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     Business battle fiercely, making an enormous variety of products to meet
different customers’ needs. In many businesses, promotion is the key to a new
product success. Promotion is any technique designed to sell a product to a
customer. To sell a product, promotional techniques must communicate the uses,
features, & benefits of the product. Here we will look at different reasons
for & approaches to promotion, When & why companies use particular
tools & strategies, & the special promotional problems & solutions
of small business.
     Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tolls
     In developing a promotional plan, marketers must consider the company’s basic
promotional objectives. They must develop promotional strategies to reach those
objectives. Then, as a part of their strategies, they must choose among various
promotional tools that may be used alone or in combination
     Promotional Objectives
     You may think that the ultimate objective of any type of promotion is to
increase sales. You’re right. After all, the goal of any business is to make
money, & companies make money by making sales. However, marketers also use
promotion to communicate information, position products, & control sales
     Communication of Information.
     A very basic objective of promotion is to communicate information from one
person or organization to another. Consumers cannot buy a product unless they
have been informed about it.
     Information may advise customers about the availability of a product. It may
educate them on the latest technological advances. Or it may announce the
candidacy of someone running for a government office.
     Information may be communicated in writing (newspapers & magazines) It
may be communicated verbally (in person or over the telephone) Or it may be
communicated visually (television, a match book cover, or a billboard). Today,
the communication of information regarding a company’s products or services is
so important that markets try to place it wherever consumers may be.
     Product Positioning.
     Another objective of promotion, Product Positioning, is to establish an easily 
     identifiable image of a product in the minds of consumers. For example, by
selling only in 
     department stores, Lauder products have positioned themselves as more upscale
than cosmetics sold in drugstores. Given all the brands & trademarks in the
marketplace, it is impossible for an individual to remember each one.
Therefore, marketers seek a unique position in buyer’s minds.
     Positioning a product is difficult because the company is trying to appeal to
a specific segment of the market rather than to the market as a whole. First,
the company must identify which segments of a market could would be likely
purchasers of its product & who is competitors are. Only then can it focus
its promotional strategy on differentiating its product from the competition’s,
while appealing to its target audience.
     Controlling Sales Volume.
     Another objective of promotions is sales volume control. Many companies such
as Hallmark Cards, experience seasonal sales patterns. By increasing its
promotional activities in slow periods, the firm can achieve a more stable
sales volume throughout the year. As a result, it can keep its production &
distribution systems running evenly. Promotions can even turn slow seasons into
peak sales periods. For example, greeting card companies & florists
together have done much to create Grandparents’ day.The result has been
increased consumer desire to send cards & flowers to older relatives in the
middle of what was a dry for these industries.
     Promotional Strategies
     Once a firm’s promotional objectives are clear, it must develop a promotional
strategy to achieve these objectives. Promotional strategies may be of the push
or pull variety. A company with a Push strategy will aggressively push its
product through wholesalers & retailers, who persuade customers to buy it.
In contrast, a company with Pull strategy appeals directly to customers who
demand the product from retailers, who in turn demand the product from
     Makers from industrial products most often use a Push strategy And makers of
consumer products most often use a Pull strategy. Many large firms use a
combination of the two strategies. For example, General Foods uses advertising
to create consumer demand(pull) for its cereals. It also pushes wholesalers
& retailers to stoke these products. Once the promotional strategy has been
determined, it guides the company’s choice of promotional objectives & the
types of promotional communicational tools that will be used.
     Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix
     Based on these strategies, the firm must select the right promotional tools.
There are four basis types of promotional tools: Advertising, Personal selling,
Sales promotions, & Publicity & Public relations.
     The best combination of these tools-the best promotional mix - depends on many 
     factors. The company’s product, the costs of different tools versus the
promotional budget, & characteristics in the target audience all play a
     The product. The nature of the product being promoted affect
the mix greatly. For example, advertising can reach a large number of widely
dispersed consumers. Thus it is used by makers of products that might be
purchased by anyone, like sunglasses, radios & snack foods. Companies
introducing new products also favor advertising because it reaches a large
number of people very quickly & can repeat a message many times. Personal
selling, on the other hand, is important when the product appeals to a very
specific audience, such as piping or pressure gauges for industrial accounts.
