Каталог :: Иностранные языки

Методические указания: методичка ФЭВТ

     UNIT 1.Computer applications.
     1) Discuss these questions.
     1.How are computers used at your university?
     2.Where else/How else can you use the computer for your studies?
2) Read these terms aloud(вслух ) and suggest Russian equivalents:
     computer-aided design (CAD); PC (personal computer); database; to
rely(полагаться) on smth/smb; to provide(обеспечивать) smth/smb with smth;
workstation; to give real-time information; to store (information); to access
(databases); to carry out(выполнять) (financial transactions); to display
(data); to perform smth; sophisticated( ); device; to be capable(способный) of
smth/doing smth; to turn smth on; hardware; software; to manage smth; gadget
(безделушка).
3) In pairs write a list of as many uses of the computer, or computer
applications, as     you    can think of.
     4) Now read the text and underline any applications that are not in your list.
Computers can help students perform mathematical operations and solve
difficult questions. They can be used to teach courses such as 
computer-aided design, language learning, programming, mathematics, etc. 
PCs are also used for administrative purposes: for example, school use 
databases and word processors to keep records of students, teachers and
materials. Race(сосьязания) organizers and journalists rely on 
computers to provide them with the current positions of riders
and teams in both the particular stages of the race and in an overall
competition. Workstations in the race buses provide the timing system
and give up-to-the-minute timing information to TV stations. In the press room
several PCs give real-time information on the state of the race.
Computer databases are also used in the drug-detecting tests for competitors.
Computers store information about the amount(количество) of money held
by each client and enable staff to access large databases and to
carry out financial transactions at high speed. They also control the
automatic cash dispensers(раздавать), which, by the use of a personal coded
card, dispense money to clients. Airline pilots use computers to help them
control the plane. For example, monitors display data about fuel
consumption (потребление) and weather conditions. In airport control towers,
computers are used to manage radar systems and regulate air traffic. On the
ground, airlines are connected to travel agencies by computer. Travel agents
use computers to find out about the availability of flights, prices, times,
stopovers(билет) and many other details.
Computers and microchips have become part of our everyday lives: we visit shops
and offices, which have been designed with the help of computers, we read
magazines, which have been produced on computer, we pay bills prepared by
computers. Just picking up a telephone and dialing a number involves the use of
a sophisticated computer system, as does making a flight reservation or
bank transaction. We encounter(сталкиваться) daily many computers that
spring(появляться) to life the instance(пример) they are switched on (e.g.
calculations, the car’s electronic ignition, the timer in the microwave, or the
programmer inside the TV set), all of which use chip technology.
What makes your computer such a miraculous(удивительный) device? Each
time you turn it on; it is a tabular rasa(нетронутое) that,
with appropriate(соответствующий) hardware and software, is 
capable of doing anything you ask. It is a calculating machine that speeds
up financial calculations. It is an electronic filing cabinet, which 
manages large collections of data such as customers’ lists, accounts, or
inventories. It is a magical typewriter that allows you to type and print any
kind of document – letters, memos, or legal documents. It is a personal
communicator that enables you to interact with other computers and people
around the world. If you like gadgets and electronic entertainment, you
can even use your PCs to relax with computer games.
                                                      Exercises.
     1.                Look at these words. Are they nouns (nСУЩ), verbs
(vГлаг) or adjectives (adjПрил)? Suggest(предложите) possible
collocations(словосочетание ). e.g. to store data, a
high-resolution monitor, etc.
1 workstation. 2 data. 3 perform.4 automatic. 5 monitor. 6 financial. 7
store. 8 connected. 9 word processor. 10 large.
     2.                Find the words in the text, and match them with the
meanings below. 
     a) information ;  b) execute (do); c) connected with money ;d) keep (save);
e) massive;  f) linked ; g)self-acting, mechanical ; h)screen ; i)powerful
computer usually connected to a network ; j)program used for text manipulation;
k)to need or be dependent on smth/smb; l) mechanical and electronic parts of
computers; m)a small mechanical device or tool; n) data, programs, etc used
when operating a computer)to make smth available for smb; p) to open a file to
