A giant among states, vast Texas was once a sovereign nation. During 300
years of rule by Spain, it had sprawled like a sleeping giant, its riches
undeveloped and its colonization limited to a few missions, supported by
presidios (military posts). When Mexico became an independent country in
1821, Texas became a Mexican state and new settlers from the United States
were welcomed. The large influx of Anglo-American colonists and African
American slaves led to skirmishes with Mexican troops.
After a successful war of independence against Mexico, the Texans raised the
Lone Star flag over their own republic in 1836. This government was
officially recognized by the United States and by several European countries.
Then in 1845 Texas accepted annexation by the United States and was admitted
to the Union as the 28th state.
Texas is second only to Alaska in area. It covers more territory than the
total area of five Midwestern states--Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and
Michigan. There are 254 counties in Texas. Its largest county, Brewster, is
about as big as Connecticut and Rhode Island combined. Its smallest,
Rockwall, is only 147 square miles (381 square kilometers) in area. For a
time Texas had a peak mileage of more than 17,000 miles (27,358 kilometers)
of main-track railroad, but the total has been declining ever since the
Cotton, first raised on the Blackland Prairies, has long been the most
important crop of Texas. Much of it is now grown on the Great Plains, an
achievement made possible by the discovery of a sandy, water-laden subsoil
beneath the area's dry surface. On the Rio Grande irrigation has given rise
to a great fruit-growing belt, while along the Nueces River vegetable crops
are harvested in an 11-month growing season. Texas leads the nation in beef
production, an industry that began to flourish in 1866, when cowboys first
drove wild longhorns north to market. Today scientifically bred cattle are
raised on the plains.
"Black gold," or crude oil, was found in Texas in the 19th century, but it
was the discovery of the gigantic east Texas oil field in 1930 that
revolutionized the agrarian state. Although much of the wealth of modern
Texas stems from its widespread petroleum-bearing formations, industry has
become increasingly diversified since the end of World War II.
The name Texas comes from a Caddo Indian word meaning "friends" or "allies." The
Spanish explorers pronounced the word tejas and gave this name to the
area. The nickname Lone Star State comes from the single star in the Texas
flag, which was officially adopted by the Republic of Texas in 1839. The Texas
and Hawaii flags are the only state emblems that originally flew over
recognized independent countries.
Survey of the Lone Star State
Texas lies in the south-central region of the United States. Its southwestern
and southern boundary is formed by the Rio Grande. Across the river are the
Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leуn, and Tamaulipas. On the
southeast Texas borders on the Gulf of Mexico for 367 miles (591 kilometers).
To the east are Louisiana and Arkansas, with the Sabine River forming the
boundary with Louisiana for 180 miles (290 kilometers). To the north is
Oklahoma, with the Red River providing the boundary line for 480 miles (772
kilometers). New Mexico is to the west.
The Lone Star State is both longer and wider than any other state except
Alaska. Its greatest length, from north to south, is 801 miles (1,289
kilometers)--a figure that includes the Panhandle, which extends north of the
upper Red River for about 133 miles (214 kilometers). The state's greatest
width is 773 miles (1,244 kilometers). Both of the overall distances are
greater than the airline mileage between New York City and Chicago. The area
of the state is 266,807 square miles (691,027 square kilometers), including
4,790 square miles (12,406 square kilometers) of inland water surface.
Texas has a wide variety in its geology, minerals, soils, vegetation, and
wildlife. Its elevation ranges from sea level along the coast of the Gulf of
Mexico to 8,751 feet (2,667 meters) at Guadalup
The Gulf Coastal Plain covers southern and eastern Texas and includes
about 40 percent of the state's area. Along the coast are many long barrier
beaches, such as Padre Island, separated from the mainland by lagoons.
Galveston is the largest of the bays. The plain extends 150 to 250 miles (240
to 400 kilometers) inland to a series of hills that sweep across Texas from
Denison on the Red River to Del Rio on the Rio Grande. The western part of this
line (between Austin and Del Rio) is called the Balcones Escarpment.
