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Реферат: Герои гражданской войны США

                                  Unions                                  
Bragg, Braxton (1817-1876), American soldier, born in Warren County, North
Carolina, and educated at the United States Military Academy. He served in
the Second Seminole War and won several promotions for gallant and
distinguished conduct during the Mexican-American War. He resigned his
commission in 1859 to enter private enterprise. In the American Civil War he
served in the Confederate army as a brigadier general. Soon promoted to the
rank of major general, then full general, he replaced General Pierre Gustave
Toutant Beauregard as commander of the Army of the Tennessee in June 1862.
Invading Kentucky in August 1862, he nearly succeeded in taking Louisville
but was compelled to withdraw into Tennessee. At the Battle of Murfreesboro,
or Stones River, he fought Union forces under General William Starke
Rosecrans to a draw, but then withdrew his army. In September 1863, however,
he inflicted a decisive defeat on Rosecrans in the Battle of Chickamauga.
Soon afterwards he was defeated by General Ulysses S. Grant in the three-day
Battle of Chattanooga. In February 1864 he was summoned to Richmond and made
military adviser to the president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. Bragg
was placed in command of the Department of North Carolina in November and led
an unsuccessful expedition into Georgia against General William Tecumseh
Sherman. In February 1865 he was assigned to duty with the Army of the
Tennessee again and remained with that army until it surrendered. After the
war Bragg was for some time chief engineer for the state of Alabama.
Grant, Ulysses S(impson) (1822-1885), American general and 18th president of
the United States (1869-1877). Grant was born at Point Pleasant, Ohio, on
April 27, 1822, the son of Hannah Simpson and Jesse Grant, the owner of a
tannery. Taken to nearby Georgetown at the age of one, he was educated in
local and boarding schools. In 1839, under the name of Ulysses Simpson
instead of his original Hiram Ulysses, he was appointed to West Point.
Graduating 21st in a class of 39 in 1843, he was assigned to Jefferson
Barracks, Missouri. There he met Julia Dent, a local planter's daughter, whom
he married after the Mexican-American War.
During the Mexican-American War, Grant served under both General Zachary
Taylor and General Winfield Scott and distinguished himself, particularly at
Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. After his return and tours of duty in the
North, he was sent to the Far West. In 1854, while stationed at Fort
Humboldt, California, Grant resigned his commission because of loneliness and
drinking problems, and in the following years he engaged in generally
unsuccessful farming and business ventures in Missouri. He moved to Galena,
Illinois, in 1860, where he became a clerk in his father's leather store.
At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Grant was appointed colonel, and
soon afterwards brigadier general, of the Illinois Volunteers, and in
September 1861 he seized Paducah, Kentucky. After an inconclusive raid on
Belmont, Missouri, he gained fame when in February 1862, in conjunction with
the navy, he succeeded in reducing Forts Henry and Donelson, Tennessee,
forcing General Simon B. Buckner to accept unconditional surrender. The
Confederates surprised Grant at Shiloh (April 1862), but he held his ground
and then moved on to Corinth. In 1863 he established his reputation as a
strategist in the brilliant campaign against Vicksburg, Mississippi, which
capitulated on July 4. After being appointed commander in the West, he
defeated Braxton Bragg at Chattanooga (November 1863). Grant's victories made
him so prominent that he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and
in March 1864 was given command of all Union armies.
Grant's subsequent campaigns revealed his determination to apply relentless
pressure against the Confederacy by coordinating the Union armies and
exploiting the economic strength of the North. While Grant accompanied the
Army of the Potomac in its overland assault on Richmond, Virginia, General
Benjamin F. Butler was to attack the city by water, General William T.
Sherman to move into Georgia, and General Franz Sigel to clear the Shenandoah
Valley of Virginia. Despite the failure of Butler and Sigel and heavy losses
at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor, Grant continued to press
the drive against the army of General Robert E. Lee. After Sherman's success
in Georgia and the conquest of the Shenandoah Valley by General Philip H.
Sheridan, Grant forced Lee to abandon Petersburg and Richmond (April 2, 1865)
and to surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9.
Burnside, Ambrose Everett (1824-1881), American general and politician, born
in Liberty, Indiana, and educated at the US Military Academy. He served in
the Mexican-American War and in several campaigns against the Native
Americans; at the outbreak of the American Civil War he accepted command of a
Union regiment, which he led in the First Battle of Bull Run. Promoted to
brigadier general in August 1861, he took part in the capture of Roanoke
Island and Fort Macon in North Carolina. In September 1862, by now a major
general, he fought in the Battle of Antietam under General George B.
