Курсовая: China's population
China Sticks to Population Control Policy in New Century
|President on Population Control, Resources and Environmental Protection||p.17|
China is a multinational country, with a population composed of a large
number of ethnic and linguistic groups. Almost all its inhabitants are of
Mongoloid stock: thus, the basic classification of the population is not so
much Han ethnic as linguistic. The Han (Chinese), the largest group,
(Chinese) outnumber the minority groups or minority nationalities in every
province or autonomous region except Tibet and Sinkiang. The Han. therefore,
form the great homogeneous mass of the Chinese people, sharing the same
culture, the same traditions, and the same written language. Some 55
minority groups are spread over approximately 60 percent of the total area of
the country. Where these minority groups are found in large numbers, they
have been given some semblance of autonomy and self-government; autonomous
regions of several types have been established on the basis of the
geographical distribution of nationalities.
The government takes great credit for its treatment of these minorities,
including care for their economic well-being, the raising of their living
standards, the provision of educational facilities, the promotion of their
national languages and cultures, and the raising of their levels of
literacy, as well as for the introduction of a written language where none
existed previously. In this connection it may be noted that, of the 50-odd
minority languages, only 20 had written forms before the coming of the
Communists; and only relatively few written languages, for example,
Mongolian. Tibetan. Uighur, Kazakh, Tai, and Korean, were in everyday use.
Other written languages were used chiefly for religious purposes and by a
limited number of persons. Educational institutions for national minorities
are a feature of many large cities, notably Peking, Wuhan, Ch'eng-tu. and
Four major language families are represented in China: the Sino-Tibetan. Altaic.
Indo-European, and Austro-Asiatic. The Sino-Tibetan family, both numerically
and in the extent of its distribution, is the most important; within this
family, Han Chinese is the most widely spoken language. Although unified by
their tradition, the written characters of their language, and many cultural
traits, the Han speak several mutually unintelligible dialects and display
marked regional differences. By far the most important Chinese tongue is the
Mandarin, or p'u-l'ung hua, meaning "ordinary language" or "common
language". There are three variants of Mandarin. The first of these is the
northern variant, of which the Peking dialect, or Peking hua, is
typical and which is spoken to the north of the Tsinling Mountains-Huai River
line: as the most widespread Chinese tongue, it has officially been adopted as
the basis for a national language. The second is the western variant, also
known as the Ch'eng-tu or Upper Yangtze variant; this is spoken in the Szechwan
Basin and in adjoining parts of south-west China. The third is the southern
variant, also known as the Nanking or Lower Yangtze variant, which is spoken in
northern Kiangsu and in southern and central Anhwei Related to Mandarin are the
Hunan, or Hsiang, dialect, spoken by people in central and southern Hunan, and
the Kan dialect. The Hui-chou dialect, spoken in southern Anhwei, forms an
enclave within the southern Mandarin area.
Less intelligible to Mandarin speakers are the dialects of the south-east
coastal region, stretching from Shanghai to Canton. The. most important of
these is the Wu dialect, spoken in southern Kiangsu and in Chekiang. This is
followed, to the south, by the Fu-chou, or Min. dialect of northern and
central Fukien and by the Amoy-Swatow dialect of southern Fukien and
easternmost Kwangtung. The Hakka dialect of southernmost Kiangsi and north-
eastern Kwangtung has a rather scattered pattern of distribution. Probably
the best known of these southern dialects is Cantonese, which is spoken in
central and western Kwangtung and in southern Kwangsi a dialect area in which
a large proportion of overseas Chinese originated.
In addition to the Han, the Manchu and the Hui (Chinese Muslims) also speak
Mandarin and use Chinese characters. Manchu The Hui are descendants of Chinese
who adopted Islam and Hui when it penetrated into China in the 7th century.
