Каталог :: Иностранные языки

Билеты: Темы по английскому за 10 класс

     1. Speak about the most striking traits of peoples character
During our life we get in touch with many people. We all know a password: “So
many characters, so many people “ and it is  really true. Character is the most
important thing in a person which attracts or repulses  other people. Each of
us has his or hers  good and bad features of character, but some of  them come
to the fore that’s why we can say : “He is a bad man , because he is rude or
impertinent . And he is a good man because he is courageous, generous,
kind-hearted .  I have  many friends & a lot of acquaintances and they are
all different . Some of them are very kind-hearted and friendly some are  not
so kind but they are devoted  friends and always help me and their friends, but
they can be very cold or indifferent to other people. Also some feature  have a
double nature example: modesty or perseverance and others. Modest people are
usually polite, quite, but sometimes they tend to be too reticence. Persevering
people can become obstinate.  As for me I like devotedness , wittiness ,
kindness, friendliness , in people. I think that there are 2 sorts of  kind
people. The first sort is really  ,kind-hearted  people who are always ready to
help all people in the world no matter what social position they have The other
sort who only try to look kind and friendly. But they are friendly only with
people whom they interested in. I  hate such people because you don’t know if
they are really good or only want to look friendly and I cannot trust them. A
lot of things can change a person’s character. If you are a kind man and you
has grow up with rude, cruel people you can become the like them or vice versa
a bad man can become kind. Some people have a strong character and they can try
to change and become good. For example people why often let of their steam it
is necessary to control themselves  and so on.  Every character forms in the
society  therefore in the society determines one’s character. Also I believe
that Signs of Zodiac influence one’s  character. Every Symbol has own features
common for all people born under this symbol. For example I’m Libra ,in my
Horoscope it says that in me there are 2 persons. And other good and bad
features. But I also believe that everyone can change his character, adding
more good or bad features.
     2. Travelling by air .Give your counter reasons in fever of flying.
It is very interesting to travel. You can see other countries, continents,
you acquainted with other people , their  traditions and customs. You can
travel by car , by train, by air, by sea. If you like to see the nature, and
you enjoy the process of travelling and you have a route it will be easier if
you travel by car. Travelling by train is usually chosen by people who have
enough time to get from one place to another . Travelling by air usually
preferred by people who haven’t got much time and they must quickly get to
another city, country or continent. Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen
who have to communicate with people from other countries. Every day they must
sign a lot of contracts. Sometimes  they have to sign several contracts
within one day ,for example in France and in Spain .And if there were no
planes it would be impossible. Each of us has a lot of relatives and friends.
Some of them live in other countries. For example you live in Russia, Moscow
and you have some relatives in France or in Britain. You certainly can get to
GB by train , and by sea but it will take you a lot of time. It would be
easier if you choose a plane. Imagine that something has happened to your
friends and you are need very immediately. The plane will help you in this
case. Nowadays we try to use fast means of travelling  such as a modern high-
speed railway in France and certainly  planes. As for trains there are
railway stations , for planes there are airports. In every airport there are
some formalities without which you cannot come  or leave the country .At
first it is Customs. Every country has it’s  regulations. Then you are given
luggage tags and boarding passes. The last is the Passport control. When you
decide to travel by air you can buy first and economy class tickets. The
first class is more comfortable than economy and it is always more expensive
.In spite of first class tickets being very expensive have some advantages
over economy. At first it is more comfortable seats. The dinner is much
better then in economy class , and if you have bought a first class ticket
you can have 30 kg luggage free of charge. Also you have a private emergency
exit  for the first class passages only. You have one more advantage : you
can take any drinks free. Although flying by plane is very fast it has some
inconveniences. There is  a  jet-lag, a difference between the time you are
accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t be very well because of it
, but    don’t worry – it won’t take you long to get used to it. As a whole
to fly by planes  is pleasant and convenient
     3 . Speak about airport formalities
Passengers are requested to arrive at the airport 2 hors before departure
time. They must register their tickets, weigh in and register the luggage.
Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy
class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has free
luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class passengers
and 30 kg for first class passengers, excess luggage must be paid for except
for some articles that can be carried free of charge. The rules for
passengers who are going abroad are similar in most countries but sometimes
there might be a slight difference in formalities. If , for instance , you
are supposed to begin with going through the Customs, you’d better fill in
the customs declaration before you talk to the customs officer. He may ask
any passenger routine questions about declare the things, spirits , tobacco ,
presents. Then you do to the check – in counter where your ticket is looked
at, your things are weighed and labelled. The next formality is filling in
the immigration  form and going through passport control. The form has to be
filled in block letters . You write your name, nationality, permanent address
and the purpose of your trip. In most countries there is also a security
check when your carry-luggage is inspected. This is an anti-hijacking
measure, and anything that might be dangerous or disturbing to other
passengers must be handed to one of the crew and only returned to the owner
after the plane has reached its destination. After fulfilling all these
formalities you go to the departure lounge where you can have a snack , read
a paper buy something in the duty-free shop and wait for the announcement to
board the plane. Some of these formalities are repeated when you arrive at
your destination. The customer declaration and the immigration form are often
filled in on board the plane. At the airport you may be met by a specially
trained dog who’ll make sure that you are not earring drugs, and the
immigration officer might want to know on whose invitation you are coming and
whether you have a return ticket. There is one inconvenience you have to be
prepared for when you travelling long distances by plane. It’s a difference
between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t
be feeling very well because of it, but don’t worry – it won’t take you long
to get used to it.
4. Staying  at the hotel. Speak about everyday services available at the hotel.
When you come to another country or city you can stay at your friend’s house
or flat. But if you haven’t got any relatives or friends you may stay at a
hotel. There are 2 sorts of hotels: at the seaside and  in city The hotels at
the seaside usually occupied big territory . And  the services and facilities
are usually better there then in city hotels. You can get more things free.
Also at the seaside hotels food is served usually 2 of 3 times a day and in
city hotels you can get only breakfast . Before you arrive somewhere you can
make arrangements about a room of the hotel you’ll choose. You can call at
the hotel of send them a fax or telegram which numbers you can find in the
advertisement. If you haven’t done it , when  you arrive at the hotel it is
necessary to come up to the reception   desk .There a person can order a
room. First of all you must fill in an arrival card. In this card you must
gave information about yourself. Your name and surname, telephone number and
address besides it is necessary  to point out how long are you going to stay
here. Also among the seaside hotels the best with club system . Usually  on
the territory of such hotels there are 4-5 storied building with single
rooms, double rooms, and suites and separate there are family cottages. The
area of such hotels is usually very big about 50hectores  . Club system
allows to take free any , soft drinks, food 24 hours a day, because
everything is included into the price of  the tour. There are all day room
services , dry cleaners, laundries. In the rooms there is a refrigerator,
bathroom, a satellite TV and direct dial phone. Also  such hotels have their
own  place on the beach with comfortable sun beds .You can spend time riding
horses, playing    tennis, golf, polo, visiting shops, which  are usually
situated in the territory of the hotels. In the evenings you can go to the
disco or to the restaurant . The menu in the restaurants including different
cuisine’s  such as :French, Spanish, Chinese, Turkish, Russian and so  on.
You can order a yacht tour to some historical places (if any) or something
like that. After visiting such hotels you’ll return home  happy and
refreshed.
     5. Speak about foods you like and dislike. Describe any recipe.
Meals play an important role in human life. Because it contained
indispensable ingredients for life activity of our organism. Such as
dioxides, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are contained in fish,
vegetables, fruits, meat and other food stuffs . To be healthy man should eat
3 times a day. For lunch people usually eat buiscuits, toasts, sandwiches,
cheese and drink coffee or tea with cream and sugar accordingly to your taste
. For dinner we eat some soup, salad and fowl, fish or meat with garnish.
Many people have to eat out of home in restaurants or in cafes . In such
places you can order French fries, hamburgers, cheeseburgers, crisps, pizza
and many others, but these meals are very harmful for our health. There are
people who like salty and spicy or sweet   food. Also we all like roasted and
grilled food , but such it is also very harmful . Nowadays  a lot of people
believe  that only healthy  food must be eaten. They don’t eat spaghetti,
chops, sausages,  grilled meat fish, fowl. They prefer to eat  boiled and
stewed vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower,  egg-plants, carrots. They
certainly eat meat and fish but only boiled. Also there are people who don’t
eat meat or fowl at all . They are vegetarians. But it isn’t good, because in
fish and in meat there are some ingredients without which our health won’t be
strong. In all big cities you can find  Indian, Chinese Japanese  and other
oriental restaurants . Nowadays you can order you favourite meals by
telephone, but despite  it a lot of people like to cook themselves .Before
cooking something you must buy some food stuffs. In big cities there are
supermarkets and department  stores where you can buy everything you need in
daily life: from a tooth brush up to cars and furniture. Certainly you can
buy there any you food stuffs. like Also there are food shops and markets. In
markets it is better to buy greens, vegetables and fruits. Meat, fowl and
fish it is safer to bay in shops because they must  be kept refrigerator. As
for me I like salty and spicy food . For example I’ll never refuse to eat
grilled meat or stuffed egg-plants. I like caviar, shrimps, pate, bacon, cold
pork.
