Реферат: История коневодства в Тамбовской области
Horse-breeding in the Tambov Area
Applicant: Irina Nikitina, the pupil of the 11 “B” form CG
Supervisors: L.I. Ivina, the teacher of Biology
L.N. Kozhevnikova, the teacher of English
Historically Tambov area has been known as the territory of chanters. By the
amount of private stud farms it challenged superiority of Voronezh, Oryol and
Kursk areas. The development of horse breeding in many respects was promoted
by two circumstances. First because of the flood plains, where the herds
freely grazed (only in one Morshansk area today are left about 20 thousands
hectares even after rash ploughing up of a large part of flood plains).
Secondly, and it is also important, the deep pocket of the Tambov landowners.
They had large and sometimes fabulous capitals. So, one of brothers
Archarov’s, the holder of extensive lands in Rasskasovo area, bestowed him by
Katherine П, handed the whole horse regiment to the Tambov national militia
in 1812, by putting on the horses his own bonded recruits. He also gave
regimentals, armed and supplied the regiment with provisions for three
months. Nobody in Russia made such generous gift for army that time.
Count Stroganov, princess Golitsina, general Lanskoy (the second husband of
Natalya Goncharova), Bashmakov - the Tambov millionaire and holder of gold
mines beyond Urals, old-line noblemen the Naryshkin’s, the Arapov’s and many
other had their own stud farms in Tambov area. The Lavrovsky stud farm, which
nowadays has worldwide glory, was built in Tambov land by the landowner
The merchantry tried not to drop behind from the aristocracy. One of the
Aseev’s brothers, the holder of Arzhenka cloth factory, has purchased the
stud farm from a widow of the local broken landowner Kruchenkov. The example
of Aseev, but without the raping, was followed also by other industrial aces
from the districts of the region. It was considered very prestigiously.
We should remember that horse-breeding remained one of the few worthy
commercial activities for the aristocrats. In 1840, when Chicherin, the
relative of our future Minister for Foreign Affairs, has opened distillery in
Lyada and the landowners Tulinov and Poltoratsky have purchased cloth
factories, noble society has apprehended it as mauvais ton. But the pinces
and dukes and members of the tsarist family very well descended to trading
horses from theirs stud farms.
All reading Russia knew from the story by Turgenev about inveterate chanters
from the district city of Tambov region with a beautiful name - Lebedyan. But
only few know today, that the fans of equitation created there the first
Russian association and issued first horseracing journal. Much earlier than
in metropolis and Moscow, the prize-winning horserace of Oryol trotters were
arranged in Lebedyan. Several years later the same association of equitation
fans was also established in Tambov. This association built on share
contributions the three-storey building for its club on former Dvortsovaya,
nowadays Sovietskaya Street, one of first in the center of our city (now The
Department of Communications). In this club the horse-breeders from all
Tambov districts met at card tables and in the hall of extensive library.
The special page in a history of domestic horse-breeding were written by the
life copers brothers Demin’s from Kozlov. They managed to get and turn over
the blooded trotters even from Khrenov farm of count Aleksey Orlov. Although,
only after his death. While alive the count strictly forbade selling his
horses. Demin’s were in close friendship with former count’s adscript Vasiliy
Ivanovich Shishkin, the manager of Khrenov farm. Shortly Shishkin opened his
own stud farm.