They are intermingled with the Han throughout much of the country and are
distinguished as Hui only in the area of their heaviest concentration, the Hui
Autonomous Region of Ningsia. Other Hui communities are organised as
autonomous prefectures (tzu-chih-cfiou) in Sinkiang and as autonomous
counties (tzu-chih-hsien) in Tsinghai. Hopeh. Kweichow, and Yunnan.
There has been a growing tendency for the Hui to move from their scattered
settlements into the area of major concentration, possibly, as firm adherents
of Islam, in order to facilitate intermarriage with other Muslims.
The Manchu declare themselves to be descendants of the Manchu warriors who
invaded China in the 17th century and founded the Ch'ing dynasty (1644-
1911/12). Ancient Manchu is virtually a dead language, and the Manchu have
been completely assimilated into Han Chinese culture. They are found mainly
in North China and the Northeast, but they form no separate autonomous areas
above the commune level. Some say the Koreans of the Northeast, who form an
autonomous prefecture in eastern Kirin, cannot be assigned with certainty to
any of the standard language classifications.
The Chuang-chia, or Chuang, are China's largest minority group. Most of them
live in the Chuang Autonomous Region of Kwangsi. They are also represented in
national autonomous areas in neighbouring Yunnan and Kwangtung. They depend
mainly on the cultivation of rice for their livelihood In religion they are
animists, worshiping particularly the spirits of their ancestors, The Puyi
(Chung-chia) group are concentrated in southern Kweichow, where they share
an autonomous prefecture with the Miao group. The T'ung group are settled in
small communities in Kwangsi and Kweichow; they share with the Miao group an
autonomous prefecture set up in south-east Kweichow in 1956. The Tai group
are concentrated in southern Yunnan and were established in two autonomous
prefectures—one whose population is related most closely to the Tai of
northern Thailand and another whose Tai are related to the Shan people of
Burma. The Li of Hai-nan Island form a separate group of the Chinese-Tai
language branch. They share with the Miao people a district in southern Hai-
Tibetans are distributed over the entire Tsinghai-Tibetan plateau. Outside
Tibet, Tibetan minorities constitute autonomous prefectures and autonomous
counties. There are five Tibetan autonomous prefectures in Tsinghai, two in
Szechwan, and one each in Yunnan and Kansu. The Tibetans still keep their
tribal characteristics, but few of them are nomadic. Though essentially
farmers, they also raise livestock and, as with other tribal peoples in the
Chinese far west, also hunt to supplement their food supply. The major
religion of Tibet has been Tibetan Buddhism since about the 17th century;
before 1959 the social and political institutions of this region were still
based largely on this faith. Many of the Yi (Lolo) were concentrated in two
autonomous prefectures—one in southern Szechwan and another in northern
Yunnan. They raise crops and sometimes keep flocks and herds.
The Miao-Yao branch, with their major concentration in Kweichow, are
distributed throughout the central south and south-western provinces and are
found also in some small areas in east China. They are subdivided into many
rather distinct groupings. Most of them have now lost their traditional
tribal traits through the influence of the Han, and it is only their language
that serves to distinguish them as tribal peoples. Two-thirds of the Miao
are settled in Kweichow, where they share two autonomous prefectures with the
T'ung and Puyi groups. The Yao people are concentrated in the Kwangsi-
Kwangtung-Hunan border area.
In some areas of China, especially in the south-west, there are many
different ethnic groups that are geographically intermixed. Because of
language barriers and different economic structures, these peoples all
maintain their own cultural traits and live in relative isolation from one
another. In some places the Han are active in the towns and in the fertile
river valleys, while the minority peoples depend for their livelihood on more
primitive forms of agriculture or on grazing their livestock on hillsides and
mountains. The vertical distribution of these peoples is in zones usually the
higher they live, the less complex
their way of life. In former times they did not mix well with one another,
but now, with highways penetrating deep into their settlements, they have
better opportunities to communicate with other groups and are also enjoying
better living conditions.