get information from or to put it into .
     3.                Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in
passive.
Example: Houses (design)... with the help of computers.
     Houses are designed with the help of computers.
1 Various new terminals (are connected)..to this workstation this year.
2 Microcomputers are (know’s).. as ‘PCs’.
3 The magazine (typeset’s)..by computer at the moment.
4 If a particular program is run, the data (have been process)..by the
computer very rapidly.
5 Hard discs (use’s)..for the permanent storage of information for a long time.
6 The drug-detecting test in the tour de France last year (supported)..by
computers.
7 All the activities of the computer system (are coordinated)..by the central
processing unit.
8 In some modern systems information (hold’s).. in optical disc.
     4.J  In small groups , choose one of the areas below and discuss
what computers can do in this areas:
     a) Formula 1 cars; b) factories and industrial processes; c)entertainment;
d)hospital and medical research.
     Useful words:
Formula 1 cars: racing car, car body, design, mechanical parts, electronic
components, engine speed.
Entertainment: game, music, animated image, multimedia, encyclopedia.
Factories: machinery, robot, production line, computer-aided manufacturing
software.
Hospitals: patients, medical personnel, database program, records, scanner,
diagnose, disease, robot, surgery.
     Useful constructions
     Computers are used to. A PC can also be used for. Computers can help. make.
control. store. keep. provide. manage.give.perform. measure. test. provide
access to.
     Useful expressions
     I think. I believe.I suppose.to my mind. In my opinion.I’m sure.As far as I
know.I agree with you.That’s true.On one hand. On the other hand.I don’t think
so.I see your point, but. It’s not entirely true.
     5.! Write a composition “Computer in my life”. Use your active vocabulary.
     Unit 2. What’s inside a microcomputer? 
     1)                Discuss the following questions.
     1.                What parts of a microcomputer do you know? What are their
functions?
     2.                What types of memory do you know? How are they called?
What’s the difference between them?
     2)                Read these terms aloud and suggest Russian equivalents:
     central processing unit (CPU), circuit, to execute, control unit, disk drive,
arithmetic logic unit (ALU), registers, program counter (PC), instruction
register (IR), to evolve, to load, main memory/internal memory, to run an
application, secondary storage devices(disks), RAM, ROM, expansion slots,
boards, clock, SIMMs, cache, motherboard, routine, to erase, firmware.
     3) Read the text and find out if you answered the questions (in exercise 1)
correctly.
The nerve center of a microcomputer is the central processing unit or 
CPU. This unit is built into a single microprocessor chip – an integrated 
circuit –, which executes program instructions and supervises the
computer’s overall operation. The unit consists of three main parts:
a)                 the control unit, which examines the instructions in
the user’s program, interprets each instruction and causes the circuits and the
rest of the components – disk drives, monitor, etc. – to be activated
to execute the functions specified;
     b)               the arithmetic logic unit (ALU), which performs
mathematical calculations (+, -, etc.) and logical operations (and, or, etc.);
     c)                the registers, which are high-speed units of
memory used to store and control information. One of these registers is the 
program counter (PC), which keeps track of the next instruction to be
performed in the main memory. Another is the instruction register (IR),
which holds the instruction that is currently being executed.
One area where microcomputers differ is in the amount of data – the number of
bits – they can work with at a time. There are 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit processors,
and the computer’s internal architecture is evolving very quickly.
The programs and data, which pass through the central processor, must be 
loaded into the main memory (also called the internal memory
) in order to be processed. Thus, when the user runs an application, the
microprocessor looks for it on secondary storage devices (disks) and
transfers a copy of the application into the RAM area. RAM (random
access memory) is temporary, i.e. its information is lost when the computer is
turned off. RAM is the basic location where the microprocessor stores the
required information. The size of RAM is very important, and adding extra chips
can sometimes expand the RAM capacity. These are usually contained in 
single in-line memory modules or SIMMs, which are installed in the 
motherboard of the computer. We can designate a certain amount of RAM space
