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Топики: Твори на англійській мові

                          TEXT A.ALBERT EINSTEIN                          
Albert Einstein, a well-known German physicist and mathematician, was born in
Germany on March 14, 1879. His unusual ability to mathematics and physics began
to show itself at a technical school in Zurich. At the age of 21, after four
years of university study, Albert Einstein got a job as a clerk in an office.
But already in 1905 he made revolutionary discoveries in science. He published
three papers in the field of physics and mathematics. In the first he explained
the photoelectric effect by means of Planck's quantum theory. The second paper
developed a mathematical theory of Brownian motion. He presented his third
paper on "Special Theory of Relativity" to a physical journal. Einstein
expressed his theory in the equation E = mc2, roughly that energy
equals mass times the square of the speed of light.
All over the world scientists read the work with great surprise. Few
physicists understood its importance at that time. Everybody wanted to know
as much as possible about the author. In which institute did he teach? In
what laboratory did he do his research?
Einstein's fame among scientists grew slowly but surely. For a few years he
lived in Prague where he worked as a professor. When he came to Prague, he
often told his students: "I shall always try to help you. If you have a
problem, come to me with it, we shall solve it together".
He liked questions and answered them at once, for there were no simple or
foolish questions for him. He spoke much with his students about scientific
problems and his new ideas. His advice to students was, "Don't take easy
problems".
In 1921 Einstein got the Nobel Prize in physics not for the theory of
relativity but for a logical explanation of the photoelectric effect.
After the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia Einstein became a true
friend of the young Socialist Republic. He established scientific contacts
with his colleagues in Soviet Russia.
In 1922 he became a foreign member of the Russian Academy of Sciences for his
outstanding contributions to physics and mathematics.
On March 14, 1979 by UNESCO decision all people throughout the world
celebrated the birth centenary of the great 20th century scientist.
Текст 1.             АЛЬБЕРТ  ЭЙНШТЕЙН
Альберт Эйнштейн, хорошо известный немецкий физик и математик, родился в
Германии 14 марта 1879 года. Свои необыкновенные способности по математике и
физике начинал показывать ещё с технической школы в Цюрихе. В 21 год, после
четырех лет обучения в университете, Альберт Эйнштейн получил работу клерком
в офисе. Но уже в 1905 году он сделал революционное открытие в науке. Он
опубликовал три доклада в области физики и математики. В первом он объяснял
фотоэлектрический эффект посредством квантовой теории Планка. Второй доклад
развивал математическую теорию броуновского движения. Он  представил свой
третий доклад "Специальная теория Относительности" в физическом журнале.
Эйнштейн выразил свою теорию уравнением Е = mс2, количество энергии
приблизительно равняется массе умноженной на квадрат скорости света.
Во всем мире ученые читают работы с большим удивлением. Немногие физики
понимали значение этого в то время. Каждый хочет знать столько об авторе... В
каком институте он преподавал? В каких лабораториях проводил свои
исследования.
Известность Эйнштейна среди учёных росла медленно, но верно. В течении
нескольких лет он жил в Праге, где работал в качестве профессора. Когда он
приезжал в Прагу, он часто говорил своим студентам: "Я всегда стараюсь
помогать вам. Если у вас есть проблемы, обращайтесь ко мне, и мы будем решать
их вместе".
Он любил вопросы и давал ответы на них сразу, даже если они непростые и
глупые вопросы брался за них. Многие из таких студентов знают о проблемах
науки и у них новые идеи. Совет студентов утверждает: "Нет легких проблем".
В 1921 году Эйнштейн получил Нобелевскую Премию по физике не за теорию
относительности, а за логическое объяснение фотоэлектрического эффекта.
После Великой Октябрьской Социалистической революции в России Эйнштейн
становится верным другом молодой Социалистической Республики.
Он установил научные контакты со своими коллегами в Советской России.