While the minorities of the Sino-Tibetan language family are thus
concentrated in the south and south-west, the second major language family
the Altaic is represented entirely by minorities in north-western and
northern China. The Altaic family falls into three branches: Turkic,
Mongolian, and Manchu-Tungus. The Turkic language branch is by far the most
numerous of the three Altaic branches. The Uighur, who are Muslims, form the
largest Turkic minority. They are distributed over chains of oases in the
Tarim Basin and in the Dzungarian Basin of Sinkiang. They mainly depend on
irrigation agriculture for a livelihood. Other Turkic minorities in Sinkiang
are splinter groups of nationalities living in neighbouring nations of
Central Asia, including the Kazakh and Kyrgyz. All these groups are adherents
of Islam. The Kazakh and Kyrgyz are pastoral nomadic peoples, still showing
traces of tribal organisation. The Kazakh live mainly in north-western and
north-eastern Sinkiang as herders, retiring to their camps in the valleys
when winter comes; they are established in the 1-li-ha-sa-k'o (Hi Kazakh)
Autonomous Prefecture. The Kyrgyz are high-mountain pastoralists and are
concentrated mainly in the westernmost part of Sinkiang.
The Mongolians, who are by nature a nomadic people are the most widely
dispersed of the minority nationalities of China. Most of them are
inhabitants of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Small Mongolian and
Mongolian-related groups of people are scattered throughout the vast area
from Sinkiang through Tsinghai and Kansu and into the provinces of the
Northeast (Kirin, Heilungkiang, and Liaoning). In addition to the Inner
Mongolia Autonomous Region, the Mongolians are established in two autonomous
prefectures in Sinkiang, a joint autonomous prefecture with Tibetans and
Kazakh in Tsinghai, and several autonomous counties in the western area of
the Northeast. Some of them retain their tribal divisions and are
pastoralists, but large numbers of Mongolians engage in sedentary
agriculture, and some of them combine the growing of crops with herding. The
tribes, who are dependent upon animal husbandry, travel each year around the
pastureland—grazing sheep, goats, horses, cattle, and camels—and then return
to their point of departure. A few take up hunting and fur trapping in order
to supplement their income. The Mongolian language consists of several
dialects, but in religion it is a unifying force; most Mongolians are
believers in Tibetan Buddhism. A few linguistic minorities in China belong to
neither the Sino-Tibetan nor the Altaic language family. The Tajik of
westernmost Sinkiang are related to the population of Tajikistan and belong
to the Iranian branch of the Indo-European family. The Kawa people of the
China-Burma border area belong to the Mon-Khmer branch of the Austro-Asiatic
Historical records show that, as long ago as 800 вс, in the early years of
the Chou dynasty, China was already inhabited by about 13,700,000 people.
Until the last years The census of the Hsi (Western) Han dynasty, about ad 2,
comparatively accurate and complete registers of population were kept, and
the total population in that year was given as 59,600,000. This first Chinese
census was intended mainly as a preparatory step toward the levy of a poll
tax. Many members of the population, aware that a census might work to their
disadvantage, managed to avoid reporting; this explains why all subsequent
population figures were unreliable until 1712. In that year the Emperor
declared that an increased population would not be subject to tax; population
figures thereafter gradually became more accurate.
During the later years of the Pei (Northern) Sung dynasty, in the early 12th
century, when China was already in the heyday of its economic and cultural
development, the total population began to exceed 100,000,000. Later,
uninterrupted and large-scale invasions from the north reduced the country's
population. When national unification returned with the advent of the Ming
dynasty, the census was at first strictly conducted. The population of China,
according to a registration compiled in 1381, was quite close to the one
registered in ad 2.
From the 15th century onward, the population increased steadily; this
increase was interrupted by wars and natural disasters in the mid-17th
century and slowed by the internal strife and foreign invasions in the
century that preceded the Communist takeover in 1949. During the 18th century
China enjoyed a lengthy period of peace and prosperity, characterized by
continual territorial expansion and an accelerating population increase. In
1762 China had a population of more than 200,000.000. and by 1834 the
population had doubled. It should be noted that during this period there was
no concomitant increase in the amount of cultivable land; from this time on.
land hunger became a growing problem. After 1949 sanitation and medical care
greatly improved, epidemics were brought under control, and the younger
generation became much healthier. Public hygiene also improved, resulting in
a death rate that declined faster than the birth rate and a rate of
population growth that speeded up again. Population reached 1,000.000.000 in
the early 1980s.