     Cost of the Tolls. The cost of communication tools is also
important. Because personal selling is an expensive communicational tool, it is
most appropriate in marketing high-priced goods like computers for industrial
customers & homes for consumers. In contrast, advertising reaches more
customers per dollar spent.
     A promotional mix that is good for one company is not really good for
another. For example, Frito -Lay can afford to spend millions of dollars on
advertising & consumer promotions to promote Ruffles Cajun Spice potato
chips nationally. But Zapps Potato Chips of Gramercy, Louisiana, the innovator
in Cajun flavor potato chips, must rely on personal selling & publicity to
promote its Cajun Craw-taters locally.
     Promotion & the Buyer Decision Process. Another
consideration in establishing the promotional mix is the stage of the buyer
decision process that customers are in. Customers must first recognize the need
to make a purchase. At these stage marketers need to make sure the buyer is
aware that their products exist. Thus, advertising & publicity, which can
reach a large number of people very quickly, are very important.
     At the next stage, customers want to learn more about possible products.
Advertising & personal selling are important because they both can be used
to educate the customer about the product.
     During the third stage, customers will evaluate & compare competing
products. Personal selling is vital at this point because sales representatives
can demonstrate their product’s quality & performance in direct relation to
the competition’s product.
     Next, customers decide ton a specific product & purchase it. Sales
promotion is effective at these stage because it can give consumers an
incentive to buy. Personal selling can also help by bringing the product to
convenient location for the consumer.
     Finally, consumers evaluate the product after buying it. Advertising, or even
personal selling, is sometimes used after the sale to remind consumers that
they made wise & prudent purchases.
     Advertising Promotions
     Advertising Strategies
     Advertising strategies most often depend on which stage of the product life
cycle their product is in. During the introduction stage, Informative
Advertising can help develop an awareness of the company & its product
among buyers & can establish a primary demand for the product. For example,
when a new textbook is being published, instructors receive direct-mail
advertisements notifying them of the book’s contents & availability.
     As products become established, advertising stages must change. During the
growth stage, Persuasive Advertising can influence customers to buy the
company’s products, not those of its rivals. For example, during its growth
stage, Advil used this approach to attract buyers of Tylenol & other pain
relievers. Persuasive advertising is also important during the maturity stage
to maintain the product’s level of sales. In addition, Comparative
Advertising may help to steal sales away from the competition. After
proclaiming that «most people in Ford country drive Chevy pickups», the ad then
discusses specific features of the two brands, in a classic example of the
comparison approach.
     Finally, during the latter part of the maturity stage and all of the decline
stage, Reminder Advertising keeps the product’s name on the tip of the
consumer’s lips. And so Atari continues to advertise its home video games, even
though attention has shifted over to a newer competitor, Nintendo.
     Whatever the product’s life cycle stage, advertising strategies must consider 
timing. Should the organization advertise throughout the year on a
continual basis, or seasonally? Companies such as commercial banks space ads
evenly throughout a year. 
     Advertising Media
     In developing advertising strategies, marketers must also consider the best 
     Advertising Medium for their message. IBM, for example, uses
television ads to keep its name fresh in consumers’ minds. But it uses
newspaper & magazine ads to educate consumers on the product’s abilities
& trade publication to introduce new software. Each advertising medium has
its own advantages & disadvantages.
     Newspapers. Newspapers are the most widely used advertising
medium, accounting for about 27 % of all advertising expenditures. Newspapers
offer excellent coverage, since each local market has at least the daily
newspaper & many people read the paper ever day(Like you are).This medium
offers flexible, rapid coverage, since ads can change from day to day. It also
offers believable coverage, since ads are presented side-by-side with news.
However, newspapers are generally thrown out after one day, often cannot print
in color, & have poor reproduction quality. Moreover newspapers don’t
usually allow advertisers to target their audience very well.