The abundance of private stud farms in the region produced big horse fairs,
beginning from Lebedyanskaya and finishing with Tokaryovskaya, one of
cheapest in country. On Tambov fairs the merchants came a long way from
European countries, and also from Persia and Turkey. Only in 1897 61 580
horses were exported from Russia. Each tenth of them was purchased in Tambov
region. On fairs they sold not only separate horses, mainly it was the
business of small copers, the owners of stud farms sold the young grossly, by
so-called stakes after one famous stallion and different dams. Unblooded
horses on Tambov fairs were bought up for meat merchants from Denmark. A kilo
of horsemeat was equal in cost with a kilo of Danish butter. Vneshtorg knows
the price that the danish horsemeat lovers, the horsemeat is the
irreplaceable ingredient of top-grade sausage, are ready to pay us for horses
Many brilliant trotters were grown up on Tambov stud farms. In 1904 at stud
farm of Afanasyev in village Yaroslavka, now the territory of Rzhaksa area
was born grey stallion Krepysh. His father was Gromadniy, the Imperial
prizewinner, and the mother Koketka, the grand daughter of Varvar –
prizewinner from the farm of well-known horse-breeder Rogov. Changing hands,
Krepysh in a 1907 stepped on the turfs of Moscow and St. Petersburg for the
first time. By his graceful pace he made a conquest of fans. Krepysh entered
the competitions for 79 times and in 55 races he was the first and he
established or improved 13 records. With heartache thousands of fans
witnessed a loss of Krepysh in February 1912 in Moscow to the American
trotter General Age. They did not blame their favorite but his american
jockey William Keaton, who, they believed, intentionally drive Krepysh in a
The Novotomnikovo stud farm
The stud farm in Novotomnikovo played a large part in the history of domestic
horse-breeding; it was founded by count Illarion Ivanovich Vorontsov-Dashkov
in 1860 and still exists now. In short time he bought up the best orlov’s
stallions and dams, paying no attention to the prices.
His new stud farm in Tambov area got famous after his bonded jockey
Oblopokhin on the stallion Zadorniy beat all capital jockeys on the horses
from the best prize-winning stables in St. Petersburg in 1861. Zadorniy made
three versts for 6 minutes and 6 seconds.
Vorontsov-Dashkov opened a new era in horseracing after he became in 1882 a
state manager of horse-breeding at tzar Alexander III request. At that time
he was the defense and domestic minister in the rank of adjutant general.
He turned the horse-breeding from lairds’ merry-making into real commerce.
The prices on the private stud farms were raised up. The owners of stud farms
in Moscow or St. Petersburg could be lucky enough and win whole bags in one
In the last quarter of 19th century in a pursuit of high prizes the american
jockeys began to appear in St. Petersburg and Moscow more and more often on
theirs so-called “two-minutes” trotters – they cover a mile (1600 meters) for
two minutes and some seconds.
One of the first to Russia from America came Clayton’s, the well-known jockey
family – the father and sons with their own trotters. They established the
prize-winning stable and began the manufacturing of modern very light carts
with rubber wheels. Very soon they were unrivalled on the racecourses of
Moscow and St. Petersburg. One year Clayton and sons won almost all prizes
and earned more than 300,000 rubles. The horse-breeders got agitated and
began to repine. Some of them rushed to buy the very expensive American
trotters. Other protested demanding to forbid the performance of American
trotters in Russia.
In such conditions Vorontsov-Dashkov, as a head of domestic horse-breeding,
had to make a decision. He found a compromise. The prizes were divided into
two groups. One was for the horses of all breeds, other only for Oryol
trotters. But nevertheless, the count preferred American trotters. «The only
criterion of quality of a horse I consider a prize pole», - he told later.
With such reasoning Vorontsov-Dashkov made vigorous efforts buying American
trotters, not only for his stud farm and prize-winning stables in St.
Petersburg and Moscow, but also for state stud farms.
Vorontsov-Dashkov was interested in cross-breeding more than anybody else. He
always was present at horsing, sitting under a glass cap at center above one
of the stables. The count considered it to be so important, that often forced
his spouse Elizaveta Andreevna (Shuvalova before marriage) to be present on
it with visitors, which were in Novotomnikovo that time. The visitors were
only grand people: the members of tzar family, which arrival was marked with
planting of one more tree in oak alley of ancient park. Such as relatives of
four daughters married off in families of Shuvalov’s, Sheremetyev’s, Musin-
Pushkin’s, and Demidov’s.
The conversations about horses touched common interest, as all aristocracy
had stables and stud farms. This kind of private business was considered to
be almost the only activity that is not derogating dignity of a true
By the end of 19th century on private and state stud farms in Russia there
were 20 trotters prizewinners of an American origin. In the mass order there
was a crossing of blooded Oryol dams with American trotters.