The Gulf Coastal Plain may be divided into five distinct sections. They are:
the Rio Grande plain, in the south; the coastal prairies, from the San
Antonio River to the Sabine River; the Pine Belt, or Piney Woods, from the
Louisiana line westward about 100 miles (160 kilometers); the Post Oak Belt,
west of the Pine Belt; and the Blackland Prairies, along the western edge of
the Gulf Coastal Plain from the Red River to a point near San Antonio.
e Peak in Culberson County. Within the state are four large natural regions.
The Central Lowland covers the eastern edge of the Panhandle and the
north-central part of the state. It extends southward to include Fort Worth,
Abilene, and Colorado City. The eastern part of this region includes the Grand,
or Fort Worth, Prairie, sandwiched between the East and West Cross Timbers
belts. The remainder of the Central Lowland consists of rolling plains.
The Great Plains extend over most of the Panhandle and west-central and
central Texas. This vast tableland ranges in elevation from 2,500 to 4,700 feet
(760 to 1,430 meters). In the Panhandle are the High Plains, or Llano Estacado
(Staked Plain), a dry, flat, treeless area. To the east the central Texas
section extends almost as far as Waco and Austin. The southeastern extension of
the Great Plains is the Edwards Plateau. Across the lower Pecos River the plain
continues westward as the Stockton Plateau. This section is sometimes called
The Basin and Range Region covers the extreme western part of the state.
It has a series of rugged mountain ranges and dry, sandy basins. In Hudspeth
County is the Diablo Plateau, or Bolston, between the Guadalupe and Hueco
mountains. In a southward loop of the Rio Grande is a rugged area that includes
Big Bend National Park. The Chisos Mountains lie within the park. Thousands of
acres in the upper Rio Grande valley near El Paso are irrigated from Elephant
Butte Reservoir in New Mexico.
Most of the rivers of Texas flow in a southeasterly direction into the Gulf
of Mexico. From the state's eastern border to its western border, the largest
of these rivers are the Sabine, Neches, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado (of Texas),
Guadalupe, San Antonio, Nueces, and Rio Grande with its chief branch, the
Pecos. The northern edge of the state lies in the Mississippi River basin.
Within this section are the Canadian River, which flows across the Panhandle,
and the Red River, on the Texas-Oklahoma border.
Texas has three main types of climate. A narrow strip along the coast has a
marine climate tempered by winds from the Gulf of Mexico. Here temperatures
are fairly uniform, with pleasant summers and mild winters. The Gulf coast
area, from Brownsville northward, can experience severe ocean-borne storms,
including destructive hurricanes. The mountain climate of western Texas
brings dry, clear days with dramatic dips in temperature at nightfall. The
rest of the state has a continental climate with cold winters and hot
summers. Quick temperature changes are common in this area. The warmest part
of the state is the lower Rio Grande valley, which has an average annual
temperature of 74° F (23° C). The coldest is the northwest Panhandle, with a
54° F (12° C) average.
Average annual precipitation (rain and melted snow) varies from 58 inches
(147 centimeters) in the extreme eastern part of the state to less than 10
inches (25 centimeters) near El Paso. In most parts of the state, the
greatest amount of rainfall occurs between April and July and is especially
heavy during May. Snowfall is generally limited to the northern plains area,
where it averages about 15 inches (38 centimeters) annually.
Texas has a rich supply of natural resources. The eastern part of the state
is a productive farming region with fertile soil and ample rainfall. Where
western Texas can be irrigated, it has huge grazing areas and valuable
cropland. Almost 10 percent of the state is forested. The largest amount of
timber is in eastern Texas, where the forest area extends over 43 counties.
The chief commercial trees are several varieties of pine and oak, elm,
hickory, magnolia, sweet gum, black gum, and tupelo.
The mineral resources, led by petroleum, are the most valuable in the nation.