as a cache in order to store information that application uses
repeatedly. A RAM cache can speed up our work, but it means that we need enough
internal memory or a special cache card. The ROM section (read only
memory) is permanent and contains instructions and routines for the
basic operations of the CPU. These instructions are used to start up the
computer, to read the information from the keyboard, to send characters 
to the screen, etc. they cannot be changed and are not erased when the
power is turned off. For this reason, the ROM section is also referred to as 
firmware. The processor can read and use stored in the ROM chip, but cannot
put information into it.
Most of today’s computers have internal expansion slots that allow users
to install adapters or expansion boards. Popular adapters include
high-resolution graphics boards, memory expansion boards, and internal modems.
The power and performance of a computer is partly determined by the speed of its
microprocessor. A clock provides pulses at fixed intervals to measure
and synchronize circuits and units. The clock speed is measured in MHz
(megahertz) and refers to the frequency at which pulses are emitted. For
example, a CPU running at 500 MHz (500 million cycles per second) is likely to
provide a very fast processing rate and will enable the computer to handle the
most demanding applications.
                                                 Exercises.
     1. Decide if the sentences are true (T) or false (F), and correct the false
ones to make them true.
a)The CPU directs and coordinates the activities taking place within the
computer     system.
b)The arithmetic logic unit performs calculations on the data.
c)32-bit processors can handle more information than 64-bit processors.
d)A chip is an electronic device composed of silicon elements containing a
set of integrated circuits.
e)RAM, ROM and secondary storage are the components of the main memory.
f)Information cannot be processed by the microprocessor if it is not loaded
into the main memory.
g)‘Permanent’ storage of information is provided by RAM.
h)The speed of the microprocessor is measured in megahertz. One MHz is
equivalent to one million cycles per second.
     2.Answer the questions.
a)What is the main function of a microprocessor?
b)What are the main parts of the CPU?
c)What is RAM? How does it differ from ROM?
d)What memory section is known as ‘firmware’? Why?
e)What information is lost when the computer is switched off?
f)What is the meaning of the acronym SIMM?
g)What is a megahertz?
h)What is the ALU? What does it do?
i)How can we store data and programs permanently?
     3. Look through this list of features and decide which type of memory they
refer to.
a)Any section of the main memory can be read with equal speed and ease.
b)It is available in magnetic, optical and videodiscs.
c)A certain amount of this memory can be designated as ‘cache’ memory to
store   information     in applications that are used very   frequently.
d)It stores basic operating instructions, needed by the CPU to function
correctly.
e)Memory which can be expanded by adding SIMMs of 8 Mb, 16 Mb, 32Mb or other
major increments.
f)Information is permanent and cannot be deleted.
g)You can save and store your documents and applications.
     4.J Make notes about the features of the computer that you would like to have.
CPU:.. Speed.. Optical disk drives.. Minimum/maximum Ram.. Monitor.. Hard
disk.. Software..
     Now describe it to your partner.
     Useful constructions.
     It has got.. It’s very fast. It runs at.. The standard RAM memory.. And it is
expandable.. The hard disk can hold.. I need a SuperVGA monitor because.. As
for the Internet.
     5.! Write a letter to your friend recommending the most suitable computer for
him/her. Give your reasons.
     Unit 3. Type and click! Input devices.
     1.Discuss the following questions:
     1. What input/output devices do you know? Which of them do you use and what for?
     2.Which of input devices can you get by without?
     2.Read these terms aloud and suggest Russian equivalents:
keyboard, mouse, light pen, scanner, trackball, graphics tablet, joystick,
voice recognition device, alphanumeric keys, function keys, numeric keypad,
editing keys, special keys, Num Lock, Paste, cursor, arrow keys, return, caps
lock, shift, tab, escape, space bar, backspace, alt, upper-case/lower-case
characters, slash, wire, pointer, desktop, click, double-click, to grab, to
drag, image.
     Text 1.Input devices are the pieces of hardware, which
allow us to enter the information into the computer. The most common are the
keyboard and the mouse. We also interact with the computer by using one of
these: a light pen, a scanner, a trackball, a graphics tablet, a joystick or a
voice recognition device.
     Exercises.
     1.>Listen to these descriptions of three input devices. What are they?
     2aUse the notes below to write a description of some input device.