Now China has a population of 1,295.33 million. Compared with the population
of 1,133.68 million from the 1990 population census (with zero hour of July
1, 1990 as the reference time), the total population of the 31 provinces,
autonomous regions and municipalities and the servicemen of the mainland of
China increased by 132.15 million persons, or 11.66 percent over the past 10
years and 4 months. The average annual growth was 12.79 million persons, or a
growth rate of 1.07 percent.
The continually growing population poses major problems for the government.
Faced with difficulties in obtaining an adequate food supply and in
combating the generally low standard of living, the authorities sponsored
Drive a drive for birth control in 1955-58. A second attempt at for birth
population control began in 1962, when advocacy of late control
marriages and the use of contraceptives became prominent parts of the
program. The outbreak of the Cultural Revolution interrupted this second
family-planning drive, but in 1970 a third and much stricter program was
initiated. This program attempted to make late marriage and family
limitation obligatory, and it culminated in 1979 in efforts to implement a
policy of one child per family.
Other developments affected the rate of population growth more than the first
two official family-planning campaigns. For example, although family planning
had been rejected by Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung)
in 1958, the Great Leap Forward that he initiated in that year (see below
The economy) caused a massive famine that resulted in more deaths than
births and a reduction of population in 1960. By 1963 recovery from the famine
produced the highest rate of population increase since 1949, at more than 3
percent, although the second birth-control campaign had already begun.
Since the initiation of the third family-planning program in 1970, however,
state efforts have been much more effective. China's population growth rate
is now unusually low for a developing country, although the huge size of its
population still results in a large annual net population growth.
Below I described the distribution of China’s population by different
I. Sex Composition.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and
municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 653.55 million
persons or 51.63 percent were males, while 612.28 million persons or 48.37
percent were females. The sex ratio (female=100) was 106.74.
II. Age Composition.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and
municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 289.79 million
persons were in the age group of 0-14, accounting for 22.89 percent of the
total population; 887.93 million persons in the age group of 15-64,
accounting for 70.15 percent and 88.11 million persons in the age group of 65
and over, accounting for 6.96 percent. As compared with the results of the
1990 population census, the share of people in the age group of 0-14 was down
by 4.80 percentage points, and that for people aged 65 and over was up by
1.39 percentage points.
III. Composition of Nationalities.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and
municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 1,159.40 million
persons or 91.59 percent were of Han nationality, and 106.43 million persons
or 8.41 percent were of various national minorities. Compared with the 1990
population census, the population of Han people increased by 116.92 million
persons, or 11.22 percent; while the population of various national
minorities increased by 15.23 million persons, or 16.70 percent.
IV. Composition of Educational Attainment.
Of the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities and servicemen of
the mainland of China, 45.71 million persons had finished university
education (referring to junior college and above); 141.09 million persons had
received senior secondary education (including secondary technical school
education); 429.89 million persons had received junior secondary education
and 451.91 million persons had had primary education (the educated persons
included graduates and students in schools).
Compared with the 1990 population census, the following changes had taken
place in the number of people with various educational attainments of every
100,000 people: number of people with university education increased to 3,611
from 1,422; number of people with senior secondary education increased to
11,146 from 8,039; number of people with junior secondary education increased
from 23,344 to 33,961; and number of people with primary education decreased
from 37,057 to 35,701.
Of the people enumerated in the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and
municipalities and servicemen of the mainland of China, 85.07 million persons
were illiterate (i.e. people over 15 years of age who can not read or can
read very little). Compared with the 15.88 percent of illiterate people in
the 1990 population census, the proportion had dropped to 6.72 percent, or
down by 9.16 percentage points.
