Курсовая: Теории лидерства
Managers do things right
Leaders do the right things.
Value Based Leadership Theory
Russian Example of the research
Department of Economic and Social Sciences
Academy of National Economy
Under the Government of Russian Federation
Instructor: Dr. Mikhail V. Gratchev
“Leaders are dealers in hope” Bonaparte Napoleon
“We will build a winning tradition” Vince Lombardi to the Green Bay Packers
Consider the above quotations. These statements of leaders reflect commitment to
a value position. In this paper I am going to describe a brand new theory of
leadership, developed by Professor House - the Value Based Leadership
Theory. I will also present a preliminary test of several hypotheses
derived from Value Based Theory. The tests of hypotheses are based on data
descriptive of 25 relationships between chief executives and their immediate
subordinates. As a concrete example, I am going to present the results of the
real interviews, which took plase in Russia in 1999 among the CEOs. In the
process of testing these hypotheses I replicate the study of charismatic
leadership in the U. S. presidency conducted by House, Spangler & Woycke
(1991) using a sample of chief executive officers and different measurement
methods. What I am trying to prove in this paper is the following: It was
considered to think that managers are always the leadres in the organization.
This opinion was proved to be wrong. According to the first research which
appaered in press in the end of 70-s: manager is the position, and leader is
the person who leads others to the desired result. According to the personal
trends and characteristics, managers should be leaders, and they are, but
not always. The question of leadership is a very interesting topic for me,
Being a first year student I was researching the topic “Faberge”. Leaders in
the field of jewelry production, they have really impressed me by the way,
the process of work was organized. Good managers? Of course! Born to be
Leaders? Yes they were! An interesting fact, that at the moment of history,
where they have lived, noone researched the topic of the proper management,
but the entrepreneurs of the past did their work and organized the
technological process in a brilliant way!
At my second year in the Academy, I have devoted a lot of time to the
question of World Economic Forum. Leaders from the whole world gather
together to discuss the problems of the present and the next century. How
have these people managed to achieve such results? Is this the question of a
good management or is there something else, above?
Last year I described the psychological aspects of leadership in my year
project. How these people manage to cope with others? Do they have a special
way for that? Conflicts are a very common thing for the business and everyday
life. Is there a way to avoid them? All people are equal, but some people are
more equal then the others? Is that right?
So, as you have already seen, I am deeply interested in the question of
leadership, and I do think, that this question and the existing theories have
a long life to live. Leadership is a real fact, which has already been
proved. You can be a born leader, but you also can create the leader in
yourself. You can manage to influence, motivate and enable others. You can
succeed, because there is nothing impossible for a human being. Especially,
if he is intelligent on the one hand and really wishes to achieve something
on the other.
A BRIEF HISTORICAL REVIEW
During the period between the mid-seventies and the present time a number of
theories have been introduced into the leadership literature. These new
theories and the empirical research findings constitute a paradigm shift in the
study of leadership. The theories to which I refer are the 1976 Theory of
Charismatic Leadership (House, 1977), the Attributional Theory of
Charisma (Conger & Kanungo, 1987), and the Transformational Theory
(Burns, 1978; Bass, 1985), and Visionary Theories of Leadership (Bennis
& Nanus, 1985; Sashkin, 1988; Kousnes & Posner, 1987).
I believe these theories are all of a common genre. They attempt to explain
how leaders are able to lead organizations to attain outstanding
accomplishments such as the founding and growing of successful
entrepreneurial firms, corporate turnarounds in the face of overwhelming
competition, military victories in the face of superior forces, leadership of
successful social movements and movements for independence from colonial rule
or political tyranny. They also attempt to explain how certain leaders are
able to achieve extraordinary levels of follower motivation, admiration,
respect, trust, commitment, dedication, loyalty, and performance.
The dependent variables of earlier theories are follower expectations,
satisfaction, and normal levels of performance. The dependent variables of
the more recent theories include a number of affective consequences such as
followers’ emotional attachment to leaders; followers’ emotional and
motivational arousal, and thus enhancement of follower valences and values
with respect to the missions articulated by leaders; followers’ trust and
confidence in leaders; and values that are of major importance to the
followers. These more recent theories also address the effect of leaders on
several follower conditions not addressed in earlier theories, such as
followers' self-worth and self-efficacy perceptions, and identification with
the leader’s vision.
Earlier theories describe leader behavior that are theoretically instrumental to
follower performance and satisfy follower needs for support, generally referred
to as task-and person-oriented leader behaviors (Fleishman & Harris, 1962;
Katz & Kahn, 1952; Likert, 1961; Feidler, 1967; House, 1971, House, 1996).
In contrast, the more recent theories stress the infusion of values into
organizations and work through leader behaviors that are symbolic,
inspirational and emotion arousing.
Earlier theories take follower attitudes, values, desires, and preferences as
given. The more recent theory claim that leaders can have substantial, if
not profound effects on these affective and cognitive states of followers.
Accordingly, leaders are claimed to transform both individuals and total
organizations by infusing them with moral purpose, thus appealing to
ideological values and emotions of organizational members, rather than by
offering material incentives and the threat of punishment, or by appealing to
pragmatic or instrumental values.
Also, McClelland (1975) introduced a theory intended to explain leader
effectiveness as a function of a specific combination of motives referred to
as the Leader Motive Profile (LMP). As will be shown below, this theory
complements the newer theories referred to above.
Since the early 1980s, more than fifty empirical studies have been conducted
to test the validity of the more recent theories of leadership. Empirical
evidence is discussed in more detail below. First, however, the valued based
leadership theory will be described.
VALUE BASED LEADERSHIP THEORY
The theory is intended to integrate the newer theories and the empirical
evidence alluded to above. Value based leadership is defined as a relationship
between an individual (leader) and one or more followers based on shared
strongly internalized ideological values espoused by the leader and strong
follwower identification with these values. Ideological values are values
concerning what is morally right and wrong. Such values are expressed in
terms of personal moral responsibility, altruism, making significant social
contributions to others, concern for honesty, fairness, and meeting obligations
to others such as followers, customers, or organizational stakeholders.
Value based leadership is asserted to result in: a) exceptionally
strong identification of followers with the leader, the collective vision
espoused by the leader, and the collective; b) internalized commitment
to the vision of the leader and to the collective; c) arousal of
follower motives that are relevant to the accomplishment of the collective
vision; and d) follower willingness to make substantial self sacrifices
and extend effort above and beyond the call of duty.