В 1922 году он становится иностранным членом Российской Академии Наук и
вносит выдающийся вклад по физике и математике.
14 марта 1979 года решением ЮНЕСКО люди всего мира праздновали столетие со
дня рождения великого в 20 веке учёного.
                          TEXT  B."INTENSIFIKATION-90"                          
The exhibition "Intensifikation-90" which is devoted to economic and social
developments of Leningrad region was on in Leningrad. Its exhibits show the
Leningraders' efforts to improve the quality and efficiency of the region
production. A large section  of the exhibition demonstrates electronics/
The most impressive of the exhibits are robots. They can cut metals, drill
holes, compute and teach. All robots are very much things of the present. A
multipurpose lathe-robot is specially interesting in that it can "ask
questions". An engineer showed how it works. He pressed a key which has the
mark "Thread cutting". And "Thread pitch?" immediately appeared on the video
displey screen. The engineer pressed another key with the mark "I". Another
question came on: "Thread length?". The robot has to get all the answers to
all its questions before it goes to work.
Another exhibit was a "Sfera" robot which was to operate some metallurgical
processes. Before it starts working its operator must take him by "hand" and
go through all the programme. The robot memorizes the instructions and then
is able to do everything by itself and without any mistakes. Its memory can
hold as many as 70 programmes.
Practically all the equipment on display serves to improve the equipment on
display serves to improve the productivity. Intensifikation-90  progpamme
provides for high increase in production of technologically perfect, top-
quality and efficient types of machinery for Leningrad region.
"Интенсификация-90"
Выставка "Интенсификация-90", которая посвящена для экономического и
социального развития Ленинградской области проходила в Ленинграде. Её
экспонаты, представленные усилиями ленинградцев предназначены для улучшения
качества и производительности областного производства. Большую часть выставки
занимал показ электроники.
Наиболее впечатляющий экспонат был робот. Он может резать металл, сверлить
отверстия, подсчитывать и обучать. Все присутствующие роботы очень хорошие
вещи в подарок. Многоцелевой токарно(станочный) робот особо интересен тем,
что может "задать вопрос". Инженер показывал, как он работает. Он нажимал на
кнопку, которая называлась "Резьбу нарезать". "И" Шаг резки резьбы?" после
этого появляется на видео (показывающем) экране. Инженер нажимает ещё одну
кнопку промаркированной "І". Ещё один вопрос появляется: "Длина резьбы".
После того как робот получит все ответы на вопросы, приступает к работе.
Ещё один экспонат "Сфера" – робот, который выполняет операции некоторых
металлургических процессов. До начала работы механик-оператор должен взять
его "в руки" и пройти через все программы. Робот вспоминает инструкции и
способен делать все что нужно и без всяких ошибок. Его память может держать
около 70 программ.
Практически всё оборудование, выставленное на показ, служит для улучшения
производительности. Программа "Интенсификация-90" служит для увеличения роста
производства технологически совершенного, высококачественного и
продуктивного, типичного  машинного оборудования для Ленинградской области.
TEXT A.MACHINE-TOOLS-A MEASURE OF
MAN'S PROGRESS
The variety and combinations of machine tools today are unlimited. Some of
them are very small and can be mounted on a work bench but others are so
large that we have to construct special buildings to house them.
There are some basic operations at any workshop. They are turning, drilling,
threading, etc. The main machine-tool a workshop is the multipurpose lathe.
What is a lathe? It is a power-driven machine with special tools which can
cut or form metal parts. The metal that cuts another metal must be very hard
and so tools should be made of very hard steel alloys. The tool itself is
very small in comparison with the mechanism that is to direct it.
Technological progress improves accuracy of machine tools. Today's equipment
can produce parts with very high accuracy. One can find a number of machine
tools that can measure and inspect their production themselves – machine
tools that are to handle the parts mechanically and automatically. Such
machines can hold the parts which are to be measured and be able to indicate
precise measurements themselves. A great many of such "clever" machines can
be found today in our industry.