McClellan, whom he succeeded in November as a commander of the Army of the
Potomac; a month later his forces were decisively defeated by Confederate
General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Fredericksburg. Burnside was then
transferred to the Army of Ohio and successfully resisted the Confederate
siege of Knoxville, Tennessee in 1863. He served under Generals George G.
Meade and Ulysses S. Grant the following year at the siege of Petersburg,
Virginia, but was held responsible for heavy Union losses and relieved of
command. After the war Burnside was Governor of Rhode Island (1866-1869) and
a US senator (1875-1881).
Sherman, William Tecumseh (1820-1891), United States general in the American
Civil War; his successful campaign in Georgia in 1864 split the Confederacy
in two and made an important contribution to the Union victory.
Sherman was born on May 8, 1820, in Lancaster, Ohio, and educated at the
United States Military Academy. After an undistinguished military career he
resigned from the army in 1853 to become a partner in a banking firm in San
Francisco. He was president of a military college in Alexandria, Louisiana
(now Louisiana State University) from 1859 to the beginning of 1861, when
Louisiana seceded from the Union. At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861,
he offered his services to the Union army and was put in command of a
volunteer infantry regiment, becoming a brigadier general of volunteers after
the first Battle of Bull Run. Sherman led a division at the Battle of Shiloh
(April 6-7, 1862) and was rewarded for his part in the victory by being
promoted to major general of volunteers. Later that year he failed in an
attempt (December 27-29) to seize the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, on
the Mississippi River, but in 1863 he fought under General Ulysses S. Grant
in the campaign that ended in the capture of that city in July. He was given
command of the Army of the Tennessee in the fall of 1863 and fought in the
Battle of Chattanooga.
In 1864 Sherman was made supreme commander of the armies in the West and was
ordered to move against Atlanta, Georgia. During the opening months of the
campaign, he lost the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain; he did not capture Atlanta
until almost three months later, on September 1. After ordering the burning
of the military resources of the city, he launched his most celebrated
military action, known as Sherman's march to the sea, in which, with about
60,000 picked men, he marched from Atlanta to   Savannah, Georgia, on the
Atlantic coast. Along the way the men laid waste the intervening territory
and severed the Confederate government at Richmond, Virginia, from its
western states. Sherman next set out to join forces with Grant, who was
moving southward towards Richmond. After three months of fighting, Sherman
reached Raleigh, North Carolina, where he was in a position to complete the
encirclement of Richmond and its defending forces, led by the Confederate
commander in chief Robert E. Lee. Following Lee's surrender on April 9, the
Confederate army confronting Sherman surrendered to him at Raleigh, on April
17.
After the war Sherman was commissioned lieutenant general in the regular army
and, following Grant's election to the presidency in 1868, he was promoted to
the rank of full general and given command of the entire US Army. He
published his Memoirs in 1875 and retired in 1883. The famous phrase “war is
hell” is attributed to Sherman.
Sheridan, Philip Henry (1831-1888), American army commander, who
distinguished himself in the American Civil War.
Sheridan was born on March 6, 1831, in Albany, New York, and was educated at
the United States Military Academy. He entered the Civil War in 1861 as a
captain in the Union army and a year later was a major general of volunteers.
His able leadership of campaigns in Tennessee caused General Ulysses S.
Grant, commander in chief of the Union forces, to appoint (1864) Sheridan
commander of cavalry in the Army of the Potomac. During May 1864,  Sheridan's
cavalry cut rail communications about the Confederate capital, Richmond,
Virginia. From August to October, as commander of the Army of the Shenandoah,
Sheridan drove the Confederate forces in Virginia out of the Shenandoah
Valley; he then devastated the region to prevent it from being used to supply
food for the Confederates. During the Shenandoah campaign he defeated forces
under General Jubal Anderson Early at Winchester, Fisher's Mill, and Cedar
Creek.
Sheridan became a major general in the regular army in 1864 and took part in
the advance of Grant's army on Richmond in 1865. His victory at the Battle of
Five Forks forced the Confederate commander, General Robert E. Lee, to
evacuate the capital and withdraw to Appomattox. Sheridan cut off the
Confederate line of retreat, and on April 9, Lee surrendered to Grant at
Appomattox.
