Аl-Faràbi, Abu Nasr (872-950)
Persian Islamic neoplatonist who employed Aristotelian logic in support of his
arguments for the existence of god and used Plato's Republic
as the model for his own description of civil society in Principles of
Citizens of the Virtuous City.
Ibn Sina, Abù'Alì al-Husayn (980-1037)
Persian Islamic philosopher and physician whose Kitab Al-Shifa (
Book of Healing) commented on the philosophy of
Aristotle. As a leading neoplatonist, Ibn Sina emphasized the causal
necessity that characterizes emanations from the divine, but supposed that
human knowledge can best be achieved by mystical illumination.
Philosophical system developed by Plotinus and others. Nominally derived from
Plato's metaphysics, neoplatonic philosophy regards the natural world
as a series of emanations from the nature of god. During most of the medieval
period, this system was the most influential version of Plato's thought.
A tradition, dating from the medieval period, concerned with promoting and
defending significant portions of the philosophy of Aristotle.