The most given was Vorontsov-Dashkov. Even two victories of “oryols” over
“americans” in summer season of 1898 didn’t cool him. The Oryol trotter Boets
broke the record on three miles established by American trotter Monnet. His
own mare Krylataya broke the record of Monnet on three and three quarters of
second in the same season. But he had made the choice, « his knight's move »,
and was not going to back up. Soon the count accepted on a service all
jockeys of Clayton’s family with the fantastic salary 300 thousands rubles
The outstanding scientist hippologist prince Sergei Urusov engaged in
controversy against Vorontsov-Dashkov. Urusov considered cross-breeding «as a
medicine not by illness». «The only developing of ability to quick trot, as
they have made with the trotter in America, - he wrote, - will result in
quick but narrow, boneless, long-legged horse without rib and quite often
without a back and completely useless in agriculture. It is necessary to
improve inside the breed. Bad can be born even from good but never good from
Many years have passed since then and this dispute has not finished yet.
After the death of the count Vorontsov-Dashkov in 1916 his heirs, going to
leave the country, arranged cut-price sale of all horses’ elite of the farm.
In Soviet time it became only a branch of state stud farm in Morshansk.
By 1918 in Novotomnikovo left only three blooded mares of Oryol breed. Horses
were taken from stables both by “red” and “white”. The very nice farm before
now it fell to desolation and, as the saying goes, the farm was going. For
long time it was existing only as horsing point, on which only a dozen of
mares were blissomed per year.
By a lucky chance among the three left blooded Oryol dams there was the young
mare Opora. Later she was bound to play the outstanding role in domestic
horse-breeding and to save the breed of Oryol trotters from complete
oblivion. In a 1934 she gave birth to a colt named Otboy. His father was
stallion Burelom born in 1927. The Moscow scientist hippologist S. Kalinin
liked this streamlined trotter after the Moscow races in 1930 and advised to
pay the special attention to him.
Meanwhile stud farms kept cross-breeding of Oryol trot horses, what was
started before the revolution. Only now they cross-breed blooded Oryol mares
not with American trotters, the state did not give money to buy them, but
with crossbreeds’ posterity. At first they were called “american-oryols”,
then just Russian trotters. They were propagated on six stud farms, mainly on
Lavrovsk farm in our region.
The big work was performing continuously on creating and developing of that
new breed of thrifty trotters. The care for Oryol trotters was paled into
insignificance. The majority of the experts believed that this breed had
reached the limits of the further perfection. And, as it turned out, they
Today in stalls of Novotomnikovo stud farm stay the good-lookers of Oryol
breed restored by the efforts of horse-breeding enthusiasts. The farm
fosterlings have reached friskiness, which once was considered possible only
for American trotters. Now the Russian troyka, made from Oryol trotters
revives abroad as the mode. The customers from abroad readily buy them in
One cannot name the work on cross-breeding of Oryol trotter with American one
as reckless step. If due to Oryol trotter Russia gained the improved breed of
working horses in place of bow-backed hacks with bangled stomachs, then the
cross-breeding of Oryol horse gave the new breed of Russian trotter of
distinct sportish type.
There is no other animal like horse the mankind is so indebted to. Without
the count Aleksei Orlov we would not have Oryol trotters, which bring glory
to Russia for many years, making an ornament to our nation. We would not
receive a trotter, which is used for breed improvement of trotting horses
almost in all countries of Western Europe, and also in Asia and America.
For the revirescence of beautiful Oryol trotter we are obliged to S.
Kasimenko. It was him, who managed the farm and choose the dams for Burelom.
In such selection the ancestry of dams is very important, down to their
great-grandfathers and great-grandmothers and even deeper into a family tree.
All their features and qualities are taken into account. All was clear with
Burelom, the son of distinguished Oryol trotter Lovchiy. Maternally his
bloodline ascended to the famous stallion Zadorniy, who brought the first
glory to Novotomnikovo farm of Vorontsov-Dashkov. But the mare Opora, born
even before October revolution, was in declining years for horses and seemed
to be not a suitable bride for young beauty Burelom. However Kasimenko took
chances. As we mentioned, stallion Otboy was born from this unequal march.
The careful godfather to him became A. Samoilov, who replaced Kasimenko in a
At first Otboy didn’t show anything special in posterity. They have from him
just common trotters and dams not distinguished by high friskiness, only
their exterior was faultless.