     Television. Television accounts for about 22% of all
advertising expenditures. In addition to the major networks, cable television
is becoming a major advertising medium. Cable ad revenues have increased from
$58million in1980 to $1.4billion in1988, & are projected to be over
$2billion by1990.
     Television allows advertisers to combine sight, sound, & motion, thus
appealing to almost all the viewer’s senses. National advertising is done on
television because it reaches more people than any other medium.
     One disadvantage of television is that there are too many commercials,
causing viewers to confuse products. Most people for example, can’t recall
whether a tire commercial was for Firestone, or Goodrich. Viewers of VCR tapes
of shows often fast-forward past the ads. Another disadvantage, is that the
normal «Commercial spot» lasts only a short time(usually 30sec), & then its
gone. If the viewer is not paying attention, the impact of the commercial is
lost. Brevity also makes television a poor medium in which to educate viewers
about complex products. Finally television is the most expensive medium. A
30sec commercial during the Super Bowl costs about $750.000!
     Direct Mail. Direct Mail advertisements account for 17% of all
advertising expenditures. As the name implies, direct mail often involves
fliers mailed directly to consumers’ homes or places of business. Direct Mail
allows the company to select its audience & personalize the message.
Consumers are also exposed to far less direct mail than to other advertising
media. Moreover, although direct mail incurs the largest advance costs of any
advertising technique, it also appears to have the highest cost effectiveness.
These features have helped to make direct mail a fast-growing advertising
     Radio. About 7% of all advertising expenditures are for radio
time. A tremendous number of people listen to the radio each day, and radio ads
are very inexpensive. In addition, since most radio is programmed locally, this
medium gives advertisers a high degree of customer selectivity. For example,
radio stations are already segmented into listening categories such as rock
& roll, country & western, jazz, talk shows, news & religious
     Like television however, radio ads are over quickly. And radio permits only
an audio presentation. Also people tend to use the radio as a background while
     doing their things, paying little attention to the advertisements.
     Magazines. Magazine advertising accounts for roughly 5% of all
advertising. The many different magazines on the market provide a high level on
consumer selectivity. Magazine advertising also allows for excellent
reproduction of photographs & artwork that not only grabs buyer’s
attention, but may also convince them on the product’s value. And magazines
allow advertisers plenty of space for detailed product information Another
advantage of magazines is that they have a long life & tend to be passed
from person to person, thus doubling & tripling the number of exposures.
     The problem with magazine advertising is that ads must be submitted well in
advance to be included in a certain issue. Often there is no guarantee of where
within a magazine in ad will appear. Naturally, a company would prefer to have
its advertisement appear near the front of the magazine or within a feature
     Outdoor. Outdoor advertising - billboards, signs, &
advertising buses, taxis, & subways - makes up a little more than 1 % of
all advertising. These  advertisements are relatively inexpensive, they face
little competition for customers’ attention, & they are subject to high
repeat exposure. Unfortunately, companies have little control over who will see
their advertisement.
     Types of Advertising
     Regardless of the media used, advertisements fall into one of several
categories. Brand Advertising promotes a specific brand, such as
Kodak126 film, Head & shoulders shampoo, & Nike Air Jordan basketball
shoes. Advocacy Advertising promotes a particular candidate or
viewpoint, as in ads for political candidates at electon time and  antidrug
commercials. Institutional Advertising promotes a fir’s long-term image,
as when AT&T assures customers that it is ``the right choice.
     Advertising to Specific Markets’
     Advertisements also differ in to whom they are directed. That is,
advertisement depend on the company’s target market. In consumer markets, local
stores usually sponsor retail advertising to encourage consumers to
visit the store & buy its products & services. Larger retailers use
retail advertising on both a local & national level. Often retail
advertising is actually cooperative advertising, with the cost of the
advertising shared by the retailer & the manufacturer.
     In industrial markets, to communicate with companies that distribute its
products, some firms use trade advertising publications. And to reach
the professional purchasing agent & managers at firm buying raw material or
components, companies use industrial advertising.