The title Value Based Leadership Theory has been chosen to reflect the
essence of the genre of leadership described by the theory. The 1976 theory
of charismatic leadership is a precursor to the value based leadership
theory. The title “charismatic leadership” has been chosen because of its
cavalier popular connotation. The term charisma is often taken in the
colloquial sense, rather than the somewhat technical sense conceived by Max
Weber. The word charisma commonly invokes impressions of a person who is
charming, attractive, and sometimes macho, flamboyant, and sexually
appealing. In contrast, Value Based Leadership is intended to convey the
notion of a leader who arouses follower latent values or causes followers to
internalize new values. Such value communication can be enacted in a quiet,
non-emotionally expressive manner or in a more emotionally expressive manner.
Examples of leaders who have communicated values to followers in an
emotionally expressive manner are Winston Churchill, Lee Iacocca, Martin
Luther King, and John F. Kennedy. Examples of leaders who have communicated
values to followers in a less emotionally expressive manner are Mother
Teresa, Mahatma Ghandi, and Nelson Mandela.
A second reason for abandoning the term charisma is that in current usage it
implies that the collectivities led by charismatic leaders are highly
leader-centered and that the leader is the source of all, or almost all,
organizational strategy and inspiration of followers. One popular conception
of charismatic leadership is that it is necessarily highly directive and
disempowering of followers (Lindholm, 1990). In this paper, I hope to
demonstrate the huge potential for value based leadership to be empowering and
The Process and Effects of Value Based Leadership
In this section, an overview of what Value Based leadership is and how it works
is presented. There is both theory and empirical evidence to suggest that value
based leadership has a substantial effect on organizational performance.
Waldman and his associates reported two studies of value based leader behavior
as an antecedent to organizational profitability (Waldman, Ramirez & House,
1996; Waldman, Atwater & House, 1996). In these studies value based
leadership accounted for between fifteen and twenty five percent of firm
profitability over the three years following the time at which value based
leadership was assessed. The design of these studies controlled for executive
tenure, firm size, environmental turbulence, and prior firm profitability.
The theoretical process by which value-based leadership functions is
described in the following paragraphs. Evidence for this process is presented
in more detail in later sections in which the specific theories contributing
to value based leadership theory is discussed.
Value based leaders infuse collectives, organizations, and work with ideological
values by articulating an ideological vision, a vision of a better future to
which followers are claimed to have a moral right. By claiming that
followers have this right, the values articulated in the vision are rendered
ideological - expressions of what is morally right and good. Ideological values
are usually, if not always, end values which are intrinsically satisfying in
their own right. In contrast to pragmatic values such as material gain, pay,
and status, end values cannot be exchanged for other values. Examples of end
values are independence, dignity, equality, the right to education and
self-determination, beauty, and a world of peace and order. Ideological values
theoretically resonate with the deeply held values and emotions of followers.
Acccording to value based leadership theory the visions articulated by this
genre of leaders are consistent with the collective identity of the
followers, and are emotionally and motivationally arousing. Emotional and
motivational arousal induces follower identification with the collective
vision and with the collective, results in enhncement of follower self-
efficacy and self-worth, and have powerful motivtional effects on followers
and on overall orgnizational performance.
Leaders of industrial and government organizations often articulate visions
for their organizations. Such visions need not be grandiose. Visions of
outstanding leaders in the normal work world can embrace such ideological
values as a challenging and rewarding work environment; professional
development opportunities; freedom from highly controlling rules and
supervision; a fair return to major constituencies; fairness, craftsmanship
and integrity; high quality services or products; or respect for
organizational members, clients or customers and for the environment in which
the organization functions. Whether conceived solely by the leader, by prior
members of the collective, or jointly with followers, the articulation of a
collective ideological vision by leaders theoretically results in self-
sacrifice and effort, above and beyond the call of duty, by organizational
members and exceptional synergy among members of the collective.
Follower respect, trust, and self-sacrifice are stimulated by identification
with the values inherent in the leader's vision and the leader's
demonstration of courage, determination and self-sacrifice in the interest of
the organization and the vision. According to this perspective, value based
leaders use follower value identifiction, and the respect and trust they earn
to motivate high performance and a sense of mission in quest of the
collective vision, and to introduce major organizational change. For some
individuals, latent values are brought to consciousness as a result of the
vision articulated by value based leaders. Also, some individuals change
their values to be consistent with those of the leader.
Visions articulated by value based leaders need not be formulated exclusively
by a single leader. The collective vision may have been initially conceived
by leaders and members of the collective who preceded the current leader. In
this case, the leader is one who perpetuates the vision by continuing to
communicate it and institutionalizing it through the establishment and
maintenance of institutional means such as strategies, policies, norms,
rituals, ceremonies, and symbols. Alternatively, organizational visions can
be formulated by leaders in conjunction with organizational members.
The effects of the articulation of and emphasis on ideological values are
rather profound. Organizational members become aware of ideological values
that they share with the leader and as a collective. Members identify with
the collective vision and with the organization--thus a high level of
collective cohesion is developed. Collaborative interactions among
organizational members is enhanced. Individuals experience a sense of
collective efficacy and a heightened sense of self-esteem as a result of
their cohesion and the leader's expressions of confidence in their ability to
attain the vision. Further, motives relevant to the accomplishment of the
vision are aroused and organizational members come to judge their self-worth
in terms of their contribution to the collective and the attainment of the
The result is strongly internalized member commitment, and intrinsic
motivation to contribute to the organization and to the collective vision.
Members are more inclined to support changes in technology, structure and
strategies introduced by top management, which may result in an
organizational culture characterized by values oriented toward teamwork and
meeting customers', clients', constituents' and competitive needs. There
ensues a marked reduction in intra-organizational conflict and a high degree
of team effort and effectiveness. As noted above, members expend effort above
and beyond the call of duty, and sacrifice their self-interest in the
interest of the organization. As a result, individual motivation,
organizational culture, strategy and structure are likely to become aligned
with the collective vision.