The farm decided to part with Otboy. He was sent to other stud farm. And here
we should say thanks to A. Popov, who was the head of horse department during
the Great Patriotic War. Popov decided to return Otboy in Novotomnikovo. But
the new head V. Remizov received him there. Popov went to the front in 1943
and did not come back on farm, as well as other 36 workers of farm -
hostlers, jockeys, foragers, tractor operators, smiths didn’t return here
Remizov had been working in Novotomnikovo till 1965, and in his time a new
line in breed of Oryol trotter was born and appeared the new branch on his
family tree. The grey colt Otklik came into being after Otboy and mare
Konventsiya on Zaporozhye stud farm in 1952. Konventsiya had arrived on this
farm from Novotomnikovo already pregnant. So all palms for a new line of
Oryol trotter belong to the stud farm in Novotomnikovo.
The posterity of Otklik appeared to be marvelously quick. The stallions
Vodovorot and Borets ran a mile for two minutes and four tenths of a second.
The interest to Oryol trotter has revived today all over the world. Horses
from Novotomnikovo have purchased the stud farms of Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
China, Germany, and Sweden. All America and Canada have got acquainted with
troika of Oryol trotters, where the thiller was a trotter from Novotomnikovo
farm. The millions of televiewers in these countries admired them. Many
newspapers of Old and New World enthusiastically wrote about them.
The Lavrovo stud farm
The Lavrovo stud farm is located in Mordovian area of Tambov region and
stands out against other trotting stud farms because of the achievements of
Established by the good judge of horses V.P. Voeykov 170 years ago, the
Lavrovo stud farm is one of «big fishes» of domestic trotters. Ii is the
birthplace of the well-known grey Oryol trotter Lebed 5.44 (Atlasniy -
Pobeda), born in1829. He is on the pictures of the artist N.G. Sverchkov and
on the tapestry made by bondmaids from village Lavrovo. These things are kept
in the museum of horse-breeding of TAA.
Till the end of 80-th the farm in Lavrovo kept the path of cross-breeding.
During the civil war the facilities were ruined, the horses were plundered.
They could save only one mare Margaritka 2.16,1 (Fatalist - Binyonia), born
in 1918, who later became a founder of dams family and was the great-
grandmother of Pervenets 2.00,4. During the acquisition of the farm (1922-23)
not only “Oryol-Americans” got there, but also the Oryol trotters.
Since 1930 all Oryol dams were excluded from Lavrovo stud farm. Together with
mares half-breeds, which were brought on farm instead of Oryol mares, also
came the studhorse Aloisha 2.14,2 (Aloisha - Kreolka) from the line of Peter
The Great. There was started the line of Aloisha and the line of Trepet –
together with Smolensk farm. In January 1935 from Aloisha and mare Paguba
(the grand daughter of Peter The Great) appeared the red stallion Podarok
2.02,1; 3.09,4; 4.17.4 – the pride of Lavrovo and the founder of one
progressive line in Russian trotter breed.
The important part in the stud activity of the farm also played then the
lines of Iris (through Khorovod, Khor Kalinych, Interes), Nalim (through
Lunatik and Otprysk), Aksvort (through Viktor Vorti, Vampir, Vzriv). The main
was the method of cultivation ”in itself” of the horses of desirable type
using cross-breeding and in-breeding. The crossing with lines of Aloisha and
Gildeets had become one of the bases of Lavrovo complex creation.
The returned cross-breeding was also applied with Oryol stallions for the
improvement of horses exterior. The Oryol lines in remote ancestors are
traced in the best horses of the farm.
Through the Oryol trotter Bunt 2.14.3 (Metsenat - Budushnost) the lines of
Podaga and blooded Boyar were enhanced. The daughters of Bunt could be met in
family trees of Vasilyok, Pervenets, Lazutchik, Pavodok, Vopl.