There are several ways of describing function:
            for + -ing(for
controlling) e.g. The mouse is a device for controlling the cursor.
            relative pronoun +
verb(which controls)e.g. The mouse is a device which controls the cursor.
            relative pronoun + is
used + to + infinitive (which/that is used to control) e.g. The mouse is a
device which is used to control the cursor.
            used + to +infinitive
(used to control)e.g. The mouse is used to control the cursor.
     b Define these words: scanner, keyboard, microphone, light pen.
     3.J Pair-work. 
     Student A: Read these notes about two input devices. Then describe them to
your partner. He/she has to guess what you are describing.
1ü scans texts and pictures                    2üallows you to control
computer vocally
üsends digitized image to computer       üspoken commands do what is normally
                                                        done with keyboard/mouse
     Student B: Listen to your partner and guess which input devices he/she is
describing. Now use these notes to describe two input devices to Student A.
1üstationary device                                  2ügraphics tool
ücontrols the cursor and selects items     ülets you interact with computer
on the screen                                           üyou move
pressure-stylus across the
                                                                      screen
üworks like upside-down mouse                of a tablet
üball on top turned round with fingers      ücreates graphics
     Text 2. There are several groups of keys on the keyboard:
- alphanumeric keys: arranged in the same order as a typewriter;
- function keys: used by various programs to instruct the PC to perform
specific tasks, such as save, Copy, Cut, Paste, Help, etc.
- numeric keypad: set of numeric or editing keys. The Num Lock key is used to
switch from numbers to editing functions;
- editing keys: cursor and other keys usually used within word processors to
page up and down in a long document or to edit text (using Insert or Delete
keys);
-special keys: used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters in
key combinations, for example, the Alt key.
     Exercises.
     1.Match these descriptions with the names of keys.
Arrow keys, return, caps lock, shift, tab, escape, space bar, backspace, alt.
a)A long key at the bottom of the keyboard. Each time it is pressed, it
produces a blank space.
b)It moves the cursor to the beginning of a new line. It is also used to
confirm commands.
c)It stops a program without losing the information from the main memory.
Sometimes its use depends on the applications.
d)It works in combination with other keys to produce special characters or
specific actions.
e)It removes the characters on the left of the cursor or any selected text.
f)It produces upper-case characters (or the upper-case character of the key).
g)It produces upper-case letters, but it does not affect numbers and symbols.
h)It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed number of spaces
(in tabulations and data fields).
i)They are used to move the cursor, as an alternative to the mouse.
                 Unit 4. Jobs in computing.                 
     1) Reading.
     A) Look carefully at the job advertisements and discuss with another student
what personal qualities and professional abilities you would need for each job.
Tick the most important qualities in the list. Then add some more of your own.
Logical reasoning, imagination, physical fitness, efficiency, self-
discipline, ability to lead a team, patience and tenacity, ability to draw
well, being good with figures,
willingness to take on responsibility.
     1. SENIOR PROGRAMMER required by DIGITUM, a leading supplier of business
systems to the insurance industry.
You will be able to work on the full range of development activities —
analysis, design, coding, testing and implementation. At least two years'
experience of COBOL is necessary.
As we are active in Europe, fluency in French, Italian or another European
language is desirable.
Don't miss this opportunity to learn new skills and develop your career.
Send your curriculum vitae to CHRIS SCOH, PERSONNEL MANAGER,
OIGITUM, 75 PMKHILL STREET. LONDON SW2 3DE
You can visit our web site at: http://www.digitum.com
     2. DTP OPERATOR required for a leading financial magazine. We are looking
for a bright, competent QuarkXPress operator with at least three years'
experience in design and layout. Skills in Photoshop, Freehand or Illustrator
an advantage. Ability to work in a team and to tight deadlines is vital.
Please apply in writing, with CV and samples of your work, to Tom Parker,
Production Manager, Financial Monthly, Stockton Street, London ECI 4WW
     B. Would you like to apply for one of these jobs? Why?
     C. Study the personal profile of Charles Graham. Which is the most suitable
job for him?
     