A reinforcing process may also occur whereby organizational members increase
their respect for and confidence in the leader and each other based on the
resulting organizational success. As a result, their initial confidence and
motivation is further reinforced. Such effects are consistent with the notion
of romanticized leadership (Meindl, Ehrlich & Dukerich, 1985). The
resulting increased confidence in the leader in turn gives the leader more
influence and thus contributes to the leader's ability to further influence
This is an “ideal type” theoretical scenario. Clearly all the aspects of
this scenario will not always come to fruition in response to value based
leadership. No such claim is made. Rather, it is argued that organizational
members will be motivated on the basis of shared internalized values and
identification with the leader and the collective, which are far more
motivational than alternative bases of motivation.
It is possible that value based leaders may introduce flawed strategies and
that the result may be organizational decline or failure rather than
improvement and success. It is also possible that the leader may stand for
socially undesirable values such as ethnocentrism, racism, persecution,
dishonesty, or unfair or illegal competitive practices (Lindholm 1990).
Regardless of the strategy or values expressed by the leader, it is argued
that a relationship based on value identification between leader and
organizational members will result in increased member commitment and
motivation, as well as increased organizational cohesion.
There is extensive empirical evidence with respect to the effects of behaviors
specified by value based leadership theory. Charismatic, visionary, and
transformational theories of leadership are precursors of the leader behaviors
specified by value based leadership theory. Tests of these theories have been
based on various operationalizations that qualify as measures of value based
leadership including interviews (Howell & Higgins, 1990), laboratory
experimentation (Howell & Frost, 1989; Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1996),
questionnaires (Lowe, Kroeck & Sivasubramaniam, 1995), and quantified
archival data (House, Spangler & Woycke, 1991). In all of these tests, the
leader behavior measured consists of articulating an organizational vision and
behaving in ways that reinforce the values inherent in the vision, thus
qualifying as indirect evidence relevant to the effects of value based
leadership. Space limitations prevent a detailed review of the evidence.
However, Bass and Avolio (1993), House and Shamir (1993), Lowe et al,. (1995),
and Yukl (1994), present overviews of these studies. With surprising
consistency these empirical studies have demonstrated consistently that value
based leader behavior predicts unusual levels of leader effectiveness directed
toward enhancing organizational performance.
Support for the effects of value based leadership is illustrated by a recent
meta-analysis of the charisma subscale of the Bass and Avolio (1989)
Multifacet Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The MLQ charisma subscale
describes relationships between subordinates and superiors. Superiors who
receive high scores on this scale are described by subordinates as having an
exciting vision of the future for the organization they lead, and being
exceptionally motivational, trustworthy, and deserving of respect.
Support for the theoretical main effects of value based leader behavior has been
demonstrated at several levels of analysis including dyads, small informal
groups, major departments of complex organizations, overall performance of
educational and profit making organizations, and nation states. The evidence
is derived from a wide variety of samples including military officers,
educational administrators, middle managers, subjects in laboratory experiments
and management simulations, US presidents and chief executive officers of
Fortune 500 firms (Bass & Avolio, 1993; House & Shamir, 1993; Waldman,
Ramirez & House, 1996).
The evidence shows that the effects of value based leader behavior are rather
widely generalizable in the United States and that they may well generalize
across cultures. For instance, studies based on the charisma scale of the MLQ
have demonstrated similar findings in India (Periera, 1987), Singapore (Koh,
Terborg & Steers, 1991), The Netherlands (Koene, Pennings & Schreuder,
1991), China, Germany, and Japan (Bass, 1997).
In summary, the studies based on various operationalizations of value based
leadership clearly show that this genre of leadership results in a high level
of follower motivation and commitment and well-above-average organizational
performance, especially under conditions of crises or uncertainty (Pillai &
Meindl, 1991; House, Spangler, & Woycke, 1995; Waldman, Ramirez &
House, 1996; Waldman, Atwater & House, 1996).
NEWLY INTEGRATED THEORIES
The value based theory of leadership integrates the precursor theories
discussed above with a number of assertions advanced in several psychological
theories of motivation and behavior. Following is a brief review of the
psychological theories that are integrated into the Value Based Leadership
McClelland's Theories of Non-conscious Motivation
According to this theory, the motivational aspects of human beings can be
understood in terms of four non-conscious motives in various combinations
(McClelland, 1985). These motives are the achievement, power, affiliation,
and social responsibility motives. McClelland has developed a theory of
entrepreneural effectiveness based on the role of achievement motivation, and
a more general theory of leader effectiveness consisting of theoretical
assertions concerning the optimum combination of the above four motives for
effective leadership. This theory is entitled the Leader Motive Profile
Theory (LMP). In the following sections we discuss the four motives
discussed by McClelland and the LMP theory.
Achievement motivation is defined as a non-conscious concern for achieving
excellence in accomplishments through one's individual efforts
(McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Lowell, 1958). Achievement motivated
individuals set challenging goals for themselves, assume personal
responsibility for goal accomplishment, are highly persistent in the pursuit of
goals, take calculated risks to achieve goals and actively collect and use
information for feedback purposes. Achievement motivation is theoretically
predicted to contribute to effective entrepreneurship (McClelland, 1985) and
effective leadership of small task oriented groups (House et al., 1991).
Litwin and Stringer (1968) demonstrated experimentally that small groups led
by managers who enacted achievement oriented and arousing behaviors were more
effective than groups with managers who did not.
In management positions at higher levels in organizations, and particularly
in organizational settings where technical requirements are few and impact on
others is of fundamental importance, managerial effectiveness depends on the
extent to which managers delegate effectively and motivate and co-ordinate
others. Theoretically, high achievement motivated managers are strongly
inclined to be personally involved in performing the work of their
organization and are reluctant to delegate authority and responsibility.
Therefore, high achievement motivation is expected to predict poor
performance of high-level executives in large organizations. House et al.
(1991) found that achievement motivation of U.S. presidents was significantly
inversely related to archival measures of U.S. presidential effectiveness.
Affiliative motivation is defined as a non-conscious concern for
establishing, maintaining, and restoring close personal relationships with
others. Individuals with high affiliative motivation tend to be non-
assertive, submissive, and dependent on others (McClelland, 1985).
Theoretically, highly affiliative motivated managers are reluctant to monitor
the behavior of subordinates, to convey negative feedback to subordinates
even when required, or to discipline subordinates for ethical transgressions
or violations of organizational policies. Highly affiliative motivated
managers are also theoretically expected to manage on the basis of personal
relationships with subordinates and therefore show favoritism toward some.
