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Билеты: Билеты по английскому за 11 класс

     1. Travelling by air .Give your counter reasons in fever of flying.
Many people devote ( посвящают ) their lives travelling . They can spend a
lot of time for the road .And they can travel by car, by sea, by train , and
by air.   Also travelling by air usually preferred by people who haven’t got
much time and they must quickly get to another city, country or continent.
Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen who have to communicate with people
from other countries. Each of us has a lot of relatives and friends. Some of
them live in other countries. For example you live in Russia, Moscow and you
have some relatives in France or in Britain. You certainly can get to GB by
train , and by sea but it will take you a lot of time. It would be easier if
you choose a plane.
There are some rules in air port which every passengers mast following At
first  it is necessary to arrive at the airport 2 hours before departure
time. They must register their tickets, weigh in and register the luggage.
Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy
class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has free
luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers
and 30 kg for first class passengers, excess luggage must be paid for except
for some articles that can be carried free of charge. At first you go through
the Customs, there you mast fill in the customs declaration before you talk
to the customs officer. He may ask any passenger routine questions about
declare the things, spirits , tobacco , presents. Then you do to the check -
in counter where your ticket is looked at, you are given luggage tags and
boarding passes, your . The next formality is filling in the immigration
form and going through passport control. The form has to be filled in block
letters . You write your name, nationality, permanent address  and the
purpose of your trip. After fulfilling all these  formalities you go to the
departure lounge where you can have a snack , read a paper buy something in
the duty-free shop and wait for the announcement to board the plane.
When you decide to travel by air you can buy first and economy class tickets.
The  first class is more comfortable than economy and it is always more
expensive .In spite of first class tickets being very expensive have some
advantages over economy. At first it is more comfortable seats. The dinner is
much better then in economy class , and if you have bought a first class
ticket you can have 30 kg luggage free of charge. Also you have a private
emergency exit  for the first class passages only. You have one more
advantage : you can take any drinks free. Although flying by plane is very
fast it has some inconveniences. There is  a  jet-lag, a difference between
the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t be very
well because of it , but    don’t worry – it won’t take you long to get used
to it. As a whole to fly by planes  is pleasant and convenient
     2. British Painters 
It is sometimes possible to see the national character in painters or groups of
painters. But the visual language of art travels quickly and easily, and
artists are influenced by things they see all over the world. Painters
themselves also travel and visited over countries. The first important period
of English Painting was started by German visitor Hans Holbein the Younger
lived in London between 1527 and 1543, and painted wonderful portraits of the
rich and famous people. He had learned from Italian painters. Inspired by
Holbein, a school of portrait painters developed in England. One of the most
famous of these painters was Nichola
s Hilliard, who specialized in minia
tures: very small, beaut
ifully colored paintings.
     Another great portrait
painter, Joshua Reynolds (172
3-92), who too learning in Italy. The quality of Reynolds paint is differs
from his predecessors(предшественники) : William Hogarth and Thomas
Gainsborough, he represented(представлен)  the expression on the face and the
insights(понимание) into the character.
Although there h
ave been brilliant Brit
ish painters, few of them have achieved an international reputa
tion. However, there is a
t least one notable(известный) excep
tion -J.M.W. Turner
(1775-185l). His paintings were yea
rs ahead of their time. He was working in the
first half of the 19th century, but his work seems
to look forward to the impressionism of 75 
years later.
In fact the genius of Turner was not really appreciated (оцененный) in his own
time. Only  not long time ago he come to be regarded (быть расценен ) as the
greatest of Br. painters. Much of Turner’s works is at the Tate Gallery in
London , which is also the best place in the country to see modern art. The 20
th century was an extremely busy and exciting time for Br.  painters. At
first the tendency was , as often in past , to imitate the European’s
painters. The French  impressionists had taken the art world  like  a storm
and finagle painters try to copy them. The Picasso and  Bragne come up with
something  completely new – cubism and again Br. painters followed .
Only in the middle of the 20th century a new movement  had started
actually in this country. Pop art painters caught the imagination of young
people. This movement dropped almost all previous (предыдущий) ideas about
painting, and picked-up the images of advertising . Рop music and cheap
everyday objects. The first artist who do it were Richard Hamilton , Edward
Paolozzi and Peter Black(who did the famous cover of the Beatles album
“Sergeant Pepper”)
Nowadays the Br. artists , seem to have given up the traditional forms of
drawing, paining and sculpture. If you go to an art collage exhibition , you
will probably see photos, constructions with lights and sounds. Media
attention is always on the new ,and  the daring and shocking  works are often
Are awarded  by prizes for its originality. And old-fashion taste and skill
stayed in past.