The major commercial advantages of the state are its excellent ports for
trade with Central and South America. The Gulf coast yields valuable catches
The chief conservation problem is the maintenance of an adequate water
supply, particularly in western Texas and in the large urban and industrial
centers. Since 1930 many dams have been built to provide flood control,
power, and irrigation. Today about one fourth of the reservoirs they formed
have a storage capacity of more than 100,000 acre-feet each. The largest is
Toledo Bend, on the Sabine River. Next in size are Amistad, on the Rio
Grande, and Sam Rayburn, on the Angelina. Other large projects include Lake
Texoma, formed by Denison Dam, on the Red River and Falcon Reservoir, on the
Rio Grande. Amistad and Falcon benefit both the United States and Mexico.
The Texas Water Commission administers water rights and control. There are also
many separate river authorities and water districts. Timber conservation is
directed by the Texas Forest Service, a division of Texas A&M University.
Wildlife is protected by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. The federal
Department of the Interior maintains 11 national wildlife refuges, including
the Aransas refuge, along the coast.
People of Texas
The early Native American residents of Texas were the Caddo in the southeast,
the Tonkawa in the southwest, and the Atakapa and Karankawa along the coast.
Later the Comanche moved into central and western Texas from the north.
Fierce Plains Indians, the Comanche were not brought under outside control
until about 1875. This action opened the Panhandle and the western plains to
During the early days of Spanish rule, Texas attracted few new settlers other
than missionaries. By 1806 the population was no more than 7,000. After the
establishment of a colony of Anglo-Americans by Stephen Fuller Austin in
1821, similar settlers came in increasing numbers. Many came from the South,
bringing slaves with them. Later, newcomers arrived from the East and
Midwest. Today most of the migration into Texas comes from Oklahoma,
Louisiana, and Arkansas. Of the Texas-born people living in other states, the
largest number are in California.
Texas has more than 3 million people of Hispanic origin, most of whom are
concentrated along the Rio Grande and in southern Texas . The state also has
more than 2 million African Americans, chiefly in the south and east. Almost
6 percent of the people are foreign born--mainly emigrants from Mexico. The
population also includes about 50,000 Native Americans and about 39,000
people of Chinese and Japanese descent.
Texas has 16 cities with a population of more than 100,000. The largest is
Houston, a financial and industrial center. The city is connected to
Galveston Bay by the 52-mile (84-kilometer) Houston Ship Channel, along which
is one of the world's greatest concentrations of industry. With the Lyndon B.
Johnson Space Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) nearby the area is also a focus of the space industry. Dallas, the
second largest city, is a fashion, insurance, and finance center . Third in
size is the historic city of San Antonio, home of the famous mission turned
military post--the Alamo--and the chief trade center of southern Texas.
Nearby are four bases of the United States Air Force--Brooks, Kelly,
Lackland, and Randolph.
Located on the Rio Grande, El Paso serves as a busy gateway to Mexico and is
the chief trade center of western Texas. West of Dallas is Fort Worth, a
noted livestock and grain market. Austin, the sixth largest city, is the
state capital; located in the south-central part of Texas, it grew according
to plans laid out in 1839. The next largest city in the state is Corpus
Christi, a year-round resort and deepwater port located on the Gulf of.
Lubbock, the commercial hub of a rich cotton-growing area in the Great
Plains, and Amarillo are the chief cities of the Panhandle. Beaumont, the
chief city of the Sabine-Neches industrial area in the extreme southeast, is
noted for its shipments of petroleum. Waco is an agricultural and industrial
center on the Brazos River about halfway between Dallas and Austin. Between
Dallas and Fort Worth is Arlington, an industrial and commercial center for
the automotive and aerospace industries. Wichita Falls is a petroleum center
in north-central Texas. Galveston, a cotton- and sulfur-shipping port on the
Gulf of Mexico, also boasts a flourishing tourism industry.
In 1900 the two leading manufacturing industries in Texas were lumbering and
the processing of grain. Since that time there has been a rapid increase in
the number and types of manufacturing plants. During World War II the value
of Texas manufacturing multiplied almost four times. Manufacturing value
today exceeds 53 billion dollars. Texas is the chief manufacturing state in
the South, and the value of its manufacturing is surpassed only by that of
California among the states west of the Mississippi River.