All-Union prize horse and founder of the line Podarok was selfed on Oryol
trotters Zadornov and Petushok. His best get: the sons Pervenets 2.00,4,
Pryatel 2.03,4, Lazutchik 2.05,6, Park 2.10,4, Vopl 2.09,2, Azot 2.06,3,
Pereryv 2.07,6; 6.44,6, Lotus 2.09,9 and daughters Povilika 2.09,3 (the
mother of Prologue 2.06), Aplikatsiya 2.14,7 (the mother of Atlas 2.07,6) and
Atmosfera, Podarok gave with dams, who had the similar Oryol ancestors.
Only from Podarok the farm had more than 298 colts. 20 among them are of
class 2.10 and even thriftier. The children of Podarok have won 17
international prizes: Priyatel, Pervenets and Lazutchik – 5 prizes each and
Park - 2 prizes. No other stallion from our stud farms had such a successful
The all-Union records of Podarok were broken only 13 years later by his son
from Masandra the Derby racer Pervenets 2.00,4 р; 3.11,4 р; 4.11,2 р; 6.52,3
who was born in 1949. Podarok also gave from Argentina the all-Union
prizewinner Pryatel, born in1954 and the winner Lazutchik (from Lazur); born
On Lavrovo stud farm was brought up the all-Union prizewinner among two-year
trotters Protalinka - 2.13,1 (Lucifer - Parallel), born in 1948. The prize of
Protalinka is the standard for two-year trotters.
During the period before the war on Lavrovo stud farm was created the type of
a trotter distinguished by the harnessry forms, pedigree, good top line,
depth, strong dry limbs but which is a little craggy.
The hybridists of the farm were constantly selecting by the type and friskiness.
The big job of creating the famous trotters on Lavrovo farm was made by
zootechnicians Y.N. Sarantsev (1920-1934), A.K. Brinken (the author of
selection, which gave Podarok), V.N. Zhardetskiy, K.V. Voskresenskiy, R.I.
Kalinin, who had been working here for 14 years and was one of the founders
of line of Podarok. Also he was the author of the farm plan of line breeding
in 1976-1975. On the racecourses the trotters of Lavrovo stud farm were
driven to the victories by such jockeys as A.V. Zotov, A.A. Sorokin, N.R.
Semichev, M.G. Chudnenko, V.T. Novikov, A.P. Kreydin, V.Y. Kochetkov.
To its 150-year jubilee the farm had 5 Derby trotters. These are Pobeditel
2.11,7, Vecher 2.06,7, Arzamas 2.06,4, Pervenets 2.00,4, Albom 2.03,9. In
1965 by the number of 2.10 class trotters the Lavrovo stud farm was on the
fourth in the country, and on the second place in class 2.05. The first was
the stud farm in Dubrovskiy.
However, the period of success was followed by the long period of decline.
Mainly it could be explained by the fact, that the group of studhorses didn’t
have the appropriate stallions. Otprysk 2.09,3, Zheton 2.09,7, Zabiyaka 2.09
could not give a class horse in 60-es. And also the technology of breeding
was inadequate. The horses were not supplied with high-grade forages as many
natural pastures and the hayfields were ploughed up.
The new progressive stage of selection began in 1971 with the coming of
standard breed stallion Low Hanover 1.59 (Bolshoy Star's Pride – Lynd Deen).
From this outstanding studhorse the farm gained 253 horses. Among them are:
Ligatura 2.04,2, Velonia 2.03,2 r, Lan 2.05 r, Ghilka 2.07, Leeter 2.04,4 r,
List 2.04,9, Vlastnyi Zhest 2.05,5, Alt 2.06, Alzhir 2.07, Valezhnik 3.12,2
and other class trotters. Such intensive use of the studhorse for the
insemination of mares with the dilute semen deserves attention of the horse-
The work with Low Hanover allowed to half-complete the dams group of the farm
with his daughters and grand daughters and improve the average frisky
parameter of dams on 3,6.
After the use of Minion 2.11 (Napor – Mudraya Poslovitsa) and Low Hanover in
60-es, the type of Lavrovo trotters was also changed. They became more
blooded and dry, lost roughness of a head, became less massive but more
vigorous and good-tempered.