3. Staying  at the hotel. Speak about everyday services available at the hotel.
When you come to another country or city you can stay at your friend’s house
or flat. But if you haven’t got any relatives or friends you may stay at a
hotel. There are 2 sorts of hotels: at the seaside and  in city The hotels at
the seaside usually occupied big territory . And  the services and facilities
are usually better there then in city hotels. You can get more things free.
Also at the seaside hotels food is served usually 2 of 3 times a day and in
city hotels you can get only breakfast . Before you arrive somewhere you can
make arrangements about a room of the hotel you’ll choose. You can call at
the hotel of send them a fax or telegram which numbers you can find in the
advertisement. If you haven’t done it , when  you arrive at the hotel it is
necessary to come up to the reception   desk .There a person can order a
room. First of all you must fill in an arrival card. In this card you must
gave information about yourself. Your name and surname, telephone number and
address besides it is necessary  to point out how long are you going to stay
here. Also among the seaside hotels the best with club system . Usually  on
the territory of such hotels there are 4-5 storied building with single
rooms, double rooms, and suites and separate there are family cottages. The
area of such hotels is usually very big about 50hectores  . Club system
allows to take free any , soft drinks, food 24 hours a day, because
everything is included into the price of  the tour. There are all day room
services , dry cleaners, laundries. In the rooms there is a refrigerator,
bathroom, a satellite TV and direct dial phone. Also  such hotels have their
own  place on the beach with comfortable sun beds .You can spend time riding
horses, playing    tennis, golf, polo, visiting shops, which  are usually
situated in the territory of the hotels. In the evenings you can go to the
disco or to the restaurant . The menu in the restaurants including different
cuisine’s  such as :French, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish, Russian and so  on.
You can order a yacht tour to some historical places (if any) or something
like that. After visiting such hotels you’ll return home  happy and
     5. Pop and classical Music.
Music always been an integral part of human life. In ancient times it
accompanied the ritual ceremonies later it began to occupy more important
place. Then it transformed in a means of passing time. It reached the highest
development only in 20-th century . new directions  appeared  in music such
as jazz, disco, rock-and-roll , rock, pop and so on. The music  which was
composed from 17 till 20-th century is usually  calls classical. That were a
sumphonies, ouvertures, suits, sonnats. The most famous classical musicious
were: Bach, Bethoven, Gaiden, Shopen, Rohmaninov and many others. In 20-th
century it was not so popular any more, her the place was occupied by other
genres, such as fate, рор, jazz, and last years became very popular folk
As for me i neither like classical nor pop  music. If we are compare them
I’ll prefer the classical As the  songs consists not only of music, not an
unimportant role plays lyrics. In pop music there isn’t both these making
There are a lot of  people who enjoyed  by classical  music, they usually
visit concerts of different  symphonic and chamber archers. It is often
people  over 30. They like  and admire this music  and consider  it genius.
Some  compositions ( works) is really  charming( восхитительны)  for example
the Moonlight sonnat  and «to Elise» by Bethoven, and «In cave of the
mountain king” by                       The music is wonderful  and you can
listen it for many times.  And a lot of generations admired and will admire
with it. As if to pop music  it is very hard to tell something similar about
it. I am  very doubt that in (через) 50 years the people will listen to what
have the pop singers composed.  Because  the music  is very primitive , and
the lyrics are stupid. The y sing only about love  and some problems which
connected with it. And I can’t listen to it at all.
I’ve chosen a rock   music. Nowadays it isn’t  very popular  among young
people. They prefer to listen pop. Rap and so on. The main advantage of rock
music  above all others is lyrics. Rock singers write  music and texts them
selves and for it i respect them more . the most famous rock  group are :
Kino, Alisa, Nau, Krematorium, DDt, and many others. Most of them appeared
10-25 years ago , but still fortunately  there are people who fond of such
music. Rock singers   write about  eternal (Вечный) problems. In their lyrics
reflects their fillings                             . And each of us can find
something  close only for him. And that is what rock music about. And that’s
why I like it so mach .