After the war Sheridan commanded (1865-1867) American forces on the Mexican
border and was appointed (1867) military governor of Texas and Louisiana. The
firmness of his administration during the Reconstruction in the latter office
led President Andrew Johnson to transfer him to the command of the Department
of the Missouri. In 1884 Sheridan became commander in chief of the US Army
and shortly before his death on August 5, 1888, he attained the rank of
general. He is the author of Personal Memoirs (2 vol., 1888).
McClellan, George Brinton (1826-1885), American soldier and Union commander
in the American Civil War.
McClellan was born in Philadelphia, December 3, 1826, and educated at the
University of Pennsylvania and the United States Military Academy at West
Point, New York. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was commissioned major
general in the regular army and, after the First Battle of Bull Run,
commanded the Army of the Potomac, the troops in and around Washington,
D.C. In November 1861 he was appointed commander in chief of the Union army.
In 1862 President Abraham Lincoln believed that the Union troops should move
directly against the Confederates at Manassas, Virginia, but McClellan
disagreed and advanced on Richmond from the east. During the ensuing
Peninsular campaign, the Union army was generally successful, but their
failure to take Richmond, the Confederate capital, gave new impetus to the
South. The president was dissatisfied with the campaign, and McClellan was
superseded by Henry Wager Halleck as commander in chief. McClellan was then
ordered to evacuate the peninsula and go to the aid of the troops near
Manassas. He arrived too late to be of assistance, however, and after the
defeat of the Union army in the Second Battle of Bull Run, he was again
placed in active command of the Army of the Potomac. In September 1862 he
fought at Antietam. He stopped the Confederate attempt to invade the North,
but because of heavy Union losses, and his excessive caution in not pursuing
the retreating Confederates, he was again relieved of his command. He took no
further part in the war.
In 1864 McClellan was nominated by the Democratic party as its candidate for
president on a platform of peace and non-interference with slavery, but he
was defeated by Lincoln. McClellan served as governor of New Jersey from 1878
to 1881, and he died in Orange, New Jersey, October 29, 1885.
                               Confederates                               
Lee, Robert E(dward) (1807-1870), brilliant Confederate general, whose
military genius was probably the greatest single factor in keeping the
Confederacy alive through the four years of the American Civil War.
Lee was born on January 19, 1807, in Stratford, Virginia, the son of Henry
Lee, and was educated at the   United States Military Academy. He graduated
second in his class in 1829, receiving a commission as second lieutenant in
the engineers. He became first lieutenant in 1836, and captain in 1838. He
distinguished himself in the battles of the Mexican-American War and was
wounded in the storming of Chapultepec in 1847; for his meritorious service
he received his third brevet promotion in rank. He became superintendent of
the US Military Academy and was later appointed colonel of cavalry. He was in
command of the Department of Texas in 1860, and, early the following year,
was summoned to Washington, D.C., when war between the states seemed
imminent. President Abraham Lincoln offered him the field command of the
Union forces, but Lee declined. On April 20, three days after Virginia
seceded from the Union, he submitted his resignation from the US Army. On
April 23 he became commander in chief of the military and naval forces of
Virginia. For a year he was military adviser to Jefferson Davis, president of
the Confederate States of America, and was then placed in command of the army
in northern Virginia. In 1864 his pre-war home, Arlington House, had been
confiscated by the Union army and, in a symbolic reproach to Lee, its grounds
had been made into a cemetery for the Union dead (now the Arlington National
Cemetery). In February 1865 Lee was made commander in chief of all
Confederate armies; two months later the war was effectively ended by his
surrender to General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House. His great
battles included those of Antietam, Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, and
Gettysburg.
The masterly strategy of Lee was overcome by the superior resources and troop
strength of the Union. His campaigns are almost universally studied in
military schools as models of strategy and tactics. He had a capacity for
anticipating the actions of his opponents and for comprehending their
weaknesses. He made skilful use of interior lines of communication and kept a
convex front towards the enemy, so that his reinforcements, transfers, and
supplies could reach their destination over short, direct routes. His
greatest contribution to military practice, however, was his use of field
fortifications as aids to manoeuvring. He recognized that a small body of
soldiers, protected by entrenchments, can hold an enemy force of many times
their number, while the main body outflanks the enemy or attacks a smaller
force elsewhere. In his application of this principle Lee was years ahead of
his time; the tactic was not fully understood or generally adopted until the
20th century.