     6.Speak about shopping in GB.
Europe dictates a fashion to the whole world. Nowadays France is the centre
of fashion. But in the last century  her place was occupied by GB. At that
time a lot of new  modern shops appeared. Now their branches are situated all
over the world. you can find . The Most famous of them in London in Oxford
Street,  Regent Street, and Knightsbridge . Besides book’s ,clothes’, food
shops in GB there are a lot of supermarkets and department stores where you
can buy everything  from a button to a car and furniture.
Here there are the most famous British shops:
     The Body shop: sells perfumes, soap, shampoo and skin-care
products for men and for women.
     Dillons :was open in 1936 as the bookshop to the University of London.
     Next: is the a chain of Popular fashion clothes shops for men and
women. It became famous for the suits which were worn by the businessmen and
businesswomen at the beginning of the 1980s.
     W.H.Smith: is a national chain of shops which sells newspapers and
magazines. Smith’s also sell books, videos, stationary, pens and office
equipment.
     Harrods : is the famous London department store
     Sainbury’s  supermarkets are one of the leaders in food and drink
selling in Britain.
But the most famous of British shops all over the world is Marks & Spencer .
It  attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to millionaires .
Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime Minister are just a few of
its famous customers. Last year it made a profit of £529 million, which
is more than £ 10 million a week. It all started 109 years ago, when a
young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had a stall in Leeds market. He didn’t
have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons, and few
shoelaces. Above his stall he put the notice: “Don’t ask how much-it’s a penny.
10 years later , he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in
many towns in the north of England. Today there are 564 brunches of M&S all
over the world – in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium, and Hungary. In
M&S the best  selling clothes are :for women: jumpers, bras, and knickers;
for men: shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits; for children;
underwear and socks. Best – sells in food include fresh chickens, bread,
vegetables and sandwiches. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases its
business on three principles: good value, good quality, and good service. Also
it changes with the times –once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it’s food,
furniture and flowers as well .Top fashion designers advise on styles of
clothes.
     7.Speak about your experience of shopping abroad, (if any) and in your city.  
In the  world there are a lot of women who like to do shopping . they can
spend all day visiting different supermarkets and department stores searching
to new clothes and trying on them. As for me I don’t like shopping. I think
that there are a lot of other interesting things in the world. Many people
like to buy things in other countries , because they remind them later of
their nice trip. When I was in Finland I saw a lot of big supermarkets such
as Stockman, Sockas and Galagen. Also I visited the biggest shopping centre
in Europe – Etackeskas. European shops  usually occupies 4-5 storied
buildings . On the ground  or first floor you can buy any food staffs you
like. On the second floor there are lady’s and men’s departments . On the
third  level you can usually buy clothes for children. We try to buy
different things and clothes abroad because we think or know that’s their
quality of them is better in European countries  than in ours. The service in
them certainly better than in ours shops because it began to develop much
earlier than in Russia. When a  customer comes to a shop the shop assistant
will always answer any  question and try to do his best for you . Also every
season there is a week or two of sales. In Europe the biggest sales begin two
weeks before Christmas. Since  for standards of living in Europe are higher
and the economic situation  is better than in our country it is much more
convenient to pay the bill in shops . In all civilised countries the system
of credit cards is introduce . Due to it you needn’t carry  money with you at
all,  a credit card allows to pay for everything  from the cars and to
buttons. Not long ago the credit card system come to Russia. Every day there
is  more shops permit  clients to pay  bill by credit cards. For the last 10
years in Moscow  modern shops have been opened  such as Okhotniy rayd ,
Petrovskiy Pasazh, Gallery Nautilus, Ramstore and many others .  The level of
these shops is close to the European one. . I hope that with every year a lot
of new boutiques appeared and they will  sell the Russian made goods.