     Regulation of Advertising
     Advertising affects nearly every American. Because it can be used to deceive
as well as inform buyers, advertising has increasingly come under regulation.
The first regulation of advertising activities came in1914. This act created
the Federal Trade Commission to protect competition from unfair trade
     Members of the advertising industry also regulate themselves to some degree.
Advertising media, including television networks & local stations
magazines, & newspapers, decline ads they believe to be false or in poor
test. And the National Advertising Review Board investigates complaints against
national advertisers. If it finds in favor of the advertiser, chargers are
dropped. If it finds in favor of the complaining party, then the advertiser
must modify or withdraw its claim. 
     Personal Selling Promotions
     Virtually everyone has engaged in some sort of sales activity. Perhaps you
had a lemonade stand or sold candy for the drama club. Or you may have gone on
a job interview - selling your abilities & service as an employee to the
interviewers company. 
     Personal selling - the oldest form of selling - is a vital cog in many
companies’ promotional efforts. It provides the personal link between seller
& buyer. It adds to a firm’s creditability because it provides buyers with
someone to interact with & to answer their questions.
     Because it involves personal interaction, however, personal selling requires
a level of trust between the buyer & the seller. When a buyer fells cheated
by the seller, that 
     trust has been broken & negative attitude towards salespeople in general
develops. To counteract this reputation, many companies are emphasizing
customer satisfaction & generally striving to improve the effectiveness of
whatever personal selling they undertake.
     Personal selling is also most expensive form of promotion per contact because
presentations are generally made to one or two individuals at time. Personal
selling expenses include salespeople’s compensation & their overhead,
usually travel, food & lodging. The average cost of sales call has been
estimated an approximately $240 & has been increasing rapidly in recent
     The high cost of personal sales have prompted many companies to set up
Telemarketing departments. Telemarketing is the use of the telephone to
carry out many of the activities involved in marketing a company’s products.
Telemarketing can be used to handle any stage of the personal selling process
or to set up appointments for outside sales people.
     Types of Personal Selling Situations 
     Managers of both telemarketing & traditional personal sales people must
always consider how personal service are affected by the difference between
consumer products & industrial products. Retail selling involves
selling a consumer product for the buyer’s own personal or household use. 
Industrial selling deals with selling products to other businesses, either
for manufacturing other products or for resale. 
     Each of this selling groups situations has its own distinct characteristics.
In retail selling the buyer usually comes to the seller. The industrial
salesperson almost always goes to the prospect’s place of business. The
industrial decision process also may take longer than a retail decision because
more money, decision makers, & weighting of alternatives are involved. And
industrial buyers are professional purchasing agents who are accustomed to
dealing with salespeople. Consumers in retail stores, on the other hand, may be
intimidated by salespeople.
     Personal Selling Tasks
     Improving sales efficiency also requires marketers to consider salespeople’s
tasks. Three basic tasks are generally associated with selling: Order
processing, creative selling, & missionary selling. Sales jobs usually
require salespeople to perform all three tasks to some degree, depending on the
product & the company. As you will see, this tasks differ in the skills
required, the methods used, & the reasons for using them. 
     Order Processing. At the most basic level, Order Processing, a
salesperson receives an order & sees to the handling & delivery of that
order. Route salespeople are often order processors. They call on regular
customers to check the customer’s supply of bread, milk, snack foods, or soft
drinks. Then, with a customer’s consent, they determine the size of the
reorder, fill the order form their trucks, & stack the customer’s shelves.
     Creative Selling. When the benefits of the product are not
clear, creative selling may persuade buyers. Most industrial products involves
creative selling because the buyer has not used the product before or may not
be familiar with the features & uses of 
     a specific brand. Personal selling is also crucial for high priced consumer
products, such as homes, where buyers comparison shop. Any new product can
benefit from creative selling that differentiates it from other products.
Finally, creative selling can help to create a need.
     Missionary Selling. A company may also use missionary selling
to promote itself & its products. The goal of missionary selling is to
promote the company’s long-term image than to make a quick sale.