Charles Graham

• 29 years old. Married. • Education: 3 A-levels. • In-depth knowledge of Apple Macintosh equipment. • Course in graphic design and page-layout applications from Highland Arc School • Proficient in Adobe PageMaker and SuperPaint. • Diploma in word processing. Wide experience in MS word and WordPerfect. • Present job. Computer operator for PromoPrint, a company specializing in publishing catalogues and promotional material. D. Sarah Brown is one of the applicants for the job of Senior Programmer advertised in Task 1. Read her letter of application and put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 19 Sandford Street London NW7 4HH 2 March 2002 Mr Scott Personnel Manager Digitum 75 Parkhill Street London SW2 3DE Dear Mr Scott, I am writing to (1) (apply) .............. for the position of Senior Programmer which (2) (advertise)..................... on 28 February in The Times. I (3) (work) ........................ as a computer programmer for the last three years. After graduation I (4) (work)................ for a year with NCR and (5) (be)...... now .......with Intelligent Software for two years. I design systems in COBOL for use in large retail chains. These have been very successful and we (6) (win)............................ several new contracts in the UK and Europe on the strength of my team's success. Last year I (7) (spend) ....... three months m Spain testing our programs and also (8) (make) ............. several short visits to Italy so I have a basic knowledge or Spanish and Italian. I now feel ready for more responsibility and more challenging work and would welcome the opportunity to learn about a new industry. I enclose my curriculum vitae and look forward to hearing from you. Yours sincerely, Sarah Brown. 2) Writing. Toshiko Horie, from Japan, is interested in the job of computer operator as advertised below. Use her notes to write a letter applying for the job. You can start like this: I'm writing to apply for... International Mercury Computers requires Computer Operators We have vacancies for experienced operators to work on their own initiative in a busy company. You will be responsible for the day-to-day running of our data-processing equipment. You must be highly communicative and have good problem-solving skills. We can offer an excellent salary, training and good promotional prospects to the right candidate. Send your CV and a covering letter to James Taylor, international Mercury Computers, 37 Charles Place London W106XX FAX 0171•323•0571 Notes for the Curriculum Vitae: — Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English — Computer Sciences degree from Tokyo University, Japan. — Knowledge of both Macintosh and Windows environments — Two years experience working on “Linear Directa”, a local magazine for computer’s users — Present job: Computer operator for Graphic Colour SL. This involves data control and editing, data preparation, and computer operating — Reasons for applying: want to develop operating skills and move into management. Unit 5. Electronic communications 1) Answer the following questions. 1. How can a PC be connected to another computer? 2. What data communication systems can you think of? Make a list. 2) Reading. A. Match the data communication services (a) with the requirements (b). Then read the passage and check your answers. a) 1. fax; 2. electronic mail (e-mail); 3. teletext; 4. local bulletin board system (BBS); 5. commercial online service; b) 1. to send a personal message to a friend who is at a different workstation; 2. to send a copy of a paper document - for instance, a scientific article – from Trento University to Cambridge University; 3. to access massive databases containing all kinds of information, or to be connected with an airline reservations service; 4. To receive shareware and public domain programs from a user group; 5. to find out weather forecasts and sports information from the television. Text . Channels of communication.

What are 'telecommunications'?