House et al. (1991) found that the affiliative motive was significantly
negatively correlated with U.S. presidential charismatic leadership and
archival measures of U.S. presidential effectiveness.
Power motivation is defined as a non-conscious concern for acquiring status
and having an impact on others. Individuals with high power motivation tend
to enjoy asserting social influence, being persuasive, drawing attention to
themselves, and having an impact on their immediate environment including the
people with whom they interact. Theoretically, if enacted in a socially
constructive manner, high power motivation should result in effective
managerial performance in high level positions (McClelland, 1975; 1985).
However, unless constrained by a responsibility disposition, power motivated
managers will exercise power in an impetuously aggressive manner for self
aggrandizing purposes to the detriment of their subordinates and
High power motivation induces highly competitive behavior. Therefore, when
unconstrained by moral inhibition, power motivation is theoretically
predictive of leader effectiveness when the role demands of leaders require
strong individual competitiveness, aggressiveness, manipulative exploitive
behavior, or the exercise of substantial political influence. The power
motive was found by House et al. (1991) to significantly predict presidential
charismatic behavior and archival measures of presidential effectiveness.
According to McClelland, individuals who have a high concern for the moral
exercise of power will use power in an altruistic and collectively-oriented
manner. Indicators of high concern for responsibility are expressions of
concern about meeting moral standards and obligations to others, concern for
others, concern about consequences of one’s own action, and critical self
Winter and Barenbaum (1985) developed and validated a measure of concern for
moral responsibility, which they label the responsibility disposition1
. The measure is based on quantitative content analysis of narrative text
material. Winter (1991) demonstrated that the responsibility disposition, in
combination with high power and low affiliative motivation, was predictive of
managerial success over a sixteen-year interval.
The responsibility motive should be predictive of leader integrity and
leaders' concern for the consequences of their own actions on others. Leaders
with high responsibility disposition are expected to stress the importance of
keeping one's word, honesty, fairness, and socially responsible behavior.
Thus, we expect the responsibility disposition to be associated with value
based leader behavior, supportive leader behavior, fairness, follower trust
and respect for the leader and commitment to the leader’s vision, and
consequently organizational effectiveness.
Leader Motive Profile Theory
McClelland (1975) argued that the following combination of non-conscious
motives are generic to, and predictive of, leader effectiveness: high power
motivation, moderate achievement motivation, high concern for the moral
exercise of power, and power motivation greater than affiliative motivation.
This combination of motives is referred to by McClelland (1975) as the Leader
Motive Profile (LMP).
According to LMP theory, the power motive is necessary for leaders to be
effective because it induces them to engage in social influence behavior, and
such behavior is required for effective leadership. Further, when the power
motive is higher than the affiliative motive, individuals do not engage in
the dysfunctional behaviors usually associated with high affiliation
motivation - favoritism, submissiveness, and reluctance to monitor and
discipline subordinates. Finally, when high power motivation is coupled with
a high concern for moral responsibility, individuals are predicted to engage
in the exercise of power in an effective and socially desirable manner.
Earlier research, also reviewed by McClelland (1985), suggests that the
achievement motive is a better predictor of leader effectiveness and success
in entrepreneurial organizations than LMP.
Theoretically the leader motive profile is predictive of managerial
effectiveness under conditions where leaders need to exercise social
influence in the process of making decisions and motivating others to accept
and implement decisions. In formal organizations these conditions are found
at higher levels and in non-technical functions. By contrast, in smaller
technologically based organizations, group leaders can rely on direct contact
with subordinates (rather than delegation through multiple organizational
levels), and technological knowledge to make decisions. Thus LMP theory is
limited to the boundary conditions of moderate to large non-technologically
oriented organizations (McClelland, 1975; Winter, 1978; 1991), and to
managers who are separated from the work of the organization by at least one
Several studies have demonstrated support for the LMP theory. Winter (1978)
found that LMP was predictive of the career success of entry level managers in
non-technical positions in the US Navy over an eight-year interval. Both
McClelland and Boyatzis (1982), and Winter (1991), in separate analyses of the
same data but with different operationalizations of LMP, found similar results
at AT&T over a sixteen-year interval. McClelland and Burnham (1976) found
high-LMP managers had more supportive and rewarding organizational climates,
and higher performing sales groups than low-LMP managers did in a large sales
organization. House, et al. (1991) found that the motive components of the LMP
predicted US presidential charisma and presidential performance effectiveness.
Since high LMP leaders have greater power than affiliative motivation it is
expected that they will be assertive and at least moderately directive.
Further, since they have high responsibility motivation it is expected that
thay will have highly internalized idological values - values concerning what
is morally right and wrong - and that they will thus stress ideological value
orientation, integrity, and fairness, as explained above, both verbally and
through personal example.
The Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
The essence of path-goal theory is that leader behaviors will be effective when
such behaviors complement formal organizational practices and the informal
social system by providing direction, clarification, support and motivational
incentives to subordinates, which are not otherwise provided (House, 1971;
House & Mitchell, 1974; House, 1996). According to the 1996 version of
path-goal theory, leaders who give approval and recognition of subordinates,
contingent on performance and in a fair manner, will clarify expectancies of
subordinates concerning work goals and rewards, and will effectively motivate
subordinates. This theory also predicts that leader consideration toward
subordinates provides the psychological support subordinates require,
especially in times of stress and frustration.
Path-goal theory suggests that either participative or directive leader behavior
can provide psychological structure and direction and therefore clarify
subordinates' role demands. Theoretically, directive leader behavior will be
dysfunctional and participative leader behavior will be functional when
subordinates are highly involved in their work, perceive themselves as having a
high level of task related knowledge, and/or prefer a high level of autonomy.
Meta-analyses of 135 relationships tested in prior studies provide support for
these assertions (Wofford & Liska, 1993).