     The Personal Selling Process
     Although all three sales tasks are important to an organization using
personal selling, perhaps the most complicated is creative selling. It is the
creative salesperson who is responsible for most of the steps in the personal
selling process described here.
     Prospecting & Qualifying. In order to sell, a sales person
must first have a potential customer, or prospect. Prospecting is the
process of identifying this potential customers. Salespeople find prospects
through past company records, customers , friends, relatives, company
personnel, & business associates. Prospects must then be qualified 
to determine whether or not they have the authority to buy & the ability to
     Approaching. The first few minutes that a salesperson has
contact with a qualified prospect are called the approach. The success
of later stages depends on the prospect’s first impression of the salesperson,
since this impression affects the salesperson’s creditability. Thus,
salespeople need to present a neat, professional appearance & to greet
prospects in a strong, confident manner.
     Presenting & Demonstrating. Next, the salesperson must present the 
     promotional message to the prospect. A presentation is the full explanation
of the 
     product, its features, & its uses. It links the product’s benefits to the
prospect’s needs. A presentation may or may not include a demonstration 
of the product.
     Handling Objections. No matter what the products, prospects
will have some objections. At the very least, prospects will object to
a product’s price, hoping to get a discount. Objections show the salesperson
that the buyer is interested  in the presentation & which parts of the
presentation the buyer is insure of or has a problem with. They tell the
salesperson what customers feel is important &, essentially, how to sell
     Closing. The most critical part of the selling process is the 
close, in which the 
     sales person asks the prospective customer to buy the product. Successful
salespeople, recognize the signs that a customer is ready to buy. Salespeople
can ask directly for the sale or they can indirectly imply a close. Questions
such as « Could you take delivery Tuesday?» & « Why don’t we start you off
with an initial order of ten cases?» are implied closes. Such indirect closes
place the burden of rejecting the sale on the prospect, who often will find it
hard to say no.
     Following Up. The sales process doesn’t end with the close of
the sale. Most companies wants customers to come back again. Sales follow-up
activities include fast processing of the customer’s orders & on-time
delivery. Training in the proper care & usage of the product & speedy
service if repairs are needed may also be part of the fallow-up.
     Sales Promotions
     Sales promotions ( motivators) are a very important factor in the promotional
mix because they increase the chances that consumers will try a product. They
also enhance recognition for the products. And they can increase the purchase
size & amount.
     Did you ever here a promotional slogan « buy three & get one free.» 
     To succeed, however, sales promotions must be convenient & accessible
when the decision to purchase occurs.
     Types of Sales Promotions
     Sales promotions can take a variety of forms. The best known are coupons,
point of purchase displays, free samples, trading stamps, premiums, trade
shows, trade promotions, & contests & sweepstakes.
     Coupons. Any certificate that entitles the bearer to a stated
savings off a product’s regular price is a coupon. Coupons may be used
to encourage customers to try new products, to attract customers away from
competitors or to include current customers to buy more of a product. They
appear in newspapers & magazines & are often sent through direct mail.
     Point-of-Purchase Displays. To grab customer’s attention as
they walk through the store, some companies use Point of Purchase Displays
. Displays located at the end of the aisles or near the checkout in supermarkets
are POP displays. POP displays are always coincide with a sale or the item
being displayed. They also make it easier for customers to find a product &
easier for manufacturers to eliminate competitors from 
     consideration. The cost of shelf & display space, however, is becoming
more & more expensive.
     Free Samples, Trading Stamps, & Premiums. Purchasing 
incentives such as free samples, trading stamps, & Premiums are used by many
manufacturers & retailers. Premiums are gifts, such as pens,
pencils, calendars, & coffee mugs, that are given away to consumers in
return for buying a specified product. Retailers & wholesalers also receive
premiums for carrying some products.
     Trade Shows. Periodically, industries sponsor Trade Shows 
for their members & customers. Trade shows allow companies to rent booths to
display & demonstrate their products to customers who have a special
interest in the products or who are ready to buy. Trade shows are relatively
inexpensive & are very effective, since the buyer comes to the seller
already interested in a given type of product.