The descendants of Low Hanover showed the high results in a 1983. His great-
grandson Gopak 2.04,2 (Parket - Glubokaya) had become the sixth derby trotter
of the farm when he won a Grand all-Union prize. The Low Hanover’s great-
grandson Lepetun 2.07,6 (Parket - Lesostep) won a Big three-year prize, and
grandson Peak 2.03,8 (Kolchedan - Programma) became the winner of World
international prizes (in Moscow) and «Villam» (in Hungary) and was the second
in the Elite prize.
On January 1, 1984 195 trotters of 2.10 class and more frisky (the third
place on this parameter after the stud farms in Dubrovskoe and Elyan) are
brought up. 19 of them are of class 2.05 and friskier. The trotters from
Lavrovo won 33 international prizes.
Conditions of creation and growing up of the hippodrome cracks in the Lavrovo
The hybridists from Lavrovo had to work much to transform the motley brood
structure into a valuable heart of the breed of Russian trotters. Half a
century ago the average dams’ measurements in Lavrovo were 154,8-154,7-173-19
and met the requirements only of the second class. Now there are 110 brood
mares on the farm. Their measurements meet the standard of the breed and make
159,5-162,1-183,3-19,6 cm. Average friskiness of the main dams 2.15,2, of the
horsing dams - 2.14,9. Almost all mares ranked as Elite class. With due
regard on the farm they look at the growing up of the “self-repair”: the age
of more than 50 % of brood horses included in selection is less than 10
years. The duly use of young dams with high friskiness and good measurements,
allows to select mares in time, both by the age and quality of posterity.
More than half of dams belong to the line of Volomait (through Low Hanover
and Apex Hanover), 22 mares are from the line of Podarok, 14 – from the line
of Trepet (through the daughters of Minion and Pavlin), 12 – of Nalim
(daughters of Otprysk). There are several representatives of the lines of
Gildeets and Scotland. The related to each other mares form the groups. The
hybridists from the stud farm try to save the most valuable dams nests.
According to the selection plan the Lavrovo stud farm works with lines of
Podarok, Volomait, Aksvort, Gildeets, Scotland. The line of Volomait was
successfully developed on the farm through Kolchedan 1.58,8 r (Low Hanover -
Kaleriya), born in 1967, and also develops through Parket 2.06,2 (Prolog -
Prisma), born in 1972. The posterity of Kolchedan has made about 180 heads,
including classy Peak, Lokon, Lukretsiy. Parket gave almost 100 horses. Among
them are Gopak, Lepetun, Aprel 2.08. Zalet 2.04,4 (Lazutchik - Zaletnaya)
from the line of Podarok was unsuccessfully used in 5 seasons, and he is
excluded from the mating plan for 1984.
The work with the line of Gildeets was performed through Kolokolchik 2.08,6
(Konniy - Kolombina), but he also did not paid off and work with this line
Two falls were received from Grand 2.04,8 r (Abrikos - Gugenotka), born in
1976; the line of Scotland. The youngsters of Grand are blooded but had not
run on hippodromes yet. In this line the hopes were set on the all-Union
prizewinner Bubnoviy 3.11,2 (Bill Hanover - Bastiliya), born in 1977, who
just began to procreate offsprings on the farm. More than 20 mares were
selected for him.
Almost for 10 years the farm had been working with the line of Nalim through
Linkor 2.07,5 (Aprichnik - Lotereya), born in 1971. Though he gave Globus
from Gubka, Lakolin from Luna, his use was limited since he transmitted to
posterity the narrow underjaw. The work with this line was continued through
Kropot (Charodei - Kreolka), born in1977. In cross-breedings with the lines
of Podarok and Volomait and in remote in-breedings with grand daughters of
Lunatik for Kropot was appointed 20 mares.
The main method in selection is the selection for in-breeding, usually
moderate and occasionally - close in-breeding for the test of studhorses and
The wide use of the stallions of standard breeding is the tendency in brood
work. The big hopes were set on the use of Blesk, for who about 30 mares were
picked up. It was desirable for the farm to receive the deeply frozen semen
of standard bred Repriz and Victorious Speed.
2-3 months prior to the beginning of a horsing season The Head Of Horse
Department A. Yakimov, the veterinary by education, checked the physiological
condition of прохолостевших and young mares. The horsing was conducted under
the control of the follicle maturation. It saves stallions and increases the
percentage of colt fetation.