Most of the increase in industry has been due to the rise of petroleum
refining, which followed the discovery of the great Spindletop oil field in
1901 and has become the most important industry in Texas. Texas now refines
more petroleum than any other state. Ranked second is the manufacture of
chemicals and allied products, which includes organic chemicals and plastics.
The third most important industry is the processing of food products. This
includes meat-packing and the preparation of bakery goods, flour and meal,
and soft drinks. Fourth in importance is tourism.
In farm income, Texas is first among the Southern states and second or third
in the nation. The annual cash income from Texas agricultural products,
estimated at about 9 billion dollars, is usually surpassed only by the
agricultural income of California--and sometimes Iowa. Texas has about
160,000 farms, more than any other state. Some farms contain thousands of
acres. The average size is about 838 acres (339 hectares).
Texas leads all the states in the production of cotton, cattle, wool, and
sorghum grain. Irrigation is a major factor in crop production. Much of the
irrigated land is in the High Plains. Other large irrigated areas are the
lower Rio Grande valley, the Coastal Prairies, the Pecos Valley, and the Rio
Livestock and related products usually account for more than half the yearly
farm income. Crops account for the rest. Texas leads nationally in the number
of cattle, horses, sheep, and lambs. Cattle ranks in value as the most
important commodity in almost every Texas county.
The state 's chief cash crop is cotton. Texas leads the nation in cotton lint
and cottonseed. The major producing counties are Gaines, Dawson, Terry,
Cameron, and Martin. Sorghum grain is usually second in value. Wheat for
grain is the third most valuable crop; the Panhandle is noted for its wheat.
Corn ranks fourth in value. Other farm products are milk, eggs, chickens,
hay, pigs, peanuts, rice, turkeys, wool, oats, and mohair. Texas ranks among
the first five states in the production of broomcorn, flaxseed, grapefruit
and oranges, pecans, sweet clover seed, sweet potatoes, carrots, and onions.
The mineral resources of Texas yield an annual value of about 45 billion
dollars--more than that of any other state. Most of the income is derived
from petroleum, in which Texas leads the nation. The East Texas field is one
of the most productive in the world. Top producing counties in Texas are
Pecos, Yoakum, Gaines, Ector, and Gregg. Gregg was the first county to
produce more than 2 billion barrels of petroleum ever since records have been
The second and third most valuable minerals are natural gas and coal.
Pipelines carry natural gas, as well as petroleum, from Texas to all sections
of the country. Texas is one of the nation ' s chief sources of helium, with
much of the production centered at Amarillo, Exell, and Dumas.
Cement is fourth in importance. Texas ranks among the leading cement-
producing states. The Gulf Coastal Plain is one of the nation 's richest
sources of sulfur. Magnesium is processed from seawater at Freeport's
electrolytic plant. Among other minerals produced in the state are stone,
sand and gravel, lime, salt, and gypsum.
Because of its huge size, Texas has had to develop a vast network of
transportation routes by road, rail, water, and air. The Texas Department of
Highways and Public Transportation, established in 1917, maintains about
71,000 miles (114,260 kilometers) of state roads.
In addition to the state roads and dozens of federal routes, a number of
highways in the Interstate system cross Texas. Interstates 10, 20, and 40 are
major east-west routes. Crossing parts of Texas from north to south are
Interstates 35, 45, and 27. Interstate 30 runs northeastward from Dallas.
The first railroad in Texas was a 20-mile (32-kilometer) line in the Houston
area that was completed in 1853. Transcontinental service became a reality in
1881, when the Southern Pacific linked the state with California. Today Texas
is served by a statewide network of railroads and by a number of major
airlines. The Dallas-Fort Worth Regional Airport is the nation's largest in
terms of land area and one of the busiest.