Lee applied for but was never granted the official post-war amnesty. He
accepted the presidency of Washington College, now Washington and Lee
University, in the autumn of 1865; within a few years it had become an
outstanding institution. He died there on October 12, 1870. In 1975 Lee's
citizenship was restored posthumously by an act of the US Congress.
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant (1818-1893), Confederate general, born
near New Orleans, Louisiana, and educated at the United States Military
Academy. An engineer officer, he served in the Mexican-American War (1846-
1848) and remained in the US Army until February 1861, when he resigned to
join the insurgent Confederate forces; in April he directed the bombardment
of Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, the first action of the
American Civil War. Beauregard was second in command at the First Battle of
Bull Run (July 1861). At Shiloh (April 1862) he took command when his
superior, General Albert S. Johnston, was killed, and he led the Confederate
withdrawal from the field. In 1863 he defended Charleston from attack by the
Union navy, and in May 1864 he defeated a Union army under General Benjamin
F. Butler at Drury's Bluff, Virginia. After the war Beauregard was president
of the New Orleans, Jackson, and Mississippi Railroad and later was adjutant
general of Louisiana.
Ewell, Richard Stoddert (1817-1872), American soldier, who led the
Confederate army after the death of Stonewall Jackson. He was born in
Washington, D.C., and educated at the United States Military Academy. Ewell
served on the frontier and in the Mexican-American War, attaining the rank of
captain, but at the outbreak of the American Civil War he resigned his
commission and joined the Confederate army as a colonel. He became
successively a brigadier general (June 1861), major general (October 1861),
and lieutenant general (May 1863). Given the command of a division under
General Stonewall Jackson, he was wounded and lost a leg at the Second Battle
of Bull Run in August 1862. In May 1863 he returned to duty and, on the death
of Jackson after the Battle of Chancellorsville, Ewell assumed command of the
newly formed II Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia. He successfully drove
the Union forces from the Shenandoah Valley and led the advance into
Pennsylvania, until he was stopped at the Battle of Gettysburg. Later he
fought against Grant in the Battle of the Wilderness and at Spotsylvania
Court House, where he was wounded again. Forced to give up his field command,
he was put in charge of the defences of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate
capital; after the evacuation of the city he was captured with his corps by
General Philip Sheridan at Sailor's Creek, Virginia, in 1865. He was released
four months after the war and retired to private life in Tennessee.
Forrest, Nathan Bedford (1821-1877), American Confederate cavalry general,
born near Chapel Hill, Bedford County, Tennessee. After dealing in horses and
cattle in Mississippi, Forrest became a slave trader in Memphis, Tennessee.
Forrest was known as one of the most effective Confederate generals during
the American Civil War.
At the start of the war, Forrest enlisted as a private in the Confederate
army, and subsequently raised a battalion of cavalry, of which he was made
lieutenant colonel. In 1862 he led his forces in the defence of Fort Donelson
and later participated in the Battle of Shiloh. During 1862 and 1863, Forrest
executed a series of successful raids behind Union lines in Tennessee,
Alabama, Kentucky, and Mississippi. In 1864 Forrest was given command of all
the cavalry with the Army of Tennessee. Among his victories in 1864 were the
capture of Fort Pillow and the Battle of Brices Cross Roads. At the beginning
of 1865, despite a controversy over his massacre of black troops at Fort
Pillow after they had surrendered he was placed in charge of the cavalry in
Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana. In February, Forrest was
promoted to lieutenant general. In March Forrest was defeated at Selma,
Alabama, by the Union general James H. Wilson, and Forrest and his forces
surrendered in May. After the war he settled in Memphis, where he owned two
large plantations. Forrest served as the first leader of the original Ku Klux
Klan. He attempted to disband the organization in 1869 when its members
became increasingly violent.
Pickett, George Edward (1825-1875), American general, born in Richmond,
Virginia, and educated at the United States Military Academy. He served in
the US Army during the Mexican-American War, but at the start of the American
Civil War in 1861 he joined the Confederate forces. The following year he
became successively a Confederate brigadier general and a major general. His
best-known military feat was the doomed charge he led (July 3, 1863) during
the Battle of Gettysburg. His 4,500 men, forming the centre of the
Confederate line, charged against the strong Union positions on Cemetery
Ridge. Three-fourths of his troops were lost in the attack, which is known as
Pickett's charge. He was also noted for his participation in the Peninsular
campaign (1862); in the defence of Petersburg, Virginia (1864); and in the
battles of Dinwiddie Court House and Five Forks (1865).