Horse feeding on the stud farm is organized properly. The sowing of long-term
grasses is enlarged thus improving the fodder base. After the ending of
horsing period the dams are constantly on the pasture and they are
weatherproofed. The stud horses are kept in stables, constructed many years
ago. Here is used the standard technology of growing up the youngsters.
Usually they start to gentle the youngsters when they reach 1 year.
The collective of Lavrovo stud farm regularly achieves the high fetation of
mares and high youngsters output.
Experienced jockeys on 6 hippodromes of the country test the trotters from
Lavrovo: in Moscow, Kiev, Kharkov, Odessa, Tallinn, Tambov.
The State Stables
Many sources of dynamic development of the city went back to the first half
of the 19th century. Among them was the process of formation of the state
stables. It was connected to the resolving of certain military strategic
problems: the Russian army needed strong and hardy horses. Therefore the
problem of the improvement of mass horse-breeding remained urgent for many
The attempts on improvement of horses’ quality were undertaken in Russia in
1789-1799, then appeared the first state stables. In 1836, according to the
decree of Nikolai I, they returned to these problems again.
In Tambov the state stable appeared in 1837 in northwest suburb of the city.
The ensemble from two stone buildings and hospital for the animals at the
center of internal courtyard was erected in1848. Historically, trotters were
placed in the white building of the stables and heavyweights - in the round
The gate, decorated with a head of a horse connected the foreside buildings.
In ancient times the horse head was a symbol of power for the Scythians, and
for our recent ancestors it was a symbol of happiness.
The street along the stable buildings with the lapse of time got the name
Konyushennaya. The building of the Tambov State stable is not only the
architectural monument of the first half of 19th century, but also the
monument of horse-breeding history of Russia.
In the system of stud farms the most important part belonged to the
hippodromes. The tests on the hippodrome were obligatory for the selection of
saddle-horses and trotters. By their results was performed the animals
selection for breeding: on friskiness, endurance and sport qualities of
horses. The Tambov hippodrome was one of oldest; it followed the stables and
appeared in a valley of Studenets in 1837. In 1876 the racing hippodrome was
reconstructed according to the needs of time.
The construction of stables and hippodrome made active local fans of horse
sport and had formed the basis for the stud farms association.
Since 1845 the association had been renting the ground floor of Public
library (Sovietskaya 114), where the methods of improvement of the horse-
breeding were discussed as one of the important branches of the region
The assemblies nominated prizes for trotters and racehorses. In the
competitions participated not only the horses of landowners, but also the
horses from farms. The data on the most interesting prize-winners were given
in «The stud farm book of Russian trotters », issued in St.-Petersburg in
The competitions and races were usually organized after Tambov horse fairs.
They were conducted in June and October of each year on the fairground to the
north of the stables.
On Tambov fair they drove the horses from herds by the special cattle roads;
and the dealers bought animals here and sent them in Moscow and St.
In the middle of 19th century up to 300 horses of different breeds from
trotters to draught horses were driven to the fair from the stud farms of the
region. The prices differed from 30 to 800 rubles depending on the
genuineness. Full information about the fairs was published in the special
editions like «The Horse Fairs in Russia».
Annually in Tambov took place the exhibitions of farm horses for agricultural
needs. The best samples were awarded with the appropriate premiums.
The wars of last and new centuries have tragically reduced the number of
wonderful animals, bred in the region by the efforts of many generations. The
working conditions of Tambov State stables were also complicated.
Nevertheless, some traditions of Russian horse-breeding were saved there.
The history of the soviet period is marked with new prizewinners and famous
Many years the school of horse sports was working in the stables, where 12-
year's old boys and girls were taught the bases of equitation and mainly –
the love to this wonderful animals.
In the soviet period the state stable was often visited by one of the first
marshals of The Union S.M. Budenniy. The Tambov hippodrome was named after
Today the live stock of the horses in Tambov region is decreased dramatically
and this process continues. The annual reduction is 600-800 heads.
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Новотомниковского завода) // Коневодство и конный спорт. - 1960. - № 9. - С.