Thirteen deepwater ports handle shipments of petroleum products, cotton, and
wheat. Routes of travel are the Intracoastal Waterway (extending eastward
from Brownsville) and the Gulf of Mexico. The Houston Ship Channel, which
opened in 1915, has helped make that city one of the great United States
ports. The other major ports are Port Arthur, Beaumont, Texas City, Corpus
Christi, Port Aransas, and Galveston.
In an average year Texas is visited by more than 40 million tourists. One of
the chief attractions is the rugged land of mountains and canyons in the
Trans-Pecos. This region includes Big Bend National Park and Guadalupe
Mountains National Park. Palo Duro Canyon cuts a 1,000-foot- (300-meter-)
deep slash through the high plains of the Texas Panhandle. The Gulf coast has
many fine beaches and resorts. Near Kingsville in south Texas is King Ranch,
one of the largest in the world. East Texas boasts more than 11 million acres
(4.5 million hectares) of woodlands, including four national forests.
San Antonio is famous for the Alamo and San Antonio Missions National
Historical Park. Dallas hosts the state fair each October and the Cotton Bowl
football game on New Year's Day. In Arlington are Six Flags Over Texas, an
amusement park styled after the American West, and the home stadium of the
Texas Rangers professional baseball team. In professional football, the
Dallas Cowboys play in Texas Stadium, in Irving, and the Houston Oilers play
in the famous Astrodome, also home of baseball's Houston Astros. There are
three Texas basketball teams: the Dallas Mavericks, the Houston Rockets, and
the San Antonio Spurs.
The first schools in the Texas region were informal classes for Native
Americans held at the missions of Spanish priests. There were only a few
private schools in the area at the time of the Texas declaration of
independence in 1836. One of the republic's charges against Mexico was that
it had "failed to establish any public system of education."
In 1839 the Republic of Texas began setting aside public land for education.
An act establishing a state school system was passed in 1854. A permanent
school fund was established with a grant of 2 million dollars, and provision
was made for setting up school districts. In 1949 the Gilmer-Aikin laws
reorganized the public school system to equalize educational opportunities.
Common school districts were consolidated from more than 3,000 to fewer than
The largest of the state schools is the University of Texas, located in Austin,
with branches at Arlington, Dallas, El Paso, Odessa, San Antonio, and Tyler;
health science centers at Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio; cancer centers at
Houston and Bastrop County; a health center at Tyler; and a medical branch at
Galveston. The divisions of the Texas A&M University System are located at
College Station, Prairie View, Stephenville, and Galveston.
Some of the other state-supported institutions are Lamar University, at
Beaumont; Midwestern State University, at Wichita Falls; Pan American
University, at Edinburg; Texas Southern University, at Houston; the
University of Houston, also at Houston, with branches at Houston (Clear Lake
City, Downtown College branches) and Victoria; Texas Tech University, at
Lubbock; and Texas Woman's University, at Denton. Other large institutions
include Southern Methodist University, at Dallas; Texas Christian University,
at Fort Worth; Baylor University, at Waco; St. Mary's University of San
Antonio, at San Antonio; Abilene Christian University, at Abilene; Trinity
University, at San Antonio; Rice University, at Houston; and Texas Wesleyan
College, at Fort Worth.
Government and Politics
Under Mexican rule Texas was governed first from Saltillo and then from
Monclova (both in Mexico). In 1835-36 one or more governmental functions were
carried on at San Felipe de Austin, Washington on the Brazos, Harrisburg,
Galveston, Velasco, and Columbia. Houston served as the capital in 1837-39;
Austin, in 1839-42; and Washington on the Brazos, in 1842-45. Austin has
remained the state capital since 1845. Texas is governed under its fifth
constitution, which was adopted in 1876.
The chief executive officer of the state is the governor, who is elected
every four years. The legislative branch consists of the Senate and the House
of Representatives. Heading the state judiciary is the Supreme Court and
Court of Criminal Appeals.