Dissonance Theory and Competing Values
According to cognitive dissonance theory, individuals experience
anxiety-inducing cognitive dissonance when their self-evaluative cognitions,
feelings and behavior are in conflict with each other (Festinger, 1980). Under
such conditions, individuals are strongly motivated to reduce the dissonance by
changing one or more of the dissonant components--either their behavior, their
cognitions, or their feelings. It follows from dissonance theory that when
leaders appeal to ideological values of followers and also administer extrinsic
material rewards strictly contingent on follower performance, they will
induce cognitive dissonance in followers. Offering strong extrinsic incentives
for doing what is claimed to be morally correct will theoretically induce
dissonance, and is likely to undermine the effects of leaders' appeals to
ideological values. From dissonance theory, we would expect that with the
exception of social rewards such as approval and recognition, contingent reward
behavior on the part of leaders will undermine the effects of value based
Equity theory asserts that when individuals perceive the ratio of their
contributions to their rewards (intrinsic or extrinsic) to be equal to the
ratio of contributions to rewards of others, they will believe that they are
treated fairly (Adams, 1963). We expect that under conditions of perceived
unfairness followers will feel resentment, be demotivated, will not support
and may even resist attempts by leaders to influence them.
Mischel (1973) has argued that the psychological strength of situations
influences the degree to which individual dispositions such as motives or
personality traits are expressed behaviorally. Strong situations are
situations in which there are strong behavioral norms, strong incentives for
specific types of behaviors, and clear expectations concerning what behaviors
are rewarded. According to this argument, in strong situations, motivational
or personality tendencies are constrained and there will be little behavioral
expression of individual dispositions. Thus, in organizations that are
highly formalized and governed by well-established role expectations, norms,
rules, policies and procedures, there is less opportunity for organizational
members to behaviorally express their dispositional tendencies.
Theoretically, in strong psychological situations, leader motives have less
influence on leader behavior, and leader behavior has less influence on
subordinates and on organizational outcomes than in weak psychological
situations. Studies by Monson, Healy and Chernick (1982), Lee, Ashford, and
Bobko (1990), and Barrick and Mount (1993) have demonstrated support for
Mischel's situational strength argument.
THE VALUE BASED LEADERSHIP THEORY
This theory consists of six axioms and twenty-seven propositions that relate
leader behavior, leader motives, and situational variables to leader
The Parsimonious Meta–Proposition of Value Based Leadership
Value based leadership theory is based on the meta–proposition that non-
conscious motives and motivation based on strongly internalized values is
stronger, more pervasive, and more enduring than motivation based on
instrumental calculations of anticipated rewards or motivation based on
threat and avoidance of punishment. The axioms and propositions that follow
are derived from and can all be explained in terms of this parsimonious
The Value Based Leader Behavior Syndrome
Behaviors that characterize value based leadership include a) articulation of a
challenging vision of a better future to which followers are claimed to have a
moral right; b) unusual leader determination, persistence, and self-sacrifice
in the interest of the vision and the values inherent in the vision; c)
communication of high performance expectations of followers and confidence in
their ability to contribute to the collective; d) display of self-confidence,
confidence in followers, and confidence in the attainment of the vision; e)
display of integrity; f) expressions of concern for the interests of followers
and the collective; g) positive evaluation of followers and the collective; h)
instrumental and symbolic behaviors that emphasize and reinforce the values
inherent in the collective vision; i) role modelling behaviors that set a
personal example of the values inherent in the collective vision; j)
frame-alignment behaviors--behaviors intended to align followers' attitudes,
schemata, and frames with the values of the collective vision; and, k)
behaviors that arouse follower motives relevant to the pursuit of the vision.
We refer to these behaviors collectively as the value based leader
This specification of value based leader behaviors integrates the behaviors
specified in prior extensions of the 1976 theory of charismatic leadership as
well as behaviors specified in other theories of charismatic,
transformational and visionary leadership. House and Shamir (1993) provide
the rationale for inclusion of the above behaviors in the theoretical leader
Axioms are statements, the validity of which are taken for granted, either
because the enjoy substantial empirical evidence or becuse they cannot be
tested. Axioms provide a foundation for more specific statements, such as
propositions. The axioms stated here provide the foundation for the
selection of leader behaviors from among all of the leader behaviors
specified in the various theories described above.
Axioms Concerning Human Motivation
1. Humans tend to be not only pragmatic and goal-oriented, but are also
self-expressive. It is assumed that behavior is not only instrumental-
calculative, but also expressive of feelings, aesthetic values and self-
concepts. We "do" things because of who we "are," because by doing them we
establish and affirm an identity for ourselves, at times even when our
behavior does not serve our materialistic or pragmatic self-interests.
2. People are motivated to maintain and enhance their generalized self-
efficacy and self-worth. Generalized self-efficacy is based on a sense of
competence, power, or ability to cope with and control one's environment.
Self-worth is based on a sense of virtue and moral worth and is grounded in
norms and values concerning conduct.
3. People are also motivated to retain and increase their sense of self-
consistency. Self-consistency refers to correspondence among components of
the self-concept at a given time, to continuity of the self-concept over
time, and to correspondence between the self-concept and behavior. People
derive a sense of "meaning" from continuity between the past, the present and
the projected future, and from the correspondence between their behavior and
4. Self-concepts are composed of values, perceptions of self-worth,
efficacy, and consistency, and also identities. Identities, sometimes
referred to as role-identities, link the self-concept to society. Social
identities locate the self in socially recognizable categories such as
nations, organizations and occupations, thus enabling people to derive
meaning from being linked to social collectives.
5. Humans can be strongly motivated by faith. When goals cannot be clearly
specified or the subjective probabilities of accomplishment and rewards are
not high, people may be motivated by faith because being hopeful in the sense
of having faith in a better future is an intrinsically satisfying condition.
6. When individual motives are aroused in the interest of the collective
effort, and when individual identify with the values inherent in the collective
vision, they will evaluate themselves on the basis of the degree to which they
contribute to the collective effort. Under conditions of motive arousal and
value identiication individuals experience intrinsic satisfaction from their
contribution to the collective effort and intrinsic dissatisfaction from
failure to contribute to collective efforts.
These axioms incorporate the extensions of the 1976 theory of charismatic
leadership offered by Shamir, House and Arthur (1993), and House and Shamir
(1995) and provide the integrative framework for the Value Based Theory of
The theory is expressed in the form of twenty-seven propositions which assert
specific ways in which leader motives and behaviors, in conjunction with
situational variables, affect follower motivation and performance and
organizational performance. These propositions are based on the leadership
and psychological theories reviewed above and reflect the extensions of the
1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership contributed by House et al. (1991),
Shamir et al. (1993), House and Shamir (1993), and Waldman, Ramirez and House
Propositions Concerning Leader Behavior and Its Effects
1. The motivational effects of the behaviors of the value based leader behavior
syndrome described above will be heightened follower recognition of shared
values between leaders and followers, heightened arousal of follower motives,
heightened follower self-confidence, generalized self-efficacy and self-worth,
strong follower self-engagement in the pursuit of the collective vision and in
contributing to the collective, and strong follower identification with the
collective and the collective vision. We refer to these psychological reactions
of followers as the value based motive syndrome .
