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Сочинение: British Parlament

     British Parliament.
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch
as its Head of the State. The monarch reigns with the support of Parliament.
The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely. Everything today is done
in the Queen’s name. It is her government, her armed forces, her law courts
and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister.
Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the
monarch takes no part in the decision-making process.
Once the British Empire included a large number of countries all over the world
ruled by Britain. The process of decolonisation began in 1947 with the
independence of India, Pakistan and Ceylon. Now there is no Empire and only few
small islands belong to Britain. In 1997 the last colony, Hong Kong, was given
to China. But the British ruling classes tried not to lose influence over the
former colonies of the British Empire. An association of former members of the
British Empire and Britain was founded in 1949. It is called the 
Commonwealth. It includes many countries such as Ireland, Burma, the Sudan,
Canada, Australia, New Zealand and others. The Queen of Great Britain is also a
Head of the Commonwealth, and also the Queen of Canada, Australia, New
     The British Constitution.  The British Constitution is to a large
extent a product of many historical events and has thus evolved aver many
centuries. Unlike the constitutions of most other countries, it is not set out
in any single document. Instead it is made up of statute law, common law and
conventions. The constitution can be change by Act of Parliament, or by general
agreement to alter a convention.
     The Monarchy in Britain.  When the Queen was born on 21 April 1926, her
grandfather, King George V, was on the throne and her uncle was his heir. The
death of her grandfather and the abdication of her uncle (King Edward VIII)
brought her father to the throne in 1936 as King George VI. Elizabeth
II came to the throne an 6 February 1952 and was crowned on 2 June 1953. Since
then she made many trips to different countries and to the UK also. The Queen
is very rich, as are others members of the royal family. In addition, the
government pays for her expenses as Head of the State, for a royal yacht, train
and aircraft as well as for the upkeep of several palaces. The Queen’s image
appears on stamps, notes and coins.
     The Powers of Parliament. The three elements, which make up
Parliament –the Queen, the House of Lords and the elected House of Commons –,
are constituted on different principles. They meet together only on occasions
of symbolic significance such as the State Opening of Parliament, when the
Commons are invited by the Queen to the House of Lords.
Parliament consists of two chambers known as the House of Lords and 
the House of Commons. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the
government of the country, and they only meet together on symbolic occasions
such as coronation of a new monarch or the opening of Parliament. In reality, 
the House of Commons is the only one of the three which is true power. It is
here that new bills are introduced and debated. If the majority of the members
aren’t in favour of a bill it goes to the House of Lords to be debated
and finally to the monarch to be signed. Only than it becomes law. Although a
bill must be supported by all three bodies, the House of Lords only has
limited powers, and the monarch hasn’t refused to sign one.
     The Functions of Parliament. The main functions of Parliament are:
to pass laws; to provide, by voting taxation, the means of carrying on the work
of government; to scrutinise government policy and administration; to debate
the major issues of the day. In carrying out these functions Parliament helps
to bring the relevant facts and issues before the electorate. By custom,
Parliament is also informed before all-important international treaties and
agreements are ratified.
A Parliament has a maximum duration of five years, but in practice general
elections are usually held before the end of this term. Parliament is
dissolved and rights for a general election are ordered by the Queen on the
advice of the Prime Minister. The life of a Parliament is divided into
sessions. Each usually lasts for one year – normally beginning and ending in
October or November. The adverse number of "sitting" days in a session is
about 168 in the House of Commons and about 150 in the House of Lords. At the
start of each session the Queen's speech to Parliament outlines the
Government’s policies and proposed legislative programme.
     The House of Commons.  The House of Commons is elected and
consists of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs). At present there are 60 women,
three Asian and three black Mps. Of the 651 seats, 524 are for England, 38 for
Wales, 72 for Scotland, and 17 for Northern Ireland. Members are paid an annual
salary of ‡30,854.  The chief officer of the House of Commons is the Speaker,
elected by the MPs to preside over the House. The House of Commons plays the
major role in law making.
MPs sit on two sides of the hall, one side for the governing party and the
other for the opposition. Parliament has intervals during its work. MPs are
paid for their parliamentary work and have to attend the sittings. MPs have
to catch the Speaker's eye when they want to speak, then they rise from where
they have been sitting to address the House and must do so without either
reading a prepared speech or consulting notes.