The Democratic party dominated Texas politics from the beginning of
statehood--with only occasional exceptions--until the 1970s. Sam Houston was
elected governor as an independent in 1859, and Republicans were elected in
1870 and 1979. Likewise, in presidential elections Texas voted Democratic in
every election after the American Civil War until 1928 and again until the
1950s. In recent years the Republican party has been gaining strength. A
Dallas oil-drilling contractor, William Clements, was elected governor in
1978 and reelected in 1986--the first Republican to head the state since
John N. Garner of Uvalde was the nation's first vice-president from Texas
(1933-41). Dwight D. Eisenhower, who served from 1953 to 1961, was the first
Texas-born president. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson of Johnson City became
the second president from Texas on Nov. 22, 1963, after the assassination of
John F. Kennedy while riding in a Dallas motorcade. The governor of Texas,
John B. Connally, who was riding in the same car as President Kennedy, was
wounded. Johnson took the oath of office as president immediately after
Kennedy' s death; he was elected president in 1964. George Bush was a
resident of Texas when he was elected vice-president in 1980 and 1984 and
when he was elected president in 1988.
Sam Rayburn of Bonham holds the record for length of service as speaker of
the United States House of Representatives--17 years, beginning in 1940. One
of the first African American women to serve in Congress, and the first from
the Deep South, was Barbara Jordan of Houston, first elected in 1972.
The wife of a former governor of Texas, who had been impeached, Miriam A.
Ferguson was the second American woman (by two weeks) to serve as a governor
(1925-27 and 1933-35). More than any other state, Texas has elected women to
high political offices in several of its cities. In the 1980s women were
elected to the top post in Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, Corpus Christi, and
El Paso. In 1990 another woman, Ann Richards, was narrowly elected governor
of the state.
HISTORY OF TEXAS
Six national flags have flown over Texas during its colorful history. The
first was Spain's banner, from 1519 to 1685. In 1685 the French explorer La
Salle raised the French flag over a short-lived coastal colony. In 1691 Texas
again came under the Spanish flag, which was replaced by the banner of Mexico
in 1821. From 1836 to 1845 the Lone Star banner flew over the Republic of
Texas. The Stars and Stripes became the official flag in 1845, but during the
American Civil War, from 1861 to 1865, it was replaced by the Confederate
The first European to visit what is now Texas was Alonso Alvarez de Pineda,
who mapped the coast in 1519. Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish noble, was the first
to explore the area. Shipwrecked near what is now Galveston in 1528, he was
captured by the Karankawa Indians and traveled with them for eight years
before escaping. In 1541 Francisco Coronado crossed the Panhandle in search
of gold. Later, parties of Spaniards camped in the wilderness, but they left
The French explorer La Salle missed the mouth of the Mississippi River in
1685 and sailed into Matagorda Bay. He pushed inland and built Fort St.
Louis, which two years later was wiped out by Native Americans already living
in the area. Fear of French influence hurried the Spanish into extending
missions into eastern Texas.
By 1800 some 25 missions and a number of presidios had been built in Texas.
The missions had little success in converting the Native Americans to the
alien Spanish culture and failed to attract settlers. A 1795 census found 69
families in San Antonio. The few additional families were mainly at what are
now Goliad and Nacogdoches.
After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the United States regarded eastern
Texas as its territory. Spain refused to recognize the claim and won control
of about 96,000 square miles (248,639 square kilometers) through the Adams-
Onнs Treaty of 1819. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain, this
boundary (the Sabine River and northward) was confirmed by a treaty with the
The way to American settlement was opened when Moses Austin of Connecticut
won Spain's consent to settle 300 Anglo-American families in Texas. His son,
Stephen F. Austin, is called the father of Texas because he brought the first
group of colonists to the lower Brazos River in December 1821. The capital of
the settlement was established at San Felipe de Austin, in present Austin
County, in 1823.
Mexico made additional land grants to other settlers. Drawn by an abundance
of public lands where corn and cotton grew, whites from the South and
Southwest and their black slaves swelled the population. As immigration into
Texas from the United States increased, however, Mexico grew more hostile.