V. Urban and Rural Population.
In the 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities of the mainland of
China, there were 455.94 million urban residents, accounting for 36.09
percent of the total population; and that of rural residents stood at 807.39
million, accounting for 63.91 percent. Compared with the 1990 population
census, the proportion of urban residents rose by 9.86 percentage points.
Following are the results from the advance tabulation on the geographic
distribution of population from the fifth national population census of
Because of complex natural conditions, the population of China is quite
unevenly distributed. Population density varies strikingly, with the greatest
contrast occurring between the eastern half of China and the lands of the
west and the north-west. Exceptionally high population densities occur in the
Yangtze Delta, in the Pearl River Delta, and on the Ch'eng-tu Plain of the
western Szechwan Basin. Most of the high-density areas are coterminous with
the alluvial plains on which intensive agriculture is centred.
In contrast, the isolated, extensive western and frontier regions, which are
much larger than any European nation, are sparsely populated. Extensive
uninhabited areas include the extremely high northern part of Tibet, the
sandy wastes of the central Tarim and eastern Dzungarian basins in Sinkiang,
and the barren desert and mountains east of Lop Nor.
In the 1950s the government became increasingly aware of the importance of
the frontier regions and initiated a drive for former members of the military
and young intellectuals to settle there. Consequently, the population has
increased, following the construction of new railways and highways that
traverse the wasteland; a number of small mining and industrial towns have
also sprung up.
|Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region||23.76|
(excluding the population in Jinmen and Mazu and a few other islands)
|Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region||44.89|
|Tibet Autonomous Region||2.62|
|Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region||5.62|
|Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region||19.25|
|Hongkong Special Administrative Region||6.78|
|Macao Special Administrative Region||0.44|
|Taiwan Province and Jinmen, Mazu and a few other islands of Fujian Province||22.28|
Migrations have occurred often throughout the history of China. Sometimes
they took place because a famine or political disturbance would cause the
depopulation of an area already intensively cultivated, after which people in
adjacent crowded regions would move in to occupy the deserted land. Sometime
between 1640 and 1646 a peasant rebellion broke out in Szechwan, and there
was a great loss of life. People from Hupeh and Shensi then entered Szechwan
to fill the vacuum, and the movement continued until the 19th century.
Again, during the middle of the 19th century, the Taiping Rebellion caused
another large-scale disruption of population. Many people in the Lower
Yangtze were massacred by the opposing armies, and the survivors suffered
from starvation. After the defeat of the rebellion, people from Hupeh, Hunan,
and Honan moved into the depopulated areas of Kiangsu. Anhwei. and Chekiang,
where farmland was lying uncultivated for want of labour. Similar examples
are provided by the Nien Rebellion in the Huai River region in the 1850s and
'60s, the Muslim rebellions in Shensi and Kansu in the 1860s and '70s, and
the great Shensi and Shansi famine of 1877-78.
In modern history the domestic movement of the Han to Manchuria (now known as
the Northeast) is the most Migration significant. Even before the
establishment of the Ch'ing to dynasty in 1644, Manchu soldiers launched
raids into Manchuria North China and captured Han labourers, who were then
obliged to settle in Manchuria. In 1668 the area was closed to further Han
migration by an Imperial decree, but this ban was never effectively enforced.
By 1850. Han settlers had secured a position of dominance in their
colonisation of Manchuria. The ban was later partially' lifted, partly
because the Manchu rulers were harassed by disturbances among the teeming
population of China proper and partly because the Russian Empire time and
again tried to invade sparsely populated and thus weakly defended Manchuria.
The ban was finally removed altogether in 1878, but settlement was
encouraged only after 1900. The influx of people into Manchuria was
especially pronounced after 1923, and incoming farmers rapidly brought a
vast area of virgin prairie under cultivation. About two-thirds of the
immigrants entered Manchuria by sea, and one-third came overland. Because of
the severity of the winter weather, migration in the early stage was highly
seasonal, usually starting in February and continuing through the spring.