     The House of Lords. The House of Lords consists of the Lords
Spiritual and the Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are the Archbishops of
Canterbury and York, and the 24 next most senior bishops of the Church of
England. The Lords Temporal consist of: all hereditary peers  of  England,
Scotland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom; all other life peers. Peerages,
both hereditary and life, are created by the Sovereign on the advice of the
Prime Minister. They are usually granted in recognition of service in politics
or other walks of life. In 1992 there were 1,211 members of the House of Lords,
including the two archbishops and 24 bishops. The Lords Temporal consisted of
758 hereditary peers and 408 life peers. The House is presided over by the Lord
Chancellor, who takes his place on the woolsack as the Speaker of the House.
The division of Parliament into two Houses goes back over some 700 years when
feudal assembly ruled the country. In modern times, real political power
rests in the elected House although members of the House of Lords still
occupy important cabinet posts.
     The Political Party System.  The present political system depends
upon the existence of organised political parties, each of which presents its
policies to the electorate for approval. The parties are not registered or
formally recognised in law, but in practice most candidates in elections, and
almost all winning candidates, belong to one of' the main parties.
For the last 150 years there were only 2 parties: the Conservative Party and
the Labour Party. A new party  – the Liberal Democrats – was formed in 1988.
Social Democratic Party is also the new one founded in 1981. Other  parties
include two nationalist parties, Plaid Cymru (founded in Wales in 1925) and
the Scottish National Party (founded in 1934).
The effectiveness of the party system in Parliament rests largely on the
relationship between the Government and the Opposition parties. Depending on
the relative strengths of the parties in the House of Commons, the Opposition
may seek to overthrow the Government by defeating it in a vote on a "matter
of confidence". In general, however, its aims are to contribute to the
formation of policy and  legislation  by  constructive  criticism;  to
oppose  government proposal - it considers objectionable; to seek amendments
to government bills; and to put forward its own policies in order to improve
its chances of winning the next general election.
Because of the electoral method in use, only two major parties obtain seats
in the House of Commons. People belonging to smaller political parties join
one of the larger parties and work from within to make their influence felt.
The exception to this are members of the Scottish National and Welsh
Nationalist Parties, who, because their influence votes are concentrated in
specific geographical areas, can manage to win seats although their total
support is relatively small.
     Her Majesty's Government: Prime Minister, the Cabinet. Her Majesty's
Government is  the  body  of  ministers  responsible  for the  administration
of national affairs. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Queen, and all
other ministers are  appointed  by  the  Queen  on  the  recommendation  of
the  Prime Minister. Most ministers are members of the Commons, although the
Government is also fully represented by ministers in the Lords. The composition
of governments can vary both  in the  number  of  ministers and in  the  titles
of  some offices. New ministerial offices may be created, others may be
abolished and functions may be transferred from one minister to another.
The Prime Minister is also, by tradition, First Lord of the Treasury and
Minister for the Civil Service.  The Prime Minister’s unique position of
authority derives from majority support in the House of Commons and from the
power  to  appoint  and  dismiss  ministers.  By modern convention, the Prime
Minister always sits in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister presides
over the Cabinet, is responsible for the allocation of functions among
ministers and informs the  Queen at  regular meetings  of  the  general
business  of  the Government. The Prime Minister's Office is situated at 11
Downing Street.
The Cabinet is composed of about 20 ministers chosen by the Prime Minister.
The functions of the Cabinet are initiating and deciding on policy, the
supreme control of government and the co-ordination of government
departments. The exercise  of  these functions  is  vitally  affected by  the
fact  that  the Cabinet is a group of party representatives, depending upon
majority support in the House of Commons. The Cabinet meets in private and
its proceedings are confidential. Its members are bound by their oath as
Privy Counsellors not to disclose information about its proceedings, although
after 30 years  Cabinet papers may be made available for inspection.
So Great Britain is the constitutional monarchy. Monarch is the Head of the
State. But Queen or King rules with the support of the parliament. And
practically monarch have no real political power. The main political
decisions are made by the Parliament and Cabinet. And the House of Commons
are more powerful.