     Contests & Sweepstakes. Customers, distributors, &
sales representatives may all be persuaded to increase sales of a product
through the use of contest. For example, distributors & sales agents may
win a trip to Hawaii for selling the most pillows in the month of March.
Although sweepstakes can’t require consumers to buy a product to enter, they
may increase sales by stimulating buyers’ interest in a product.
     Publicity & Public Relations Promotions
     Much to the delight of marketing managers with tight budgets, Publicity Is
FREE. Moreover, consumers see publicity as objective & highly believable.
Thus, it is a very important part of the promotional mix. However marketers
often have a little control over publicity.
     Public relations is company-influenced publicity. It attempts to establish a
sense of goodwill between the company & its customers through public
service announcements  that enhance the company’s image. From this topic, so
far, you may think that only large companies can afford to seriously promote
their goods & services. Although small businesses have fewer resources,
cost-effective promotions can improve sales & enable small firms to
complete with a much larger firms.
     Small Business Advertising
     The type of advertising chosen by a small business depends on the market the 
     firm is trying to reach: Local, National, International.
     Local Markets. Advertising is non prime-time slots on local
television offers great impact at a cost many small firms can afford. More
commonly though, small businesses with a local market use newspaper & radio
advertising &, increasingly, direct mail. 
     National Markets. Many businesses have grown from small to
large operations by using direct mail & particularly catalogues. By
purchasing mailing lists of other companies’ customers, a small firm can target
its mailing, reducing costs. The ability to target an audience also makes
specialized magazines attractive to small businesses.
     International Markets. Television, radio, & newspapers are
seldom viable promotional options in reaching international markets because of
both their costs and their limited availability. Most small firms find direct
mail & magazine advertising the most effective promotional tools.
     Small Business Personal Selling
     Like advertising, personal selling strategies used by small businesses depend
on their intended market.
     Local Markets. Some small firms maintain a sales force to
promote & sell their products locally. Other contract with a sales agency -
a company that handles the products of several companies - to act on their
behalf. Insurance agents who sell insurance for several different companies are
sales agencies.
     National Markets. Because of a high costs of operating a national sales force, 
     many companies have established telemarketing staffs. By combining
telemarketing with a catalog or other educational product literature, small
companies can sell their products nationally & compete against much larger
     International Markets. Small companies can’t afford to
establish international offices in order to conduct businesses. Even sending
sales representatives overseas is expensive. Thus, many small companies have
combined telemarketing with direct mail in order to expand internationally.
Small businesses often depend on an interesting or unusual sign to attract new
     Small Business Sales Promotions
     Small companies use the same sales promotion incentives that larger companies
use. The difference is that larger firms tend to use more coupons, POP
displays, & sales contests. Smaller firms rely on premiums & special
sales, since coupons & sales contests are more expensive & difficult to
     Small Business Publicity
     Publicity is very important to small businesses with local markets. Small
firms often have an easier time getting local publicity than do national firms.
Readers of local papers like to read about local companies, so local papers
like to write about such businesses. But fierce competition for coverage in
national & international publications limits the access small businesses
have to those markets.
     Distributing Goods & Services
     In selecting a distribution mix for getting its products to customers, a firm
may use any or all of six distribution channels. The first four are aimed at
consumers & the last two at industrial customers. Channel 1 involves a
direct sale to the consumer. Channel 2 includes a retailer. Channel 3 also
includes one wholesaler, while Channel 4 includes an agent or broker before the
wholesaler. Distribution strategies include intensive, exclusive, &
selective distribution.
     Wholesalers act as distribution intermediaries, extending credit &
storing, repackaging, & delivering the product to other members of the
distribution channel. Full-service, & limited-service, merchant wholesalers
differ in the number of distribution functions they offer. Agents & brokers
never take legal possession of the product. 