     8. You like your flat and your district. Speak in fever of the place.
I live in Moscow, in North  Orekhovo - Borisovo district. It is situated in
the South of the city. In my district there is  Tzarizansky park . It is a
very old park and it has it own interesting history. Catherine I liked the
village called “Black mud” and she ordered architectures Kazakov and Bazhenov
to build there a residence, but as the name of the village was not
appropriate for a summer residence of empress it was decided to rename it to
Tzarizano. When everything was ready Catherine I didn’t like the building of
Big Palace  and the architects began to remake it but they didn’t finish
their work. For the  many years it remained unfinished. But about 5 or 7
years ago old buildings were restored. A lot of people like to walk there and
breathe fresh air . It is very important that in our district there is a
forest. It cleans the air. Ecology conditions in our district are bad as the
winds from the North bring polluted air, also in our district there are a lot
of industrial projects. For example near my house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat”
are situated. I live in a 3 room flat. There are 2 bedrooms, a living room,
and a kitchen. In my room there is a wardrobe , a bed, a desk ,a computer, a
tape recorder and some pot plants. In the kitchen there is a table with
chairs , a refrigerator  , a microwave oven ,  roaster, and a TV set. In the
living room there is a sofa, a TV set , a hi-fi system and a table with
chairs. Besides Tzarizansky park there is another historical place in our
district Kolomenskoe .It is a park too. In warm days it is very pleasant to
walk there with friends . I like my district because nowadays a lot of new
interesting  shops and places opened here and in has become more modern.
Certainly it is a pity that out district is  situated very far from the
center of Moscow and it takes me  a lot of time to get there, but near my
house there is Domodedovskaya metro station which is very good. The only
thing I wish is a better ecological situation in our district and then
everything will be OK  .
     9. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city , in a
small town and in the country
The city is the place where all industrial cultural and educational centers
are situated. In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs, cinemas
,big shops and  hospitals, comfortable modern flats. People try to live in
cites because all necessary objects are situated near by. For example if you
get ill a hospital or  a chemist’s shop will be situated near your home in
the city, and if you live in the country it will  be hard to find any medical
help very quicly . Also in big cites  you can fiend all sorts of
entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks and so on. Many people
like to spend their free time in them because it  helps them to relax and
bring them a lot of pleasure. It is really convenient  that everything you
need in daily life  is situated near you. One of the most important comforts
of big cites is that you can fast get everywhere you like by underground,
bus, trolley bas. Also in big cities there is electricity therefore you can
use electrical devices  such as TV sets, computers, radio, microwave owen,
refrigerators and so on. One more thing, without which it would be impossible
to live today is the telephone and  where there is a telephone there is also
Internet. The connection has huge value in  the life of  people and we have
got used to it to such extent , that it there is no  telephone we feel
uncomfortable and lonely. Yes , it is really comfortable, and at first glance
everything  is good  but nowadays   big cites there are a great amount of
cars and factories Big cites suffer of overpopulation, dirty air, and water,
The streets became noisy and after hard working day people cannot  relax.
People try to do everything to go to the countryside because only there they
can find quietness . Every holiday and every week-end people try to leave
their houses  and go to the country. I live in Orekhovo-Borisovo North
district  . The ecological conditions here are very bad because near my house
a lot of  industrial objects are  situated. For example near the Tobacco
factory “DUCAT” is situated . As for me I prefer to live in a big city
because A lot of  big shops are situated near my home, but I also like to
spend my holidays in  the country because after living in the city for about
9 months I begin to get tired.
     10. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in modern flat and
in the country house.
Nowadays a lot of people live in big cities because it is very comfortable,
as you can find everything you need in everyday life very quickly. But too
many people cannot  live there because there isn’t enough place for
everybody. People have to live in high buildings  in modern flats. In Moscow
we can see 12-17 storied buildings with one, two and tree- room flats. There
are modern  facilities such as telephone,  central heating, running water,
electricity and gas. You can use  such electricity devices as : TV sets, hi-
fi systems, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, microwave ovens, electric
irons and many others. They help in our daily life .There are people who
don’t like to live in cities they prefer to be alone in a small country house
near a river or a lake . They like to walk in the morning in the forest and
breath fresh air, and  enjoy silence. Many people will gladly spend a few
days in the country but despite of it we have got used to achievements of
civilization that when we  find out ourselves  appear fare from them we do
not know what to do and feel lonely . Besides in Russian villages there
aren’t any conveniences at all. Certainly there is electricity but  usually
it is not  on . Also there isn’t central heating and in  winters people have
to burn oven as in the last century. In the day time you can walk in the
garden , but in the evening  everything you can do is to read a books by a
candle. To living  in such conditions is very hard for a city dweller.
