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Сочинение: Pennsylvania

                             Romanovska, Mariya, O.                             
                           American History – AMH2010                           
                                  Section 1015                                  
                  Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania                  
Outline:
I.      Political history of Pennsylvania
A. Conflict between proprietary and Assembly
B. Conflict between people
II.      Economical system of Pennsylvania
A. Agriculture
B. Manufacturing
C. Commerce and Transportation
III.      Social and Cultural life in Pennsylvania
A. Different nationalities
B. Variety of religions
C. Arts and learning
                  Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania                  
King Charles II owed William Penn £16,000, money which Admiral Penn had
lent him. Penn asked the King to grant him land in the territory between Lord
Baltimore's province of Maryland and the Duke of York's province of New York.
With the Duke's support, Penn's petition was granted. The King signed the
Charter of Pennsylvania on March 4, 1681, and it was officially proclaimed on
April 2. The King named the new colony in honor of William Penn's father; here
the history of the successful and tolerant colony begins. Pennsylvania played a
very important role in development of what we know as United States of America
now.
Political history of Pennsylvania is very bright and controversial. There was
a natural conflict between the proprietary and popular elements in the
government. As a result of the English Revolution of 1688, Penn was deprived
of his province. A popular party led by David Lloyd demanded greater powers
for the Assembly. In December 1699, the Proprietor again visited Pennsylvania
and, just before his return to England, agreed with the Assembly on a revised
constitution, the Charter of Privileges. This gave the Assembly full
legislative powers and permitted the three Delaware counties to have a
separate legislature. William Penn's heirs were often in conflict with the
Assembly, which was usually dominated by the Quakers. The people of the
frontier areas contended with the people of the older, southeastern region
for more adequate representation in the Assembly and better protection in
time of war.
Economical system of Pennsylvania is its strength and proud. From its
beginning, Pennsylvania ranked as a leading agricultural area and produced
surpluses for export, adding to its wealth. Wheat and corn were the leading
crops. Prosperous farming area was developed in southeastern parts of colony.
Arts, crafts, and textile production grew rapidly. Sawmills and gristmills
appeared, using the power of the streams. Shipbuilding became important on
the Delaware. The province early gained importance in iron manufacture.
Printing, publishing, and papermaking, as well as tanning, were significant
industries. The rivers were important as early arteries of commerce and were
soon supplemented by roads in the southeastern area. Trade with the Indians
for furs was important in the colonial period. Later, the transport and sale
of farm products to Philadelphia and Baltimore, by water and road, formed an
important business. Philadelphia became one of the most important foreign
trade centers and the commercial metropolis in the colonies.
Pennsylvania had very rich cultural and social life. First of all,
Pennsylvania was multi-cultural. The failure of all attempts by Indians and
colonists to live side by side led the Indians to migrate westward, leaving
Pennsylvania.  Open territories were shared by majority of English Quakers,
thousands of Germans, Scotch-Irish (which became one-fourth of population),
smaller groups of Irish, Welsh, French, Jewish, Dutch and Swedes and African
Americans,(mostly slaves and servants). Pennsylvania was popular for its
religious tolerance. Big Lutheran and later Catholic churches, as well as
smaller sects: Mennonites, Amish, German Baptist Brethren or "Dunkers,"
Schwenkfelders, and Moravians were common for this area.  Because of the
liberality of Penn's principles and the freedom of expression that prevailed,
the province was noted for the variety and strength of its intellectual and
educational institutions and interests. An academy which held its first
classes in 1740 became the College of Philadelphia in 1755, and ultimately
grew into the University of Pennsylvania. It was the only nondenominational
college of the colonial period. The arts, the sciences, and the public
buildings of Philadelphia were the marvel of the colonies. Many fine old
buildings in the Philadelphia area still bear witness to the richness of
Pennsylvania's civilization in the 18th century. Newspapers and magazines
flourished, as did law and medicine. Pennsylvania can claim America's first
hospital, first library, and first insurance company.
Established by William Penn Pennsylvania was very successful, and played an
important role in development of Middle English colonies and America in
general. By 1776, the Province of   Pennsylvania had become the third largest
English colony in America, though next to the last to be founded. Its bright
political history, (which provided people with Charter of Privileges), well-
developed, prolific economical system, and rich cultural life during colonial
period impresses even nowadays.