     Retailing involves direct interaction with the final consumer. The major
types of retail stores are department, specialty, bargain, convenience,
supermarkets, & hypermarkets. (Like in Moscow.) They differ in terms of
size, services, & product type they offer, & product pricing. Some
retailing also takes place without stores, through the use of catalogs, vending
machines, & video marketing. According to the wheel of retailing,
conventional retailers are periodically Displaced by low-priced innovative
retailers, who then become more conventional & subject to displacement.
     Distribution ultimately depends on physically getting the product to the
buyer. Physical distribution includes customer-service operations such as order
processing. It also includes warehousing & transportation of products.
Warehouses may be public or private & may be used for long-term storage or
serve as distribution centers. Costs of warehousing include inventory control
& materials handling.
     Truck, plane, railroad, water, & pipeline transportation differ in cost,
availability, reliability of delivery, & speed. Air is the fastest but most
expensive. Water carriers are the slowest, but least expensive. Most products
are moved by truck at some point. Transportation in any form may be supplied by
common carriers, freight forwarders, contract carriers, or private carriers.
     Developing & Pricing Products
     Products are a firm’s reason for being, their features offer benefits to
buyers, whose purchases are the source of business profits. In developing
products, marketers must take into account whether their market is individual
consumers or other firms. Marketers must also recognize that buyers will pay
less for & worry less about the exact nature of convenience goods than
about shopping & specialty goods. In industrial markets, expensive items
are generally less expensive & more rapidly consumed than are capital
     The seven stages of product development are development the ideas, screening,
concept testing, business analysis, prototype development, test marketing,
& commercialization. Very few ideas for new products survive to the
commercialization stage.
     When new products are launched, they have a life cycle that begins with their
introduction & progresses through stages of growth, maturity, & decline
Revenues rise through the early growth period; sales rise through the late
maturity period. In terms of the growth -share matrix, this progression appears
as a product moves from questions mark to star to cash cow to dog.
     Each product is given a visible identity by its brand & the way it is
packaged & labeled. National, licensed & private brands are developed
to create brand loyalty. Packaging provides an attractive container &
advertises the product. The label informs the consumer of the package contents.
The pricing of the product will determine its business success, depending on
the business objectives that are being sought. Profit maximization, market
share, & other business objectives may be relevant to the pricing decision.
Economic theory, cost-oriented pricing, & break-even analysis are tan used
as tools in determine prices.
     Pricing also involves choices of a basic pricing strategy can be used for new
products. Existing products may be priced at, above, or below prevailing prices
for similar products, depending on the other elements in the marketing mix.
Within a firm’s pricing strategies, managers set prices using tactics such as
price lining, psychological pricing, & discounting.
     1.  Promotional Objectives, Strategies, & Tools
·     Promotional Objectives
·     Promotional Strategies
·     Picking the Right Tools for the Promotional Mix
     2.  Advertising Promotions
·      Advertising Strategies
·      Advertising Media
·      Types Advertising
·      Advertising to Specific Markets
·      Regulation of Advertising
     3.  Personal Selling Promotions
·      Types of Personal Selling Situations
·      Personal Selling Tasks
·      The Personal Selling Process
     4.  Sales Promotions
·      Types of Sales Promotions
     5.  Publicity & Public Relations Promotions
·      Small-Business Advertising
·      Small-Business Personal Selling
·      Small-Business Sales Promotions
·      Small-Business Publicity
     6.  Distributing Goods & Services
     7.  Developing & Pricing Products
                     MANAGING MARKETING                     
                 (Promoting Goods & Services)                 
                            To Dr. Zavadovskiy                            
                           by Goubanova Galina                            
       1.Principles of Marketing                     Philip Kotler       
                                                           Gary Armstrong
     2.The practice of Marketing                  Kenneth E. Runyon
     3.   Business                                              Ricky W. Griffin
     4.   Marketing                                           Patrick E. Murphy
                                                              Ben M. Enis
     5.   Marketing Management ( A Strategic Approach)
                                                       Harper W. Boyd, Jr
                                                     Orville C. Walker,Jr