     6. Theatre
Roll up! Roll up! Audiences have crowded into the Palladium since it opened
as a music hall in 1910. London's theatres have drawn at­tention for
unrivalled standards ever since the days of Shake­speare when his plays were
en­acted in the Globe Theatre. DruryLane, Shaftesbury Avenue, Haymarket and
the Strand are bright with theatrical lights, with musicals and dramas, farce
and comedy. Theatre isn't confined to the West End: the stages of the Royal
Court in Sloane Square, the Mermaid by  Blackfriars Bridge, the Barbican in
the City and the National Theatre on the South Bank beckon  nightly. Fringe
theatre has been growing but with an ever changing choice of productions to
see, for longevi­ty there's nothing to beat Agatha Christie's The Mousetrap,
which runs and runs.
Most British cities have a theatre, but London has the greatest number. There
are over 50 theatres in London's West End, the area in London with most
theatres, and about 35 smaller fringe theatres.
In recent years, musicals have been very successful. About 51A
million people, many of them tourists, go to see a musical every year in
Going to the theatre in Britain is not only popular, but also expensive. Not
many young people can afford to go. It is possible to get cheaper tickets by
going to afternoon performances called matinees or by buying stand-bys, half-
price tickets which are sold half an hour before a performance starts.
     7. Speak about foods you like and dislike. Describe any recipe.
Meals play an important role in human life. Because it contained
indispensable ingredients for life activity of our organism. Such as
dioxides, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are contained in fish,
vegetables, fruits, meat and other food stuffs . To be healthy man should eat
3 times a day. For lunch people usually eat buiscuits, toasts, sandwiches,
cheese and drink coffee or tea with cream and sugar accordingly to your taste
. For dinner we eat some soup, salad and fowl, fish or meat with garnish.
Many people have to eat out of home in restaurants or in cafes . In such
places you can order French fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, crisps, pizza
and many others, but these meals are very harmful for our health. For the
last 10 years in Moscow and in over big cities appeared a lot of restaurants
and fast-food cafes. And with each year them becomes ever more. The old
restaurants, such as Prague, were advanced, and at the same time has appeared
a lot of new. From a net of restaurants of a fast feed(meal) by first has
appeared McDonalds, and then Russian bistro Sbarro,  Ёlki palki, Patio pizza
and т.д Such trade marks as McDonalds , Sbarro and Patio a pizza are known
all over the world, and in what you to the country would not be , whether it
be Russia, Great Britain or USA quality of meal and е ё of assortment in
these restaurants everywhere identical. And such restaurants as Russian
bistro and елки палки are only in Russia, and were created on an image and
similarity  of McDonalds. each of these restaurants has firm dish. For
example McDonalds associates with Big Mag Sbarro and Patio a pizza offer very
tasty pizzas, in Russian bistro a wide range of pies made on the Russian
recipe. But the cheapest and qualitative meal can be found in McDonalds. In
Russia unfortunately price level in restaurants of a fast food, and in
expensive restaurants very strongly differs and  many people simply are not
capable to pay the accounts. In Great Britain and in USA considerably more
people can  visit restaurants. Plus to all service in restaurants of Russia
can not be compared with European yet. Also nowadays many restaurants give
services in delivery of their most known dishes directly to you home. For
this purpose it is necessary only to call and to name that want. In Europe
this system exists  for a long time, and in Russia it has appeared absolutely
recently. In Moscow besides restaurants with Russian there are  the
restaurants with the Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Turkish and Spanish kitchen
witch use the large popularity. But it is not enough of them and the prices
same are accessible not to all .
As besides restaurants it is possible to find set of tents in streets of
Moscow selling hot meal, but the quality of it very doubtful. I hope that in
due course will occur ever more and more restaurants offering tasty,
qualitative and useful meal.
     8.Speak about shopping in GB and in Russia
Europe dictates a fashion to the whole world. Nowadays France is the centre
of fashion. But in the last century  her place was occupied by GB. At that
time a lot of new  modern shops appeared. Now their branches are situated all
over the world. you can find . The Most famous of them in London in Oxford
Street,  Regent Street, and Knightsbridge . Besides book’s ,clothes’, food
shops in GB there are a lot of supermarkets and department stores where you
can buy everything  from a button to a car and furniture.
Here there are the most famous British shops:
     The Body shop: sells perfumes, soap, shampoo and skin-care
products for men and for women.
