Доклад: POP ART
Селеменева А. ММА-91
US Style and design (20th century) –
Pop Art, Commercial Photography
The twentieth century is the first century of self-conscious, total design at
every level of our living and environment. Care and vision in application of
design have come to be demanded in every aspect of modern life – from our
kitchens and bathrooms, to our factories and workshops, from our clothes and
domestic objects, to the packaging of pocket calculators or the structuring
of plastic dining chairs.
Although the word has been used since at least the fifteenth century, when
Italian writers spoke of 'disegno' in describing the quality of line
possessed by an image or artifact, in all essentials 'design' is an
industrial or post-industrial concept. With the introduction of mass-
production, the people who invented ideas for objects became separated from
the people who made them who, again, were separated from the people who sold
them. The industrial revolution also created the concept of the market.
Personal need, or the whims of a patron, were replaced by a more abstract
demand: the tastes of a large, amorphous body of consumers.
The modern designer came into being as an intermediary between industry and
the consumer. His role was to adapt the products of industry to the mass
market, to make them more useful and durable, perhaps, but to make them more
appealing and commercially successful, certainly. Commercial success is the
touchstone of achievement in design, although designers in different cultures
have often taken different views as to how the achievement is measured or the
So, design in business and advertisement means much. The story of style in
the applied arts since the mid-to late fifties has been dominated by various
new forces, including social and economic factors and certain aspects of
technical and scientific progress. Now we have computer design, web design,
advertisement design ( for example consumer-product branding design) and the
whole fashion of different types of ad, colors and so on.
The late fifties saw the birth of advertising as we know it today, a high-
powered business dedicated to the development effective marketing techniques;
it involved new design concepts and a whole new professional jargon of
product packaging, market research, corporate images and house style.
The POP Art movement embraced the work of a new generation of artists of
late fifties and early sixties of both sides of the Atlantic. In Britain, in
addition to the Independent Group, there were Peter Blake, Allen Jones. In USA
Jasper Johns, Tom Wesselman, Claes Oldenburg and other formalized the language
of product packaging, from beer cans to Campbell's Soup tins of strip cartoons,
fast food, advertising hoardings and pin-ups.
Pop Art at once reflected and glorified mass-market culture and injected a
new vigour into the applied arts. Pop and the art styles which were its
natural successors, notably American Hard-Edge Abstraction and the Hyper- or
Photo-realist school of around 1970, suggested a new palette o colours and
gave a fresh, ironical edge to the imagery of popular culture. The Pop ethic
posi lively encouraged designers to exploit vulgarity brashness and bright
colour, and to use synthetic or disposable materials in contexts in which
they would formerly have been unacceptable. Pop has had a lasting effect on
design in a wide variety of media, including interiors, graphics and fashion.
Pop has spawned furniture in bright, primary-coloured plastics and in boldly
printed fold-away cardboard; it has inspired, notably in Britain and Italy,
witty sculptural furniture in brash, synthetic materials reminiscent of the
sculptures of Claes Oldenburg. The fashion and furniture shop Mr Freedom,
opened in London in 1969 by Tommy Roberts, was a veritable shrine to the Pop
cult, with lively furniture designs by Jon Weallans. Italian Pop furniture
was one aspect of the Italian design community's wide-ranging intellectual
approach which, since the sixties, has made Italy the most progressive
country in many areas of the applied arts.
The influence of Pop can be seen in graphic design in the sixties in the work
of the American Pushpin Studios, founded by Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast.
Pop and the Hyper-Realists also inspired the slick airbrush work of a number
of graphic artists working in the seventies and eighties, notably the British
artists Philip Castle and Michael English. Pop imagery is still, today, a
part of the staple diet of graphic design.
Pop's most notable impact on the world of fashion was in London in the late
sixties and early seventies, and in Italy in the achievements of Elio
Fiorucciin the seventies. Fiorucci brought fun into fashion, and his shops,
first in Milan and then internationally, became known for their Pop-inspired
clothes and graphics.
And it's influence can be seen also and on a graphic design in USA. POP is
everywhere, we see everyday objects and images of American popular culture –
Coca-Cola bottles, soup cans, sigarette packages and comic strips.
Commercial photographic images are a major ingredient of our visual life,
assimilated from magazines, hoardings and such contexts as brochures,
catalogues, calendars, packaging and point-of-sale promotional material.
Commercial photography thrives as a means of creating highly polished images
of a stylized, glamourized and idealized view of the World in order to sell a
product or a service.
The major categories of commercial photography are advertising in its
countless guises, including product photography and photo-illustration,
fashion, beauty and certain categories of photography which are neither
reportage nor aspire to be fine art, yet which can be fascinating social
documents of considerable aesthetic quality.
Irving Penn has continued to be a master in each of these genres and has set
standards to which many aspire. His career has spanned forty years, during
which his work, from his early fashion and still-life compositions to current
still-life product studies such as his series for the cosmetics
manufacturers Clinique, has shown an inimitable vision and consistent
Ben Stern, though far from being Penn's artistic equal, became the archetypal
commercial photographer in the fifties and sixties, running a vast studio in
New York and showing considerable skill and versatility in interpreting the
briefs of art directors and clients.
In the sixties the profession of commercial and, in particular, fashion
photography became greatly glamourized: the successful young photographer
became a popular folk hero, as if the camera were a passport to the illusory
world which it could depict—Antonioni's film Blow-Up (1966-7)
defined the role model. Among the most interesting magazines to be launched in
the sixties, the photography of which captured the youthful excitement of that
period, were the British Nova, which commissioned some of the best
fashion photography of its day, and the German Twen, brilliantly art
directed by Willy Fleckhaus.
In the sixties advertising played a secondary role to editorial photography
in magazines. Today the reverse seems true, for the character of many
magazines is dictated by the market needs of advertisers and many
photographers bemoan the greater restrictions this imposes. The seventies and
eighties have, nonetheless, brought forth a new roll-call of talent.
Outstanding contemporary figures include Helmut Newton and Guy Bourdin, who
have dominated the field of fashion photography; Hans Feurer, Arthur Elgort,
Denis Piel and others, a few of the less celebrated but talented fashion
photographers; advertising and glamour photographers such as Francis
Giacobetti, James Baes.
Commercial photographers play a great role in our consumer society, creating
the images of a life-style to which we are constantly encouraged to aspire.
They create glamourized images of women and give a heightened visual appeal
to the products which are economic mainstay of our society, be it a
hamburger, a perfume or an automobile.