2. The behavioral effects of the value based motive syndrome will be heightened
commitment to the collective as manifested by follower willingness to exert
effort above and beyond normal position or role requirements, follower
self-sacrifice in the interest of the vision and the collective, and increased
collective social cohesion and organizational collaboration. We refer to these
effects as the value based follower commitment syndrome. While the
value based motive syndrome described in proposition one is not directly
observable, the behaviors of the value based follower commitment syndrome are.
Propositions Concerning Leader Attributes
3. Self-confidence and a strong conviction in the moral correctness of one's
beliefs will be predictive of proactive leadership. This proposition is a
slight modification of proposition three of the 1976 Theory of Charismatic
Leadership. This proposition has been supported by Smith (1982), House et
al. (1991), and Howell and Higgins (1991).
4. Strong leader concern for the morally responsible exercise of power will
be predictive of constructive, collectively oriented exercise of social
influence by leaders and predictive of the value based motive and follower
commitment syndromes specified in propositions 1 and 2 above.
5. Power motivation coupled with a strong concern for the morally
responsible exercise of power will be predictive of the constructive,
collective-oriented exercise of social influence by leaders.
6. Power motivation, unconstrained by a strong concern for the moral
exercise of power, will be predictive of impetuously aggressive and self-
aggrandizing exercise of social influence.
7. Power motivation, in conjunction with a strong concern for the moral
exercise of power, will be predictive of effective leadership when the role
demands of leaders require substantial delegation of authority and
responsibility and the exercise of social influence.
8. Power motivation, unconstrained by a strong concern for the moral
exercise of power, will be predictive of effective leadership when the role
demands of leaders require strong individual competitiveness, aggressiveness,
manipulative and exploitive behavior, or the exercise of substantial
9. Affiliative motivation will be predictive of non-assertive leadership,
close relationships with a small subgroup of followers, partiality toward
this subgroup, and ineffective leadership.
10. The leader motive profile will be predictive of proactive leadership and
leader effectiveness when the role demands of leaders require substantial
delegation of authority and responsibility and the exercise of social
11. Achievement motivation will be predictive of effective leader
performance in entrepreneurial contexts and for small task-oriented groups in
which members have direct interaction with the leader.
12. Achievement motivation will be predictive of ineffective leader
performance for the leadership of organizations in which the role demands of
leaders require substantial delegation of authority and responsibility and
the exercise of substantial social influence.
Propositions four through twelve are derived from the motivation theories
Propositions Concerning Specific Leader Behaviors
13. Leader behaviors intended to enhance followers cognitive abilities will
increase follower and overall organizational performance when such behaviors
complement formal organizational practices and the informal social system by
providing direction, clarification, feedback, encouragement, support, and
motivational incentives to subordinates which are not otherwise provided.
14. When leader behaviors intended to enhance followers cognitive abilities
are redundant with formal organizational practices and the informal social
system they will be viewed as excessively controlling, will cause follower
dissatisfaction, and will be resented and resisted.
15. To be accepted by followers, it is necessary for leaders to be perceived
by followers as acting in the interest of the collective and the followers,
to be perceived as fair and trustworthy in their interactions with followers,
and to be perceived as not self-aggrandizing.
16. Leader support behavior will be predictive of low follower stress, trust
in by followers, and follower satisfaction with their relationships with
17. Leader contingent recognition and approval will be predictive of
follower role clarity, follower perceptions of leaders as fair, and
heightened follower satisfaction and motivation.
18. Directive leader behavior will result in follower role clarification but
will be dysfunctional when followers prefer to exercise independent actions
and initiative, are highly involved in their work, and/or perceive themselves
as having requisite knowledge and skills for effective task performance.
19. Participative leader behavior will result in follower role clarification
and will be functional when followers prefer to exercise independent actions
and initiative, are highly involved in their work, and/or when followers
perceive themselves as having requisite knowledge and skills for effective
20. Leader fairness behavior will be predictive of follower acceptance of
leaders, and the leader's vision and values.
21. Perceived lack of fairness will result in follower resentment and
resistance to the leaders vision and directions. These propositions are
based on equity theory of motivation.
Propositions 13 through 21 are based on the 1996 version of Path Goal Theory
of leadership (House, 1996).
22. Leaders arouse motives of followers by enacting specific motive arousal
behaviors relevant to each motive. For example, defining tasks and goals as
challenging arouses the achievement motive; invoking the image of a
threatening enemy, describing combative or highly competitive situations or
describing the exercise of power arouses the power motive; making acceptance
of the leader contingent on mutural acceptance of followers, or stressing the
importance of collaborative behavior arouses the affiliative motive.
23. Leaders who engage in selective behaviors that arouse motives
specifically relevant to the accomplishment of the collective vision will
have positive effects on followers' value based motive syndrome described in
24. The more leaders engage in the value based leader behavior syndrome the
more their followers will emulate (a) the values, preferences and
expectations of the leader, (b) the emotional responses of the leader to
work-related stimuli, and (c) the attitudes of the leader toward work and the
Propositions 22 through 24 are slight revisions of propositions advanced in
the 1976 Theory of Charismatic leadership (House, 1977).
25. The use of strong extrinsic material rewards contingent on performance
will conflict with appeals to ideological values and will thus undermine the
effects of the value based leader behavior syndrome. This proposition is
based on dissonance theory (Festinger, 1980) and supported by the findings of
Korman (1970), and Dubinsky and Spangler (1995) described above.
Propositions Concerning Social Context
26. Two necessary conditions for leaders to have the effects specified in
proposition two are that leaders have the opportunity to communicate the
collective vision to potential followers and that the role of followers be
definable in ideological terms that appeal to them. This is a modification
of one of the propositions originally advanced by House (1977).