This term refers to the transmission of information over long distances using the telephone system, radio, TV, satellite or computer links. Examples are two people speaking on the phone, a sales department sending a fax to a client or someone reading the teletext pages on TV. But in the modern world, telecommunications mainly means transferring information from one PC to another via modem and phone lines (or fibre-optic cables). What can you do with a modem? A modem is your computer's link to the external world. With a modem you can exchange e-mail and files with friends and colleagues: you can access the Web and search for information about the stock market, current affairs, entertainment, etc.; you can participate in newsgroups and live conversations; you can make bank transactions and buy things from the comfort of your home. You can also access your office from your computer at home or your laptop in a hotel room. Today a lot of companies find it more efficient to have some employees doing their work at home. Using a modem, they transfer their work into the office where it is printed and distributed, The list of applications is endless. What do you need to telecommunicate? You just need a PC (or a terminal}, a modem connected to the computer and the telephone line, and communication software. Once you have installed and configured your modem, you can communicate with people through bulletin boards and online services.

Local bulletin boards.

Bulletin board systems (BBS) are frequently free because they are run by enthusiasts and sponsored by user groups or small businesses. The first time you make a BBS connection you are required to register your name, address, phone number and other information such as the kind of computer and modem you are using. The person who administers the BBS is called sysop (system operator). You can use a BBS to download artwork, games and programs, or you can participate in ongoing discussions. You can also upload (send) programs, hut make sure they are shareware or public domain programs.

Online service providers.

To gain access to the Internet you must first open an account with an Internet service provider (ISP) or a commercial online service provider. Both offer Internet access, but the latter provides exclusive services. • Internet service providers usually offer access to the Web and newsgroups, an e-mail address, a program to download files from FTP sites, and IRC software so that you can have live chats with other users. Most ISPs charge a flat monthly or annual fee that gives you unlimited access to the Internet, • The main commercial online services are America Online, CompuServe, Prodigy and the Microsoft Network. They differ from dedicated JSPs in two ways: (1) they use a smooth, easy-to-use interface, and (2) they have extra services for members only (but they charge higher prices). For example, they offer airline reservations, professional 70 forums, online shopping and stories for children. They also let you search their online encyclopedias and special databases. B. Complete the sentences by using a term from the text. 1. When you are connected to the Internet you are described as being....... 2. To communicate via the Internet you need a PC, a modem and a ......................... line. 3. To have access to the Internet you must first open an ........................with an Internet service provider. 4. You need a ........................ to convert computer data into a form that can be transmitted over the phone lines. 5. The public discussion areas on the Internet are called ......................... 6. You can use a BBS to ........................ clip-art, games and shareware to your PC. 7. CompuServe and America Online offer exclusive ......................... to their customers. 8. The Internet is a global....................... of computer networks. C. Match and link the pairs of expressions that have the same meaning. file of structured data \ BBS \ facsimile machine \ FTP \ sysop \ kilobits per second \ system operator \ modem \ Internet relay chat \ phone network \ fax \ database \ bulletin board system \ IRC \ modulator/demodulator \ file transfer protocol \ kbps \ telephone wires. Unit 6. Internet issues. 1) Discuss the following questions. 1. Is it technically possible for computer criminals to infiltrate into the Internet and steal sensitive information? 2. What is a hacker? 3. Can viruses enter your PC from the Internet? 2) Reading. A. Read the text and find answers to these questions. 1. Why is security so important on the Internet? 2. What security features are offered by Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer? 3. What security standard is used by most banks to make online transactions secure? 4. How can we protect and keep our e-mail private? 5. What methods are used by companies to make internal networks secure?

6. Which ways can a virus enter a computer system?

Text . Security and privacy on the Internet. There are a lot of benefits from an open system like the Internet, but we are also exposed to hackers who break into computer systems just for fun, as well as to steal information or propagate viruses. So how do you go about making online transactions secure?

Security on the Web.