Resentment flared in 1826 when American promoters set up the short-lived
Fredonian republic at Nacogdoches. By 1830 the population of Texas had grown
to nearly 25,000, and further American immigration, including the importation
of African American slaves, was forbidden. Disputes with Mexico increased.
After Santa Anna became the dictator of Mexico, the Texans revolted. The
first open battle was fought at Gonzales on Oct. 2, 1835.
Republic of Texas
The Texans held a convention at Washington on the Brazos and adopted a
declaration of independence on March 2, 1836. A constitution modeled after
that of the United States was adopted by the new Republic of Texas.
The most striking event in the Texas war for independence was the heroic
defense of the Alamo in San Antonio. A rebuilt mission, the Alamo was used as
a fort by about 180 Americans. After a siege of 12 days by several thousand
Mexican soldiers under Santa Anna, the Alamo fell on March 6, 1836, and the
garrison was wiped out. Later in the month the Mexicans massacred James
Fannin and more than 300 Texas prisoners at Goliad. "Remember the Alamo" and
"Remember Goliad" became Texas war cries.
Independence was won after Gen. Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna on the banks
of the San Jacinto River near Houston on April 21, 1836. In September Sam
Houston was elected president of the republic.
The new nation was hemmed in by the Indian frontier from the Red River to the
hostile Mexican border along the Rio Grande. These threats led to the
development of the famous Texas Rangers, expert horsemen and marksmen. The
Rangers, the oldest state police force in the United States, are now a branch
of the Department of Public Safety.
From 1836 to 1845 the public debt grew from 1 million to 8 million dollars.
Many believed that the future development of Texas would be greater under the
United States. In 1844 a convention voted for annexation and a state
constitution was adopted.
Admission to the Union
The proposed annexation brought a bitter fight in the United States over the
question of slavery. Finally, on Dec. 29, 1845, Texas was admitted to the
Union. The state kept its public lands and reserved the right to divide into
no more than five states.
Disputes with Mexico over boundary lines led to the Mexican War in 1846. The
United States victory in the conflict two years later established the Rio
Grande as the international border as far as El Paso. In 1850 Congress
purchased from Texas for 10 million dollars the claim of that state to some
100,000 square miles (259,000 square kilometers) of land, now part of New
Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming.
Just before the outbreak of the American Civil War, slaveholding Texas
seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Governor Sam Houston tried
to keep the state in the Union but was deposed. Texas was readmitted in 1870
In the mid-1860s Texas cowboys began driving cattle northward to markets or
ranges. Some of their famous cattle trails were the Chisholm, Western (Dodge
City), Goodnight-Loving, and Sedalia trails. More than 11 million cattle were
herded up these trails before the introduction of railroads into the area.
These cowboys were the inspiration for many dozens of Western novels and
films. Yet in spite of all the Western lore celebrating the cowboy in song,
story, art, and film, the era of the great cattle drives was short. It was
virtually over by 1890, only 20 years after it began.
The Modern State
Much of the history of modern Texas is connected with the development of the
oil industry. In 1901 Anthony F. Lucas struck oil in the Spindletop field,
near Beaumont. Other great strikes included those of East Texas, the richest
of all, in 1930; Scurry County, in 1949; and Spraberry Field, near Midland,
in 1950. The state especially benefited from the expansion of the industry,
and its associated petrochemicals, after World War II. In 1960 Texas won a
15-year political and legal struggle for title to the offshore oil in its
Gulf of Mexico tidelands. A Supreme Court decision gave the state mineral
rights in an area extending three leagues--about 10 1/2 miles (17
In 1963 the United States ended a border dispute with Mexico by agreeing to
exchange land in the Laredo area. The dispute began about 100 years earlier,
when the channel of the Rio Grande shifted. HemisFair '68, the first
international exposition in a Southwestern state, was held at San Antonio.
Massive oil spills from tankers have periodically devastated the Texas
shoreline. In October 1989 and, nine months later, in July 1990, there were
major fatal accidents at two Texas petrochemical plants within 10 miles (16
kilometers) of each other, near Houston.