Since machine tools become faster and more complex, automatic measurements
and inspection ought to be of greater importance. Automation is one of the
main factors of engineering progress.
Flexible production lines form the basis for automated workshops. The main
principle of such a flexible line is the fact that it can be switched over
from one product to another, which has a similar structure but a different
outline, almost instantaneously. It is equally efficient in conditions of
will serve to increase the productivity.
The USSR and other highly industrialized countries begin making use of
flexible modules and automated workshops on a broad basis.
TEXT A.ASTRONOMICAL CAPITAL
OF THE WORLD
Two great observatories, Greenwich and Pulkovo, occupy a leading place among
the observatories of the world. Some scientists call Pulkovo the astronomical
capital of the world.
Pulkovo is situated in a hilly area some kilometers from Leningrad. You can't
get to Pulkovo by train – when the railway was being built the astronomers
specially asked that it should be kept several kilometers away so that there
should be no vibration to affect the sensitive instruments.
The work started in 1839, when the observatory was opened, is being continued
now. This is the eternal work of astronomers – to define the precise co-
ordinates of the stars, to find out the exact "addresses" of heavenly bodies.
But today the scientists also conduct a time service, they study activity of
the Sun, follow the flights of the Earth sputniks and calculate their orbits.
The scientists of the observatory have made a  valuable contribution to the
study of the cosmos by  observing Soviet artificial Earth satellites, man-
made moons. The study of their orbits is very important for the flights of
manned spaceships.
The Pulkovo observatory has a radio-astronomy department equipped with modern
apparatus. The big radio-telescope installed there is stronger than any other
telescope in the world. With the help of this powerful devise the scientists
of the Pulkovo observatory carry out a number of observations of Venus,
Jupiter and other planets. It is necessary that before flying to other
planets scientists should get the greatest possible information about the
heavenly bodies.
The astronomers have obtained extremely surprising results due to radio-
astronomical observation. By means of the radio-telescope some remarkable
studies of the surface of the Sun and of solar activity have been made and a
method of investigating the movement of planets has been worked out.
Astronomical observation and cosmic experiments are spheres of scientific
research in which broad co-operation of scientists of various countries would
be most effective. Soviet scientists, workers and technicians have produced
and launched space rockets in the direction of the Moon, Venus and Mars and
are fulfilling the noble dreams of mankind. May there be peaceful ships
flying the space routes and may they serve the interests of all the people of
the world!
TEXT  A. TODAY'S ASTONISNING COMPUTERS
Not long ago computers were not very reliable and comparatively slow in
operation.  Since then, several generations of complex electronic computing
equipment have been developed, each being significantly better than the one
before it. Almost every day a new use is found for these astonishing devices
to help man.
We know a computer to be a complex electronic device that can store and
process vast quantities of information. Following instructions, computing
equipment will perform calculations such as addition, subtraction,
multiplication and division, and provide the answers to a  large variety of
problems in a tiny fraction of time.
A computer is known to be the "heart" of an electronic data processing
system, other parts of equipment being auxiliary.
There are two main types of computing equipment – digital and analogue. They
work differently and yield different results. The digital computer is
performing a much broader range of functions than the analogue one.
The analogue computer, as its name implies, produces analogues or parallels
of the process to be described or the problem to be solved. Both the digital
and analogue computers must be "programmed". This means they must be set up
in such a way that they can produce a result from the information fed into
them, and the information itself must be organized so it can be handled by
the machines.  These devices working by electronic impulses perform at
fantastic speed and with great precision.
Looking to the future, computer makers see no end to the things they would
like to accomplish. The computer of the future seems to be developed by using
bionics – biological functions of plants and animals – as a guide in
designing electronic circuits.
Nowadays computer makers are working at the problem of introducing small
computers into our everyday life making them personal. They are trying to
develop a computer that will understand human language.
Each new generation of computers opens up new possibilities for basic and
applied research.