand the story. In addition to daily news
reports, television covers special news events. Coverage of such an event may
replace many hours of regular TV shows. Television also broadcasts in-depth
programmes that help explain a story or  subject. Such programmes, which run
from half an hour to three hours, include docummentaries and interview
programmes. Most docummentaries are filmed or taped. They may perform such
subjects as crime, foreign policy, or race relations. Interview programmes,
which are usually broadcast live, may consist of a panel of journalists who
ask questions of a major figure in the news.
The importance of mass media and journalism has greatly increased in recent
years. In democratic countries, people depend on the news media for the fair
and truthful reporting of current events. Freedom of the press encourages the
exchange of ideas among citizens. In governmet-controlled countries, however,
the news media serve as an instrument of the state. The struggle against
censorship began in England in the 16th-17th cent. In the American colonies
it began in 1734. Only 20% of the world’s people live in countries that have
a free press. But in government-controlled countries journalists can still
broadcast or write only what national leaders allow.  Media forms public
opinion now. A lot of politicians strive to possess mass media. Media carries
great possibilities for society, but they are not only good ones. Nobody
should forget, that media- is the fourth power.