     Dillons :was open in 1936 as the bookshop to the University of London.
     Next: is the a chain of Popular fashion clothes shops for men and
women. It became famous for the suits which were worn by the businessmen and
businesswomen at the beginning of the 1980s.
     W.H.Smith: is a national chain of shops which sells newspapers and
magazines. Smith’s also sell books, videos, stationary, pens and office
     Harrods : is the famous London department store
     Sainbury’s  supermarkets are one of the leaders in food and drink
selling in Britain.
But the most famous of British shops all over the world is Marks & Spencer .
It  attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to millionaires .
Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime Minister are just a few of
its famous customers. Last year it made a profit of £529 million, which
is more than £ 10 million a week. It all started 109 years ago, when a
young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had a stall in Leeds market. He didn’t
have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons, and few
shoelaces. Above his stall he put the notice: “Don’t ask how much-it’s a penny.
10 years later , he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in
many towns in the north of England. Today there are 564 brunches of M&S all
over the world – in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium, and Hungary. In
M&S the best  selling clothes are :for women: jumpers, bras, and knickers;
for men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits; for children;
underwear and socks. Best – sells in food include fresh chickens, bread,
vegetables and sandwiches. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases its
business on three principles: good value, good quality, and good service. Also
it changes with the times –once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it’s food,
furniture and flowers as well .Top fashion designers advise on styles of
     9. Education in GB and in Russia.
As in other countries the vast majority (Огромное большинство) of people in
medieval Br were illiterate. Written texts were in Latin and exact  of
churchman , there  was only  a small group of  professional clerks , who
could read and write. And sometimes when you needed something to write down
you had to pay one of the clerks for his job.
After the Norman invasion in 1066 Br. started to join social-political life
of Europe. In that time  the rich families began to employed  clerks to teach
their children at home. Then church mans   began to  open schools for boys.
After French revolution  which  brought  ideas  of social  equality . woman
began to demand  access to some sort of education as boys.  In 1874 Gorton
Collage and Cambridge afford the  first university places for women.
Nowadays everybody has a right to a school place for a child from age 5 to
age 16, and a collage place from 16 to 18. This places are provided free of
charge. In GB there are 2 steps which is free of charge: this is Primary
school ( here learn children  from age 5 to 11) and  Secondary school (from
11 to 18 years old). The Primary school consist of 6 steps, and Secondary
school   education  can be devoted  into 2 parts. First it is 5 steps after
which  children can leave Secondary school after  they pass 11 GCSE exams(
General Certificate of School Education), but they can also  stay at school
or in collage for more 2 years. Most Secondary schools in GB are
comprehensive for example state school s  which take children of all
abilities. About 7% of students  go to privet schools. This schools don’t
receive   any money  from state and they are  usually single sex, and
children live there  during tern-time. Most pupils  in GB schools wear school
uniform. The favorite colors for it  are: blue, gray, black and marron.
After Secondary school only 25%  of Students continuos education and go to
universities. GB Universities  are not open  to every one it depends on your
last year in school. And your A-level results. For example  the Nottingam
university accepting students it the have 2 Bs and a C in A-level.
In Russia the education system is different. All children must learn from 1
stage to 9 it is obligatory  education. After which pupils  pass 5 exams.
They can leave school or stay for 2 years  more (10 and 11 grades) . it is
High secondary school education. At the end of 11 form all pupils must pass 6
exams. 2 of them are identically to all. It is written literature and
mathematics .  in schools with  the profound study of languages  (foe example
English) the exam on this subject is  considered composure . other 3 or 4
exams pupils choose themselves. During the last form  many pupils usually
attends to the courses of the university they  had chosen. In Russia
everybody  could enter the university, but he  must pass entrance exams. In
every university they are different.