The question of security is crucial when sending confidential information such as credit card numbers. For example, consider the process of buying a book on the Web. You have to type your credit card number into an order form, which passes from computer to computer on its way to the online bookstore. If one of the intermediary computers is infiltrated by hackers, your data can be copied. It is difficult to say how often this happens, but it's technically possible. Tb avoid risks, you should set all security alerts to high on your Web browser. Netscape Communicator and Internet Explorer display a lock when the Web page is secure and allow you to disable or delete 'cookies'. If you use online bank services, make sure your bank uses digital certificates. A popular security standard is SET (secure electronic transactions). E-mail privacy. Similarly as your e-mail message travels across the net, it is copied temporarily on many computers in between. This means it can be read by unscrupulous people who illegally enter computer systems. The only way to protect a message is to put it in a sort of 'envelope', that is, to encode it with some form of encryption. A system designed to send e-mail privately is Pretty Good Privacy, a freeware program written by Phil Zimmerman. Network security. Private networks connected to the Internet can be attacked by intruders who attempt to take valuable information such as Social Security numbers, bank accounts or research and business reports. To protect crucial data, companies hire security consultants who analyze the risks and provide security solutions. The most common methods of protection are passwords for access control, encryption and decryption systems, and firewalls. Virus protection. Viruses can enter a PC through files from disks, the Internet or bulletin board systems. If you want to protect your system, don't open e-mail attachments from strangers and take care when downloading files from the Web. (Plain text e-mail alone can't pass a virus.) Remember also to update your anti-virus software as often as possible, since new viruses are being created all the time. NOTES: • hacker: a person who obtains unauthorized access to computer data • cookies: small files used by Web servers to know if you have visited their site before. • certificates: files that identify users and Web servers on the net, like digital identification cards • encryption: the process of encoding data so that unauthorized users can't read it • decryption: the process of decoding encrypted data transmitted to you B. Complete these sentences by using a term from the text. 1. Users have to enter a .....to gain access to a network. 2. You can download a lot of ....or public domain programs from the net. 3. Hundreds of ........................ break into computer systems every year. 4. A computer ........................ can infect your files and corrupt your hard disk 5. The process of encoding data so that unauthorized users can't read the data is known as ......................... 6. A ........................ is a device which allows limited access to an internal network from the Internet. 7. You can include an ...................... as part of your e-mail message. 8. This company uses ........................ techniques to decode (or decipher) secret data. D. Read the text in order to answer these questions. 1. Which hacking case inspired the film War Games? 2. Why was Nicholas Vilely arrested in 1988? 3. How old was the hacker that cracked the US defence computer in October 1989? 4. Who was known as 'Dark Dante' on the networks? What was he accused of? 5. Which computer club showed on TV a way to attack bank accounts? Sept '70 John Draper, also known as Captain Crunch, discovers that the penny whistle offered in boxes of Cap'n Crunch breakfast cereal perfectly generates the 2,600 cycles per second (Hz) signal that AT&T used to control its phone network at the time. He starts to make free calls. Aug '74 Kevin Mitnick, a legend among hackers, begins his career, hacking into banking networks and destroying data, altering credit reports of his enemies, and disconnecting the phone lines of celebrities. His most famous exploit - hacking into the North American Defense Command in Colorado Springs - inspired War Games, the 1983 movie. Jul '81 Ian Murphy, a 23-year-old known as Captain Zap on the networks, gains instant notoriety when he hacks into the While House and the Pentagon. Dec '87 IBM international network is paralyzed by hacker's Christmas message. Jul '88 Union Bank of Switzerland 'almost' loses ₤32 million 10 hacker-criminals, Nicholas Whitely is arrested in connection with virus propagation. Oct '89 Fifteen-year-old hacker cracks US defence computer. Nov '90 Hong Kong introduces anti-hacking legislation. Aug '91 Israelis arrest 18-year-old for hacking foreign banking and credit card networks. Jul '92 In New York, five teenagers are charged with breaking into computer systems at several regional phone companies, large firms and universities. Dec '92 Kevin Poulsen, known as 'Dark Dante' on the networks, is charged with stealing tasking orders relating to an Air Force military exercise. He is accused of theft of US national secrets and faces up to 10 years in jail. Feb '97 German Chaos Computer Club shows on TV the way to electronically obtain money from bank accounts using a special program on the Web. May ‘98 Computer criminals propagate a lot of viruses through the Internet МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ КАФЕДРА ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ УКАЗАНИЯ ПО ЧТЕНИЮ НАУЧНО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКОЙ ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ФЭВТ ВОЛГОГРАД 2002