Nowadays a lot of people try to build big houses near cities and spend their
week-ends there. Because besides all facilities there are some
inconveniences. The main  reason why  people leave cities are bad ecological
conditions. Noise, polluted air and water makes health of the man weak. After
hard working day people come home and want to rest but nose from heavy
traffic in streets will not allow to do that. As for me I prefer to live in
the city, because I feel uncomfortably. When I’m  fare from telephone,
electricity and other facilities. People invented one more way to communicate
with other people it is internet. Without the telephone and electricity I
cannot use it . I like city but some times it is pleasant to stay in the
country for a while.
     11.Speak about environment  problems and protection. What should be done?
The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading
disease of civilisation. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars,
earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest
dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next
several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable. Overpopulation,
pollution and energy consumption have created such planet-wide problems as
massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and the global warming
that is believed to be caused by the greenhouse effect. The seas are in
danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical
fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the
North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If
nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.
Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out for ever. If
nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today will have
become extinct twenty years from now. Air population is a very serious
problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening- equivalent to
smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City
and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union. Industrial enterprises emit tons
of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our
planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains. An
even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how
tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. People are beginning
to realise that environmental problems are not somebody else's. They join and
support various international organisation and green parties. In my district
the ecology conditions in our district are bad as the winds from the North
bring polluted air, also in our district there are a lot of industrial
projects. For example near my house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat” are situated..
Human  life  is the most important and Polluted air, poising water ,
wastelands, noise, smoke, gas, exhaust and lead in leaves all influence on
your half makes it weak. To improve ecological conditions it is necessary to
put abstersive equipment on factories both to land  more f trees and to put
hums  to blocking boards near to motorways.
     12. Imagine you are going on a trip around the world. Make a route for
your trip showing where you’ll visit
Last year I made a round-the-world voyage and I visited many English speaking
countries such as GB, Canada, USA and Australia . I was in the USA in
Washington, D.C. it is the capital of the Untied States. I saw some
historical monuments and places. The Capitol, The White House, Museums and
Galleries Monuments and Memorials. Also I visited an Australia it is situated
in the south-west of the Pacific Ocean, occupies  the continent of Australia
and a great number of islands near it. Australia is a continent-island washed
by the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The capital is Canberra. But the oldest
city is Sidney , it was founded in 1788.  GB is situated on the British Isles
and it has a very good geographical position as it lies on the crossways of
the sea routs from Europe to other parts of the world. The capital of GB is
London. It is the world’s most enjoyable cities. There are a lot of
interesting historical monuments in it such as :Houses of Parliament,
Westminster Abbey, St. Paul’s Cathedral, Trafalgar Square and The Tower of
London. Westminster Abbey  is a national shrine where the kings and queens
are crowned and famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in
1050, the abbey was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates
largely from the time of henry III who began to rebuild the church , a task
which lasted nearly 300 years. Since William I almost every English monarch
has been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials
of many of Britain’s most eminent citizens. The capital of Canada is Ottawa.
It is rather a small, quiet city. Here there are no large industrial
factories, but there are a lot of ministries, embassies of  foreign states,
private residences of  officials and diplomats. In the centre of Ottawa the
parliament of Canada is a little bit diminished replica of a the
parliamentary buildings in London . In the city there are two universities,
English and French, large libraries, the National gallery, the National
museum, the research and development centre.
     .13. Speak about the state of medical servers in Russia. How do you
imagine the medical care of the future?  
In our country medical service is provided free of charge. There is a wide
network of local out- patient clinics. If a person falls ill he calls a local
physician. The doctor visits his patient. And examines him. He usually sounds
the patient’s chest, listens to his heart, fells his pulse and sometimes
sahes , his blood pressure. He also examines his throat and tonque . After
the physician has diagnose the case the prescribes medicine for the descase.
Then he writes out a search leave and gives advice  If the patient follows
the doctor’s instructions , it doesn’t take him long to recover. As soon as
he feels better , he comes to the local out-patient clinic for final
examination. If the case in complicated and the patient needs shecial
treatment he is taken to the hospital.The situation in medical service has
changed as compared to the previory years. Medicine has  become very
expensive. Treatment and special tests or surgery cost a lot of money. Mist
people cannot afford being  operated. Nowadays we cannot say that medical
service is must be given by the government to run medical service properly.
Hospitals and clinics should be better equipped. Many of them are old-
fashioned and need repairing. Doctors and nurses are overworked and
underpaid. One of the positive features, which still exists in Russia,
medical service in regular medical check-up of school children. It is very
important to prevent illness. They are vaccinated and examined by
specialists. I think that medical service should be free of charge for all
people.