     11. You like your flat and your district. Speak in fever of the place.
I live in Moscow, in North  Orekhovo - Borisovo district. It is situated in
the South of the city. In my district there is  Tzarizansky park . It is a
very old park and it has it own interesting history. Catherine I liked the
village called “Black mud” and she ordered architectures Kazakov and Bazhenov
to build there a residence, but as the name of the village was not
appropriate for a summer residence of empress it was decided to rename it to
Tzarizano. When everything was ready Catherine I didn’t like the building of
Big Palace  and the architects began to remake it but they didn’t finish
their work. For the  many years it remained unfinished. But about 5 or 7
years ago old buildings were restored. A lot of people like to walk there and
breathe fresh air . It is very important that in our district there is a
forest. It cleans the air. Ecology conditions in our district are bad as the
winds from the North bring polluted air, also in our district there are a lot
of industrial projects. For example near my house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat”
are situated. I live in a 3 room flat. There are 2 bedrooms, a living room,
and a kitchen. In my room there is a wardrobe , a bed, a desk ,a computer, a
tape recorder and some pot plants. In the kitchen there is a table with
chairs , a refrigerator  , a microwave oven ,  roaster, and a TV set. In the
living room there is a sofa, a TV set , a hi-fi system and a table with
chairs. Besides Tzarizansky park there is another historical place in our
district Kolomenskoe .It is a park too. In warm days it is very pleasant to
walk there with friends . I like my district because nowadays a lot of new
interesting  shops and places opened here and in has become more modern.
Certainly it is a pity that out district is  situated very far from the
center of Moscow and it takes me  a lot of time to get there, but near my
house there is Domodedovskaya metro station which is very good. The only
thing I wish is a better ecological situation in our district and then
everything will be OK  .
     13. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city , in
a  small town and in the country
The city is the place where all industrial cultural and educational centers
are situated. In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs, cinemas
,big shops and  hospitals, comfortable modern flats. People try to live in
cites because all necessary objects are situated near by. For example if you
get ill a hospital or  a chemist’s shop will be situated near your home in
the city, and if you live in the country it will  be hard to find any medical
help very quicly . Also in big cites  you can fiend all sorts of
entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks and so on. Many people
like to spend their free time in them because it  helps them to relax and
bring them a lot of pleasure. It is really convenient  that everything you
need in daily life  is situated near you. One of the most important comforts
of big cites is that you can fast get everywhere you like by underground,
bus, trolley bas. Also in big cities there is electricity therefore you can
use electrical devices  such as TV sets, computers, radio, microwave owen,
refrigerators and so on. One more thing, without which it would be impossible
to live today is the telephone and  where there is a telephone there is also
Internet. The connection has huge value in  the life of  people and we have
got used to it to such extent , that it there is no  telephone we feel
uncomfortable and lonely. Yes , it is really comfortable, and at first glance
everything  is good  but nowadays   big cites there are a great amount of
cars and factories Big cites suffer of overpopulation, dirty air, and water,
The streets became noisy and after hard working day people cannot  relax.
People try to do everything to go to the countryside because only there they
can find quietness . Every holiday and every week-end people try to leave
their houses  and go to the country. I live in Orekhovo-Borisovo North
district  . The ecological conditions here are very bad because near my house
a lot of  industrial objects are  situated. For example near the Tobacco
factory “DUCAT” is situated . As for me I prefer to live in a big city
because A lot of  big shops are situated near my home, but I also like to
spend my holidays in  the country because after living in the city for about
9 months I begin to get tired.
     14. London.
London is where the invading (вторжение) Romans first crossed the  River Thames.
They built a city a square mile in size, surrounded it with a wall and called
it Londinium. This original site of
London is now called the City of London and is Britain's main financial center.
The City is only a very small part of London. In the 11-th  century, London
began to expand
beyond (Вне) to  City walls when King Edward the Confessor built a huge abbey
at Westminster.
There is  saying "When a man is rtred of London, he is lired of life!" (Dr
Johnson)and it is quite trufful.  You can't  be bebored in London. There are
hundreds of historic buildings, galleries and museums. There are parks and
street markets, over 80 theatres and even more cinemas.
The centre of London has many different areas Each one has its own special
character. Covent Garden in London’s West End , is crowded with cafes, clubs
and clothes shops. Soho is also known for its clubs. Knightsbridge has a lot of
exclusive and expensive shops, as well as many of the embassies. Fleet Street
is the home of the Law Courts. One part of the West End has so many 
Chinese shops and restaurants that it is called Chinatown. Chelsea and Sloane
Street are supposed to be the homes of trendy rich kids. When you go outside
the centre you find many areas which used to be small villages. The village
became part of the city when the city expanded, but they still managed to keep
their village is extremely expensive. It is on one or the highest hills in
Some visitors say that London is an expensive city, but there are a few things
to do which do not cost a lot of money. Most museums are free and give free
guided tours as well as lectures. The Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank of
the River Thames has free music in the foyer every lunch rime. The National
Theatre next to the Royal Festival Hall also has free concerts in the foyer
evening and on Saturday lunchtime. Some cinemas are cheaper on Mondays; others
sell half-prise tickets before  6 pm If you want to discover London, it is best
to start with a tour on a sightseeing bus. It’s also fun to go on a guided
walk. These are advertised in Time Ont, a weekly magazine that tells
you what is happening in London. The walks last up to 3 hours and have special
themes, such as "Ghosts and Haunted Taverns", "Royal London - Palaces and
People", "The Beatles London - Rock Routes of the Sixties".