After the autumn harvest a large proportion of the farmers returned south. As
Manchuria developed into the principal industrial region of China, however,
large urban centres arose, and the nature of the migration changed. No longer
was the movement primarily one of agricultural resettlement; instead it
became essentially a rural-to-urban movement of interregional magnitude.
After 1949 the new government's efforts to foster planned migration into
interior and border regions produced noticeable results. Although the total
number of people involved in such migrations is not known, it has been
estimated that by 1980 about 25 to 35 percent of the population of such
regions and provinces as Inner Mongolia, Sinkiang, Heilungkiang. and
Tsinghai consisted of recent migrants, and migration had raised the
percentage of Han in Sinkiang from about 10 to 40 percent of the total.
Efforts to control the growth of large cities led to the resettlement of
20,000,000 urbanites in the countryside after the failure of the Great Leap
Forward and of 17,-000,000 urban-educated youths in the decade after 1968.
Within the next decade, however, the majority of these "rusticated youths"
were allowed to return to the cities, and new migration from rural areas
pushed urban population totals upward once again.
China Sticks to Population Control Policy in New Century
China will continue its efforts to control the growth of the population in
the 21 century, said Zhang Weiqing, minister of the State Family Planning
Commission on November 2, 2000.
At the annual board meeting of the Partners in Population and Development by
South-South Cooperation, which opened Thursday in Beijing, Zhang said that
keeping a low birth rate is the key task of China' s family planning program
in the coming decade.
He said that China has made it a goal to keep the population below 1.4
billion until 2010 on the basis of scientific feasibility study.
In order to realise the goal, China is persisting in popularisation and
education about family planning and contraception, and it will make efforts
to build a perfect population control system suitable for China's situation,
According to Zhang, population will continue to be a pressing issue for China
in the 21st century. The annual net population growth will be more than 10
million at the start of the new century. The population will not decline
until it reaches a peak of 1.6 billion in the middle of the 21st century,
At present, China has a large work-age population, which puts a heavy burden
on employment. The work-age population will peak at 900 million in the coming
In addition, Zhang predicts that the number of senior citizens over the age
of 60 in China will reach 130 million at the end of this year, and will
exceed 357 million in 2030, and 439 million in 2050, or a quarter of the
Zhang said that China will stick to family planning policy for a long time
depending on future population situation.
President on Population Control, Resources and Environmental Protection
Population control, resources and environmental protection will be three
crucial issues in China's march toward becoming a great power in the new
century, President Jiang Zemin told a seminar held by the Communist Party of
China Central Committee Sunday.
Jiang said that governmental decisions concerning the country's population
control, resources and environmental protection demand concerted efforts and
cooperation from all walks of life.
Jiang warned that although marked progress had been made during the 1996-2000
period, China is still facing many problems and challenges concerning
population, resources and environmental protection in the coming years.
"These issues are directly related to the country's overall development.
Failure in handling them may postpone the achievement of China's set goals in
terms of social and economic development," said Jiang.
Jiang said that the next few years will be a crucial stage for China to
stabilise its birth rate at the current low level and improve population
When dealing with population issues, governments at all levels should better
serve the people's needs, and turn the country's birth control efforts into a
cause benefiting China's huge populace, Jiang remarked.
Jiang also said that resource-related works should better serve the country's
sustainable development. Protection and rational utilisation of resources are
to be granted equal importance by administration departments.
Meanwhile, the president called for the establishment of a strict resources
administration mechanism, and urged the transformation of the traditional
resource-utilising norms, to save natural resources from being wasted.
Jiang suggested the use of new technologies and a complete monitoring system
to curb the country's long-standing environmental pollution, while
guaranteeing healthy economic development.
Also in his speech, Jiang stressed the importance of improving the regulation
of China's scarce water resources and the further construction of irrigation
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