27. The emergence and effectiveness of value based leaders will be
facilitated to the extent to which a) performance goals cannot be easily
specified and measured, b) extrinsic rewards cannot be made clearly
contingent on individual performance, c) there are few situational cues,
constraints and reinforcers to guide behavior and provide incentives for
specific performance, and d) exceptional effort, behavior and sacrifices are
required of both the leaders and followers. This proposition is based on the
earlier discussion of strength of situations and dissonance theory and is a
modest modification of one of the propositions originally advanced by Shamir
et al. (1993).
The hypotheses were tested within the context of a latent structure casual
model, using Partial Least Squares Analysis (PLS). This modelling procedure
requires that substantive hypotheses be modelled in the form of paths
connecting the hypothesized variables. The variables are latent constructs
composed of scores on manifest indicators. The The slopes of these
relationships are presented in Figure 3. This finding supports the
competitive hypothesis 5a which states that LMP will have greater effects in
non-entrepreneurial firms than in entrepreneurial firms, and will be
In this section we first discuss the implications of the findings with
respect to the value based leadership. Next we discuss the implications of
the findings for each of the five theories that were integrated in the models
tested. We then discuss the more general implications of the study for the
discipline of Organizational Behavior.
Value Based Leadership
Thomas (1988), House et al. (1991), and by Waldman, Ramirez and House (1996)
demonstrate longitudinally, and with adequate controls for spurious
relationships, that leaders have substantial effects on the performance of
the organizations they manage. However, there have been no studies, other
than the U.S. presidential study (House et al., 1991), that investigate the
leader motives and behavior that lead to such leader effects. Thus there has
been a "black box" concerning how leader processes influence overall
organizational performance that remains to be explained.
Collectively, the findings of the present study help to understand the
phenomena in the "black box." More specifically, the findings show, in some
detail, important relationships between chief executives' motives and
behavior and subordinates' motivation and commitment to their organization.
Having shown how the components function, it is now possible to test
linkages between leader behavior, subordinate responses, and organizational
effectiveness using longitudinal quasi experimental designs.
Implications for Specific Theories
In this section we discuss the implications of the study findings for each of
the theories that are integrated to form the Value Based Theory of
Achievement Motivation Theory
Achievement motivation has a more positive effect on CEMS and all leader
behaviors in entrepreneurial firms than in non-entrepreneurial firms. This
finding constitutes yet another confirmation of achievement motivation theory
concerning the specific conditions under which achievement motivation is
predicted to result in high performance.
Moral Responsibility Theory
The bivariate relationships between the moral responsibility disposition and
value based leader behavior, leader fairness and CEMS, and the moderating
effect of responsibility on the relationships between the power motive, and
CEMS, leader charisma, and support/reward behavior all provide support for
Moral Responsibility Theory. Moral responsibility motivation is clearly an
important disposition that deserves further investigation and attention.
Leader Motive Profile Theory
The positive relationships between LMP and executive value based leader
behavior, support/recognition behavior, and directiveness provide support for
LMP Theory. These two relationships are consistent with the interpretation
that because high LMP leaders have low affiliative motivation they enact
social influence in an impersonal and more proactive and assertive manner
than low LMP leaders.
The findings are consistent with the propositions that LMP affects leader
behavior, and leader behavior in turn has a positive effect on CEMS. These
findings suggest a re-specification of the boundary conditions for the role
of LMP in organizational functioning. Contrary to the initially specified
boundary conditions, LMP has negligible effects on leader behavior and CEMS
in non- entrepreneurial firms and positive effects in entrepreneurial firms.
These findings imply that LMP has its' major impact on organizational
outcomes through its' influence on leader behavior under weak psychological
Path Goal Theory
As predicted by the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership (House, 1996), leader
recognition and supportive behaviors are predictive of CEMS, and leader
directiveness is more strongly negatively related to CEMS in entrepreneurial
firms. Thus Path-Goal theory is provided additional support in the present
The major conclusions that can be drawn from the above findings and discussion
are: 1) the value based theory of leadership successfully integrates five
prominent theories of leadership (transformational, charismatic, visionary,
LMP, and path-goal theories) and assertions drawn broadly from established
psychological theories of motivation and behavior; 2) the components of the
value based theory of leadership are rather strongly and quite consistently
supported, although their exact combinations remain to be established; 3) the
psychological theories integrated within the value based theory are largely
supported; 4) the value based theory of leadership, with various kinds of
operationalizations, has rather broad generalizability; 5) the theory
supported by the U.S. presidential study holds for CEOs with respect to effects
of leader behaviors on subordinates' cognitions and affective responses; 6) a
re-specification of the boundary conditions of LMP should be further
investigated; and 7) the motives that are most appropriate for effective
leadership are contingent on the orientation of the collective being led.
Beginning with the 1976 theory of charismatic leadership (House, 1977), a new
leadership paradigm has emerged. This paradigm consists of several theories of
similar genre (House, 1977; Bass, 1985; Conger & Kanungo; 1987; Bennis
& Nanus, 1985; 1987; Sashkin, 1988) and concerns the determinants of
exceptionally effective or outstanding leadership. According to this paradigm,
value based leaders infuse organizations and work with ideological values which
are intrinsically and powerfully motivational. Value oriented motivation
is stronger, more pervasive, and more endurable than pragmatic oriented
motivation. The theories of the new paradigm are now integrated and
formalized as the Value Based Theory of Leadership. Hopefully, this theory and
the supporting research will stimulate further leadership research and further
development of leadership and organizational behavior theory. As the final
accorsd of my project I am going to say a few words about the Russian research
in this field. Russian Project is a part of annual International Project GLOBE.
Interviews have been taken among the CEO’s of Russian Entrepreneurial and
Non-entrepreneurial Firms. It would be very interesting to mention the fact
that the results were surprising and clearly showed the profile of a Russian
Leader. The participants did not know each other and at the same time answered
very alike. Russian Leaders have strong potential and all chances to achieve
the desired goals.Strong charracters, clear vision of the future and optimistic
approach are the main strong sides of the profile. Russian Leaders work a lot
and enjoy every moment of life. They have time for their family. None of the
sides suffer. Russia has a strong potential for Leadership.
Executive Interview Questions
1. Would you briefly describe your career to date, beginning with your
education and then when you first entered a management position?
2. When you assumed your present position was there a mandate for what you
were expected to accomplish, a number of problems you were expected or
desired to solve, goals you expected or desired to achieve, or a vision of
your own or someone elses to be accomplished?