Also there are a lot of beautiful historical places like the Westminster
Abbey. It is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and
famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050, the abbey
was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates largely from the
time of henry III who began to rebuild the church , a task which lasted
nearly 300 years. Since William I almost every English monarch has been
crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials of many
of Britain’s most eminent citizens.
     16. Speak about the state of medical servers in Russia. How do you imagine
the medical care of the future?  
In our country medical service is provided free of charge. There is a wide
network of local out- patient clinics. If a person falls ill he calls a local
physician. The doctor visits his patient. And examines him. He usually sounds
the patient’s chest, listens to his heart, fells his pulse and sometimes
sahes , his blood pressure. He also examines his throat and tonque . After
the physician has diagnose the case the prescribes medicine for the descase.
Then he writes out a search leave and gives advice  If the patient follows
the doctor’s instructions , it doesn’t take him long to recover. As soon as
he feels better , he comes to the local out-patient clinic for final
examination. If the case in complicated and the patient needs shecial
treatment he is taken to the hospital.The situation in medical service has
changed as compared to the previory years. Medicine has  become very
expensive. Treatment and special tests or surgery cost a lot of money. Mist
people cannot afford being  operated. Nowadays we cannot say that medical
service is must be given by the government to run medical service properly.
Hospitals and clinics should be better equipped. Many of them are old-
fashioned and need repairing. Doctors and nurses are overworked and
underpaid. One of the positive features, which still exists in Russia,
medical service in regular medical check-up of school children. It is very
important to prevent illness. They are vaccinated and examined by
specialists. I think that medical service should be free of charge for all
There are so many museums and galleries in London that even people who have
lived there for a long time don't know them all. Some are traditional
museums, but many are now making their exhibitions interactive, or hands-on,
to encourage people to touch and understand what is on display. At the
Science ' Museum, visitors can carry out experiments. At the Natural History
Museum, visitors can find out how to look for fossils on the beach. At the
National Gallery, the country's main art gallery, visitors can call up
paintings on computer screens, find out about them and then print out a plan
with their location indicated.
At MOMI, the Museum of the Moving Image, almost all the things on display
move. You can see how the first film was made, listen to the latest stereo
systems and watch the news from the 1960s. The people who work in the museum
are actors: those in the 1950s section are in 1950s costume and can talk to
you about Marilyn Monroe.
The National Gallery was born when King George IV urged (Убеждил)  the
government to purchase (Купить)   a collec­tion of 38 paintings including six
of Hogarth's Marriage A La Mode. Rubens, Rembrandt, other Flemish, Dutch and
Italian Re­naissance masters were acquired as years passed and the Gallery
grew, and is still growing. Next door is the National Portrait Gallery, one of
the first major  (Главный)  in­stitutions to acknowledge the im­portance of
photography in ar­tistic heritage.When the Tate Gallery opened in 1897 British
painters, including Turner, appeared there. The Tate, beside The Thames,
contin­ued collecting British artists from 1850 to join works by Hogarth, Blake
and Pre-Raphaelites and foreign works from the time of the Impressionists. The
British Museum's supreme collection was based on the will of Sir Hans Sloane in
1753, which prodded Parliament to acquire his art, antiquities and natural
history collections at a sum (£ 20,000) far below their actual value. At
the same time the Harleian Collection of Manuscripts was purchased for the
nation and on January 15, 1759 the new museum opened -but only to persons
considered ac­ceptable. The King's Library was built in 1823 and new wings
followed. So did a round Reading Room under a vast copper dome. Ancient works
of art abound from Roman hoardes unearthed in re­cent years to copies of the
Magna Carta, Parthenon sculptures and Egyptian mummies. The Victoria and Albert
Museum is sited next to a clutch of sister museums - Science and Natural
History and Geological which grew out of Prince Albert's Great Exhibition