3. What were the major strengths of your organization that help you
accomplish what you wanted to accomplish when taking this position?
4. What were the major deficiencies in the organization?
4. What were the major barriers to accomplishment?
5. What were your major strengths?
6. Were there any personal weaknesses you needed to overcome or were there
any .personal deficiencies such as lack of skills, that that you needed to
7. Please describe the strategy you used, or the major activities you
conducted, to accomplish the objectives you desired to accomplish.
8. Please describe your philosophy of management (this is usually already
implicitly described in the answers to the above questions).
9. Are there any other considerations we need to know about in order to
understand your role in your current position?
10. Executives often need to devote a large amount of time to ltheir work.
How do you reconcile the potential time conflicts between your work demands
and family demands
VALUE BASED LEADERSHIP CONSTRUCT
This construct consists of seven subscales, each of which serves as a
manifest indicator. These subscales are Vision, Performance Expectations and
Improvement, Follower Confidence and Challenge, Intellectual Stimulation,
Role Modeling, Integrity, and Self Confidence.
PERFORMANCE EXPECTATIONS-IMPROVEMENT EMPHASIS (for the subordinates)
|Clearly articulates his/her vision of the future||· |
|Paints an exciting picture of the future of our organization|
|Communicates an exciting vision of the future of the organization|
|Is optimistic about the future of this organization|
|Has a clear understanding of where we are going||· |
|Has a clear sense of where he/she wants our unit to be in five years||· |
|Has a hard time exciting others with a dream of the future|
|Has no idea where our organization is going*|
FOLLOWER CONFIDENCE AND CHALLENGE (sub)
|Expects a lot from us||· |
|Expects less from me than other superiors with whom I have worked (-)|
|Expects me to give 110% all f the time|
|Insists on only the best performance||· |
|Does not expect much of me in terms of performance (-)|
|Challenges us to be innovative in our approach to work assignments|
|Encourages us to look for better ways of doing |
|Tells me how to do my work*|
|Urges me to be self critical if my performance is not up to par|
|Expects me to set goals for myself||· |
|Shows confidence in my ability to contribute to the goals of this organization|
|Demonstrates total confidence in me|
|Allows me to take a strong hand in setting my own performance goals||· |
|Allows me to set my own goals|
|Encourages me to solve problems on my own ||· |
|When I have a problem he/she asks me to find a solution|
|Challenges me to set high goals for myself||· |
|Challenges me to think about old problems in new ways||· |
|Has ideas that have forced me to rethink some things that I have never questioned before||· |
|Asks question that prompt me to think about the way I do things||· |
|Has ideas that have challenged me to re-examine some of my basic assumptions about my work||· |
|Sets a good example||· |
|Leads by "doing" rather than simply by "telling"||· |
|Provides a good model for me to follow||· |
|Follows a definite moral code||· |
|Makes sure that his/her actions are always ethical||· |
|Will not sacrifice or compromise his/her moral standards||· |
|Can be trusted to serve the interests of his/her subordinates rather than him/herself|
|Is pragmatic and adjusts his/her ethical standard to fit the situation (-)|
|Does not behave in a manner that is consistent with the values he/she expresses (-)||· |
|Does not follow the rule "practice what you preach" (-)|
SUPPORT - REWARD
This construct consists of the Leader Consideration and Contingent Reward
|Has strong convictions in the correctness of our competitive strategy||· |
|Has strong convictions in the correctness of his or her actions||· |
|Shows a high degree of self confidence||· |
|Views obstacles as challenges rather than threats||· |
|Rises to meet difficult goals||· |
|Encourages people to see changing environments as situations full of opportunities||· |
CONTINGENT RECOGNITION AND APPROVAL
|Looks out for my personal welfare||· |
|Considers my personal feelings before acting|
|Sees that the interests of subordinates are given due consideration|
|Behaves in a manner which is thoughtful of my personal needs||· |
|Acts without considering my feelings*||· |
|Gives me positive feedback when I perform well||· |
|Informs others in the organization when I do outstanding work||· |
|Gives me special recognition when my work performance is especially good||· |
|Acknowledges improvements in the quality of my work||· |
|Encourages me to feel positive about myself if I do an assignment especially well|
|Commends me when I do a better than average job|
|Personally compliment me when I do outstanding work||· |
|Makes my compensation contingent on my performance |
|Rarely praises me when I do well (-)|
|Frequently does not acknowledge my good performance (-)|
|Would indicate disapproval if I performed at a low level|
|Shows his or her displeasure when my work is below acceptable standards|
|Points it out to me when my work is not up to par||· |
|Is just as likely to praise me when I do poorly as when I do well*|
|Will praise me even when I don't deserve it*|
FAIRNESS IN EVALUATION (inverted)
|Provides direction in regard to my job||· |
|Sets goals for my performance||· |
|Gives me instructions about how to do my job|
|Tells me how to do my work|
|Establishes my goals for me||· |
|Takes a strong hand in establishing my goals|
COMMITMENT, MOTIVATION, AND PERCEIVED TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
This construct consists of three subscales: Motive Arousal; Commitment,
Satisfaction, and Motivation; Perceived Top Management Team Effectiveness.
|Holds me accountable for work I have no control over|
|Often holds me responsible for things that are not my fault|
COMMITMENT, SATISFACTION, AND MOTIVATION,
|My CEO (or COE)|
|Makes me enthusiastic about my assignments||· |
|Arouses in me motivation to work harder and better||· |
|Motivates me to do more than I originally expected I would do|
|Inspires me to get a lot more done than I could have if he or she were not |
|Inspires me to my highest level of performance||· |
|I agree with to my superior's vision of this organization.|
|I am very satisfied with the CEO|
|I expect to be with this organization in 1996|
|I expect this organization to have an excellent future|
|I am willing to make serious personal sacrifices to contribute to the success of this organization|
|I contribute to this organization 100% of my ability|
|I perform above and beyond the call of duty|
|My work performance and efforts are above and beyond that which is required|
|The CEO (or COE) makes me feel good to be around him/her|
|I find the CEOs vision of the future to be confusing*|
|My CEO (or COE) gets people to place the interests of the organization ahead of their own interests|
|People at my level work well together||· |
|The top management of his company works very effectively as a team|
|My work is made difficult because others will not provide the cooperation and support they should provide*||· |